New Perspectives in Rehabilitation after Traumatic Brain Injury: Volume 2

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Brain Injury".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 9251

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
2. Research Centre for Habilitation and Rehabilitation Models and Services (CHARM), Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, 0373 Oslo, Norway
Interests: traumatic brain injury; rehabilitation; functional outcomes; health care services; unmet rehabilitation; healthcare needs

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
2. Research Centre for Habilitation and Rehabilitation Models and Services (CHARM), Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, 0373 Oslo, Norway
Interests: traumatic brain injury; musculoskeletal disorders; pain; rehabilitation; healthcare services

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
Interests: traumatic brain injury; rehabilitation; cognition; functional outcomes; randomized controlled trials

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
Interests: traumatic brain injury; rehabilitation; functional outcomes; health-related quality of life; healthcare service provision and needs; randomized controlled trials

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
Interests: traumatic brain injury; rehabilitation; prediction; functional outcomes; neuroimaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the great success of our Special Issue on the topic “New Perspectives in Rehabilitation after Traumatic Brain Injury”, we have decided to set up a second volume. This volume aims to continue discussing ongoing knowledge gaps and controversies and focus on new perspectives of the multidisciplinary efforts and management of TBI covering the full spectrum of medical neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, pharmacology, brain imaging, and assistive and smart technology.

