Marine Renewable Energy, an Important Resource Towards a Low Carbon Future

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Energy and Thermal/Fluidic Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 14202

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Head of Laboratory of Computations and Modeling in Applied Mechanics, Department of Applied Mechanics, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, 800008 Galați, Romania
Interests: renewable energy; marine engineering; offshore technologies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to a Special Issue of the Inventions on the subject area "Marine renewable energy: an important resource towards a low carbon futureand related topics. Marine renewable energy (MRE) sources are abundant, but the amount of energy that can be extracted using the existent technologies varies from site-to-site and day-to-day, depending on the location and on the weather conditions. As we all know, a significant reduction of the CO2 emissions represents a problem of increasing importance. In this context, the technologies currently associated with the extraction of the marine renewable energy are very relevant in achieving the expected targets in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. Although in the last years, significant advances have been noticed in relationship with the MRE extraction, there are still important steps to be performed for the implementation of cost-effective technologies that could survive in the marine environment. From this perspective, this Special Issue seeks to contribute to the renewable energy agenda through enhanced scientific and multi-disciplinary works, aiming to improve knowledge and performance in extracting marine renewable energy. From this perspective, we encourage works targeting innovative technical developments, reviews, case studies, and analytics, as well as assessments and manuscripts related to different disciplines, which are relevant to harvesting marine renewable energy and related topics.

