Rehabilitation and Management of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Malnutrition

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology & Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 10656

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507, Japan
Interests: rehabilitation medicine; dysphagia; clinical nutrition; aspiration pneumonia; health service research
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevalence of sarcopenia, frailty, and malnutrition is increasing with the growing number of older adults. Sarcopenia, frailty, and malnutrition are associated with functional impairment, physical disability, and handicap. They are often comorbid, and their synergistic effects can lead to worsening clinical outcomes.

Management, including rehabilitation, is critical for older patients with sarcopenia, frailty, and malnutrition. Rehabilitation and nutritional care have the potential to improve physical function, activities of daily living, and quality of life in these older adults. Further research is required on better assessment methods for malnutrition, sarcopenia, and frailty, as well as management methods, including appropriate rehabilitation and nutritional support.

The aim of this Special Issue is to update the knowledge on the management and rehabilitation of frailty, sarcopenia and malnutrition. We invite the submission of clinical research, epidemiological research, and up-to-date reviews (scoping and systematic reviews, as well as well-written narrative reviews).

Prof. Dr. Ryo Momosaki
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • rehabilitation
  • frailty
  • sarcopenia
  • malnutrition
  • older
  • disability
  • dysphagia

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 204 KiB  
Editorial
Innovation in Digital Health Interventions for Frailty and Sarcopenia
by Yuki Kato, Ryota Sakamoto, Asuka Hori and Ryo Momosaki
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(6), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12062341 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Today, the challenges of an aging society are primarily seen in frailty, sarcopenia, and impaired functionality [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation and Management of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Malnutrition)
3 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Assessment and Management of Frailty
by Yuki Kato, Akio Shimizu and Ryo Momosaki
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12030833 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Frailty has become a major problem for an increasing number of older people worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation and Management of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Malnutrition)

Research

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9 pages, 634 KiB  
Article
Discriminative Evaluation of Sarcopenic Dysphagia Using Handgrip Strength or Calf Circumference in Patients with Dysphagia Using the Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve
by Hiroshi Kishimoto, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Shinta Nishioka and Ryo Momosaki
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010118 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
This multicenter cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the discriminative ability of sarcopenic dysphagia (SD) using handgrip strength (HGS) or calf circumference (CC) in patients with dysphagia. Patients aged 20 years or older who were registered in a database at acute, rehabilitation, long-term care [...] Read more.
This multicenter cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the discriminative ability of sarcopenic dysphagia (SD) using handgrip strength (HGS) or calf circumference (CC) in patients with dysphagia. Patients aged 20 years or older who were registered in a database at acute, rehabilitation, long-term care hospitals and home health care facilities were included. Logistic regression analysis was performed using SD as the outcome and HGS, CC, and other confounding factors as covariates, separately by sex. Algorithm-based SD diagnosis and HGS or CC were used as the reference and index tests, respectively. Their accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and cutoff values were calculated. Of the 460 patients, 285 (126 males) were diagnosed with SD. Logistic regression analysis showed that HGS (odds ratio [OR], 0.909; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.873–0.947) in males and CC (OR, 0.767; 95% CI, 0.668–0.880) in females were independently associated with SD. The AUC for HGS in males was 0.735 (p < 0.001) and CC in females was 0.681 (p < 0.001). The cutoff values were 19.7 kg for HGS in males (sensitivity, 0.75; specificity, 0.63) and 29.5 cm for CC in females (sensitivity, 0.86; specificity, 0.48). HGS in males and CC in females provided statistically significant information to discriminate SD from dysphagia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation and Management of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Malnutrition)
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11 pages, 411 KiB  
Article
Neuropathic-like Pain Symptoms and Their Association with Muscle Strength in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain
by Hee Jung Kim, Min Gi Ban, Kyung Bong Yoon, Woohyuk Jeon and Shin Hyung Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(18), 5471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11185471 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
The relationship between sarcopenia and pain remains unclear; thus, this study evaluated whether muscle strength is independently associated with neuropathic-like pain symptoms in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A cut-off score of painDETECT ≥13 was used to indicate a possible neuropathic component. Handgrip [...] Read more.
The relationship between sarcopenia and pain remains unclear; thus, this study evaluated whether muscle strength is independently associated with neuropathic-like pain symptoms in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A cut-off score of painDETECT ≥13 was used to indicate a possible neuropathic component. Handgrip strength was measured, and muscle mass was estimated. A total of 2599 patients, including 439 patients who reported neuropathic-like pain symptoms (16.9%), were included for analysis. Handgrip strength was significantly lower in patients experiencing neuropathic-like pain symptoms (23.23 ± 10.57 vs. 24.82 ± 10.43 kg, p < 0.001), and this result was chiefly found in female patients. However, there was no difference in estimated muscle mass. Shorter duration of pain, opioid usage, pain in lower limbs, sleep disturbance, and lower handgrip strength were significantly associated with neuropathic-like pain symptoms. In patients with handgrip strength below the reference values by sex, experiencing radiating pain and at least moderate sensory symptoms by light touch and thermal stimulation were more frequently reported. In conclusion, lower handgrip strength appeared to be an independent factor associated with symptoms suggestive of neuropathic pain in this population. Interventional studies are required to determine whether improvement in muscle strength can reduce the neuropathic pain component in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation and Management of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Malnutrition)
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Review