Prof. Dr. Nada Andelic
Prof. Dr. Cecilie Røe
Dr. Emilie Isager Howe
Dr. Marit Vindal Forslund
Dr. Torgeir Hellstrom
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • traumatic brain injury
  • rehabilitation
  • biomarkers
  • imaging and smart technology
  • new treatments
  • clinical trials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Association between Personality Traits, Symptom Burden, and Return to Work after Mild-to-Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury
by Benedikte Å. Madsen, Silje C. R. Fure, Nada Andelic, Daniel Løke, Marianne Løvstad, Cecilie Røe and Emilie Isager Howe
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(14), 4654; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12144654 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Approximately 30% of individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) experience persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS). Personality factors have been linked to PPCS, yet, the association between personality traits and outcomes after mTBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Approximately 30% of individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) experience persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS). Personality factors have been linked to PPCS, yet, the association between personality traits and outcomes after mTBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between personality traits, PPCS, and return to work (RTW) in patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data from eighty-seven participants with mild-to-moderate TBI were analyzed. Sociodemographic, injury, and work characteristics and depressive symptoms were recorded 2–3 months post-injury. Personality traits were measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3. PPCS and RTW were assessed 15 months post-injury. Multiple linear regression models were performed. The factors associated with more severe PPCS were female sex, higher levels of neuroticism, openness to experience and conscientiousness, extra-cranial injuries, and depressive symptoms. The factors associated with lower RTW were female sex, higher levels of neuroticism, and conscientiousness. However, after controlling for PPCS, personality traits were no longer significantly associated with RTW. In conclusion, specific personality traits were associated with more severe PPCS and may be indirectly associated with RTW via PPCS. Hence, personality traits may be important to assess to identify patients at risk of less favorable outcomes after mild-to-moderate TBI. Full article
17 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effectiveness of a Family Intervention after Acquired Brain or Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Pernille Langer Soendergaard, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Mia Moth Wolffbrandt, Frederik Lehman Dornonville de la Cour, Fin Biering-Sørensen and Anne Norup
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093214 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
(1) Background: Acquired brain injury (ABI) or spinal cord injury (SCI) constitutes a severe life change for the entire family, often resulting in decreased quality of life (QoL) and increased caregiver burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Acquired brain injury (ABI) or spinal cord injury (SCI) constitutes a severe life change for the entire family, often resulting in decreased quality of life (QoL) and increased caregiver burden. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a family intervention in individuals with ABI or SCI and in their family members. (2) Methods: An RCT of a family intervention group (FIG) vs. a psychoeducational group (PEG) (ratio 1:1) was performed. The FIG received an eight-week manual-based family intervention, and the PEG received one psychoeducational session. Self-reported questionnaires on QoL with the Mental Component Summary (MCS) and on caregiver burden with the Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS) were the primary outcomes. The data analysis involved linear mixed-effects regression models. (3) Results: In total, 74 participants were allocated randomly to the FIG and 84 were allocated randomly to the PEG. The FIG had significantly larger improvements on the MCS and significantly larger reductions on the CBS at the two-month follow-up than participants in the PEG (mean differences of 5.64 points on the MCS and −0.26 points on the CBS). At the eight-month follow-up, the between-group difference remained significant (mean difference of 4.59 points) on the MCS, whereas that on the CBS was borderline significant (mean change of −0.14 points). (4) Conclusions: Family intervention was superior to psychoeducation, with larger improvements in QoL and larger reductions in caregiver burden. Full article
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13 pages, 1486 KiB  
Article
Defining a Treatment Model for Self-Management of Fatigue in Rehabilitation of Acquired Brain Injury Using the Rehabilitation Treatment Specification System
by Frederik Lehman Dornonville de la Cour, Anne Norup, Tonny Elmose Andersen and Trine Schow
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093192 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Systematic treatment descriptions to standardize and evaluate management of fatigue after acquired brain injury (ABI) are lacking. The purpose of this multi-phase qualitative study was to formulate a treatment model for promoting self-management of fatigue in rehabilitation of ABI based on practice-based understandings [...] Read more.
Systematic treatment descriptions to standardize and evaluate management of fatigue after acquired brain injury (ABI) are lacking. The purpose of this multi-phase qualitative study was to formulate a treatment model for promoting self-management of fatigue in rehabilitation of ABI based on practice-based understandings and routines. The study was conducted in a community-based rehabilitation center in Denmark. The model was defined using the Rehabilitation Treatment Specification System. Phase 1 comprised co-production workshops with five service providers (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and a neuropsychologist) to elicit preliminary treatment theories. In Phase 2, four case studies were conducted on management of fatigue in vocational rehabilitation. Interviews (n = 8) and treatment log entries (n = 76) were analyzed thematically to specify treatment targets and active ingredients. The treatment model comprised five main components: (i) Knowledge and understanding of fatigue, (ii) Interoceptive attention of fatigue, (iii) Acceptance of fatigue, (iv) Activity management, and (v) Self-management of fatigue. For each component, lists of targets and active ingredients are outlined. In conclusion, management of fatigue includes multiple treatment components addressing skills, habits, and mental representations such as knowledge and attitudes. The model articulates treatment theories, which may guide clinical reasoning and facilitate future theory-driven evaluation research. Full article
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15 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Measurement Properties of the Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale in Early and Late Rehabilitation of Acquired Brain Injury in Denmark
by Frederik Lehman Dornonville de la Cour, Trine Schow, Tonny Elmose Andersen, Annemarie Hilkjær Petersen, Gry Zornhagen, Annemarie C. Visser-Keizer and Anne Norup
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072587 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Fatigue is a major issue in neurorehabilitation without a gold standard for assessment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate measurement properties of the five subscales of the self-report questionnaire the Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale (DMFS) among Danish adults with acquired brain [...] Read more.
Fatigue is a major issue in neurorehabilitation without a gold standard for assessment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate measurement properties of the five subscales of the self-report questionnaire the Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale (DMFS) among Danish adults with acquired brain injury. A multicenter study was conducted (N = 149, 92.6% with stroke), including a stroke unit and three community-based rehabilitation centers. Unidimensionality and measurement invariance across rehabilitation settings were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. External validity with Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the EQ-5D-5L was investigated using correlational analysis. Results were mixed. Unidimensionality and partial invariance were supported for the Impact of Fatigue, Mental Fatigue, and Signs and Direct Consequences of Fatigue, range: RMSEA = 0.07–0.08, CFI = 0.94–0.99, ω = 0.78–0.90. Coping with Fatigue provided poor model fit, RMSEA = 0.15, CFI = 0.81, ω = 0.46, and Physical Fatigue exhibited local dependence. Correlations among the DMFS, DASS-21, and EQ-5D-5L were in expected directions but in larger magnitudes compared to previous research. In conclusion, three subscales of the DMFS are recommended for assessing fatigue in early and late rehabilitation, and these may facilitate the targeting of interventions across transitions in neurorehabilitation. Subscales were strongly interrelated, and the factor solution needs evaluation. Full article
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12 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
U.S. vs. Foreign Nativity and 10-Year Trajectories of Mental Health after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Model Systems Study
by Chimdindu Ohayagha, Kritzia Merced, Paul B. Perrin, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Daniel W. Klyce and Shawn C. T. Jones
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12030867 - 21 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Background: Previous research has found racial and ethnic disparities in life satisfaction, depression, and anxiety after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, limited studies have examined differences in these variables between U.S.- and foreign-born individuals with TBI. The purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
Background: Previous research has found racial and ethnic disparities in life satisfaction, depression, and anxiety after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, limited studies have examined differences in these variables between U.S.- and foreign-born individuals with TBI. The purpose of this study was to examine whether differences exist in mental health outcomes between U.S.- and foreign-born individuals with TBI at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after injury, as well as examine whether demographic and injury-related characteristics account for these differences. Method: Participants were 8289 individuals with TBI who identified as U.S.-born and 944 who identified as born outside the U.S. in the TBI Model Systems study. Participants completed measures of mental health outcomes at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after injury. Results: Foreign-born individuals with TBI had comparable levels of depression and anxiety trajectories to U.S.-born individuals, yet higher life satisfaction trajectories, even after controlling for demographic and injury-related variables. Conclusion: Rehabilitation professionals should consider in their clinical work the mechanisms that likely influence mental health outcomes among foreign-born individuals, including family-based values that increase resilience, as well as the possible under-reporting of mental health symptoms along the lines of cultural norms. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 587 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Experiences of Family Members When a Patient Is Admitted to the ICU with a Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Review
by Kati Hayes, Sam Harding, Kirsten Buckley, Bronagh Blackwood and Jos M. Latour
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134197 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
The needs of family members of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain unmet. To date, no review has been performed to explore the experiences of relatives of adults who have been admitted to the [...] Read more.
The needs of family members of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain unmet. To date, no review has been performed to explore the experiences of relatives of adults who have been admitted to the ICU for treatment of a TBI. The aim of this scoping review is to explore and map the evidence of the experiences of family members when an adult relative is admitted to an ICU with a severe TBI. This review follows a combination of guidelines from Arksey and O’Malley and the Joanna Briggs Institute. Five electronic databases, Medline, Emcare, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched in February 2023, as were a number of grey literature sources. The population, concepts, and context framework were used to define the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From 4077 records, nine studies were retained, which represented seven discrete studies. The experiences of family members were thematically analyzed. The narrative synthesis of findings revealed three themes: communication with the clinical team, uncertainty, and involvement in care. These results offer richness and depth of understanding to clinicians regarding the experiences of families during this traumatic time. This review provides direction for targeted interventions aimed at supporting family members while in the ICU. Full article
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