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13 pages, 445 KiB  
Review
Impact of Sarcopenia on Spinal Spondylosis: A Literature Review
by Yuki Kitsuda, Takashi Wada, Shinji Tanishima, Mari Osaki, Hideki Nagashima and Hiroshi Hagino
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5401; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165401 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Sarcopenia and spinal spondylosis (SS) are important health challenges among older individuals; however, data regarding the effect of sarcopenia on SS are lacking. Hence, we aimed to organize the existing knowledge on the impact of sarcopenia on SS and explore potential issues in [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia and spinal spondylosis (SS) are important health challenges among older individuals; however, data regarding the effect of sarcopenia on SS are lacking. Hence, we aimed to organize the existing knowledge on the impact of sarcopenia on SS and explore potential issues in the available literature. We examined the trends and interventions regarding sarcopenia and SS, searching five databases (PubMed, Embase, CINHAL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) from inception to January 2023. Sarcopenia-related events were screened, selected, and reviewed, ultimately identifying 19 relevant studies. The identified reports were predominantly retrospective observational studies addressing lumbar degenerative spine disease (LDSD). Sarcopenia could negatively impact the quality of life and postoperative outcomes in several diseases, including cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and LDSD. However, there was no consensus among the studies regarding the relationship between sarcopenia and pain. These discrepancies were attributed to gaps in the assessment of sarcopenia, which the current study identifies as important challenges. This review identified several problems in the literature, including the limited number of studies examining CSM, adult spinal deformity (ASD) and scoliosis, and the retrospective study design of most reports. The further accumulation of quality research is needed to clarify the relationship between SS and sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation and Management of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Malnutrition)
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19 pages, 1563 KiB  
Review
Effects of Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy Compared with Traditional Resistance Training in Healthy Adults Older Than 60 Years: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Raúl Fabero-Garrido, Miguel Gragera-Vela, Tamara del Corral, Juan Izquierdo-García, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano and Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(24), 7389; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11247389 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
Background: There is clinical interest in determining the effects of low-load blood flow restriction (LL-BFR) resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy compared with traditional high- and low-load (HL and LL) resistance training in healthy older adults and the influence of LL-BFR training [...] Read more.
Background: There is clinical interest in determining the effects of low-load blood flow restriction (LL-BFR) resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy compared with traditional high- and low-load (HL and LL) resistance training in healthy older adults and the influence of LL-BFR training cuff-pressure on these outcomes. Methods: A search was performed on the MEDLINE, PEDro, CINHAL, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and CENTRAL databases. Results: The analysis included 14 studies. HL resistance training produces a small increase in muscle strength (eight studies; SMD, −0.23 [−0.41; −0.05]) but not in muscle hypertrophy (six studies; (SMD, 0.08 [−0.22; 0.38]) when compared with LL-BFR resistance training. Compared with traditional LL resistance training, LL-BFR resistance training produces small–moderate increases in muscle strength (seven studies; SMD, 0.44 [0.28; 0.60]) and hypertrophy (two studies; SMD, 0.51 [0.06; 0.96]). There were greater improvements in muscle strength when higher cuff pressures were applied versus traditional LL resistance training but not versus HL resistance training. Conclusions: LL-BFR resistance training results in lower muscle strength gains than HL resistance training and greater than traditional LL resistance training in healthy adults older than 60 years. LL-BFR resistance training promotes a similar muscle hypertrophy to HL resistance training but is greater than that of traditional LL resistance training. Applying cuff pressures above the limb occlusion pressure could enhance the increases in muscle strength compared with traditional LL resistance training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation and Management of Frailty, Sarcopenia and Malnutrition)
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