Prof. Dr. Eugen Rusu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Marine renewable energy (MRE)
  • Climate change in marine environment
  • Offshore wind
  • Tide and wave energy
  • Floating solar panels
  • Salinity and thermal gradient energy
  • Marine biomass energy
  • Emerging MREs
  • Resource evaluation and modeling
  • Hybrid approaches against collocation
  • Environmental benefits and impacts from MRE development
  • Economic aspects in marine renewable energy extraction
  • Socioeconomic benefits and impacts from MRE deployment
  • Trends and challenges in harvesting marine renewable energy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 8751 KiB  
Article
Testing Scale Models of Hydro-Reactor Profiled Ducts That Create Notable Net Head to Promote Hydroelectric Power from Currents
by António J. Arsénio dos Santos Costa and Luís Arsénio dos Santos Costa
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010045 - 07 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
In this article, experimental results from the testing of four representative scale models of hydro-reactor profiled channels, which create a net head to promote the extraction of hydroelectric power from currents, are presented. The tested scale models include a narrower intermediate channel section [...] Read more.
In this article, experimental results from the testing of four representative scale models of hydro-reactor profiled channels, which create a net head to promote the extraction of hydroelectric power from currents, are presented. The tested scale models include a narrower intermediate channel section of 300 mm diameter. The different profile models studied include an inlet compression chamber and an outlet depression chamber. A net head is created by the difference in pressure, with the head being higher the narrower channel’s zone than in the kinetic head of the outside stream velocity. Because there were no laboratory premises to test the constructed duct model sizes and to easily change the imposed steady current velocity, the experimental tests were performed by dragging the immersed models, attached to a raft in motion, in a place of steady water (the bay of a port). With this methodology, the same effect was obtained, making it possible to perform the testing for several current velocities (velocity of the raft relative to the steady water). Tests on free-flow to compare the difference in kinetic heads were performed. Furthermore, three loads obstructing different percentages of the channel’s narrower section were inserted to analyze the duct channel obstruction limits. The experimental results are validated by numerical results from finite element analysis. Full article
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17 pages, 3955 KiB  
Article
Strategic Placement of Solar Power Plant and Interline Power Flow Controllers for Prevention of Blackouts
by Akanksha Mishra, Nagesh Kumar Gundavarapu Venkata, Sravana Kumar Bali, Venkateswara Rao Bathina, Uma Maheswari Ramisetty, Srikanth Gollapudi, Hady Habib Fayek and Eugen Rusu
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7010030 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
In these post COVID times, the world is going through a massive restructuring which India can use to its benefit by attracting foreign industrial investment. The major requirement is a reliable and ecofriendly electrical power source. Of late, renewable energy sources have increasingly [...] Read more.
In these post COVID times, the world is going through a massive restructuring which India can use to its benefit by attracting foreign industrial investment. The major requirement is a reliable and ecofriendly electrical power source. Of late, renewable energy sources have increasingly become popular as alternative source of electricity. They can provide immense aid in improving the reliability of the power system, when placed properly. The alternative integrated energy sources along with FACTS devices can provide a promising future for reliable power systems. In this paper, an effective location for the solar power unit and Interline Power Flow Controller using Line Severity Index is proposed in order to avoid contingencies. An Indian 62 bus system and IEEE 57 bus system are considered for the study. The Firefly algorithm is used to tune the IPFC in the Integrated Energy Systems scenario, for a dual objective function. The effect of placement of the solar unit and the optimized IPFC is analyzed and studied in detail in this paper. Full article
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29 pages, 7949 KiB  
Article
A Novel 2-D Point Absorber Numerical Modelling Method
by Gianmaria Giannini, Sandy Day, Paulo Rosa-Santos and Francisco Taveira-Pinto
Inventions 2021, 6(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6040075 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Despite several wave energy converters (WECs) having been developed to present, no particular concept has emerged yet. The existing inventions vary significantly in terms of the operation principle and complexity of WECs. The tethered point absorbers (PAs) are among the most known devices [...] Read more.
Despite several wave energy converters (WECs) having been developed to present, no particular concept has emerged yet. The existing inventions vary significantly in terms of the operation principle and complexity of WECs. The tethered point absorbers (PAs) are among the most known devices that, thanks to their simplicity, appear to be cost-effective and reliable for offshore installation. These devices need to be advanced further and, therefore, new tailored modelling methods are required. Numerical modelling of this type of WEC has been done mainly in one degree of freedom. Existing methods for multi-degrees of freedom analysis lack pragmatism and accuracy. Nevertheless, modelling of multiple degrees of freedom is necessary for correct analysis of the device dynamic response, wave loads and device performance. Therefore, an innovative numerical method for two degrees of freedom analysis of PA WECs, which permits precisely modelling the dynamics of PA for surge and heave motions, is introduced in this paper. The new method allows assessing, in the time-domain, the dynamic response of tethered PAs using regular and irregular sea states. The novel numerical model is explained, proved and empirically validated. Full article
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14 pages, 3432 KiB  
Article
A Local Perspective on Wind Energy Potential in Six Reference Sites on the Western Coast of the Black Sea Considering Five Different Types of Wind Turbines
by Alexandra Ionelia Diaconita, Liliana Rusu and Gabriel Andrei
Inventions 2021, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6030044 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
This paper aims to evaluate the energy potential of six sites located in the Black Sea, all of them near the Romanian shore. To conduct this study, a climate scenario was chosen which considers that the emissions of carbon dioxide will increase until [...] Read more.
This paper aims to evaluate the energy potential of six sites located in the Black Sea, all of them near the Romanian shore. To conduct this study, a climate scenario was chosen which considers that the emissions of carbon dioxide will increase until 2040 when they reach a peak, decreasing afterward. This scenario is also known as RCP 4.5. The wind dynamics is considered for two periods of time. The first is for the near future with a duration of 30 years from 2021 to 2050, the second period is for the far-distant future with a span of 30 years from 2071 to 2100. In this study, parameters such as minimum, maximum, mean wind speed, interpolated at 90 m height were analyzed to create an overview of the wind quality in these areas, followed by an analysis of the power density parameters such as seasonal and monthly wind power. In the end, the annual electricity production and capacity factor were analyzed using five high-power wind turbines, ranging from 6 to 9.5 MW. For the purpose of this paper, the data on the wind speed at 10 m height in the RCP 4.5 scenario was obtained from the database provided by the Swedish Meteorology and Hydrology Institute (SMHI). Full article
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24 pages, 36879 KiB  
Article
The Expected Impact of Marine Energy Farms Operating in Island Environments with Mild Wave Energy Resources—A Case Study in the Mediterranean Sea
by Liliana Rusu, Florin Onea and Eugen Rusu
Inventions 2021, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions6020033 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
A particularity of island areas is that they are subjected to strong sea state conditions that can have a severe impact on the beach stability, while on the other hand, they rely mainly on diesel combustion for electricity production which in the long [...] Read more.
A particularity of island areas is that they are subjected to strong sea state conditions that can have a severe impact on the beach stability, while on the other hand, they rely mainly on diesel combustion for electricity production which in the long run is not a sustainable solution. The aim of this work is to tackle these two issues, by assessing the impact of a hybrid marine energy farm that may operate near the north-western part of Giglio Island in the Mediterranean Sea. As a first step, the most relevant environmental conditions (wind and waves) over a 27-year time interval (January 1992–December 2018) were identified considering data coming from both ERA5 and the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative for Sea State. An overview of the electricity production was made by considering some offshore wind turbines, the results showing that even during the summertime when there is a peak demand (but low wind resources), the demand can be fully covered by five wind turbines defined each by a rated power of 6 MW. The main objective of this work is to assess the coastal impact induced by a marine energy farm, and for this reason, various layouts obtained by varying the number of lines (one or two) and the distance between the devices were proposed. The modelling system considered has been already calibrated in the target area for this type of study while the selected device is defined by a relatively low absorption property. The dynamics of various wave parameters has been analysed, including significant wave height, but also parameters related to the breaking mechanics, and longshore currents. It was noticed that although the target area is naturally protected by the dominant waves that are coming from the south-western sector, it is possible to occur extreme waves coming from the north-west during the wintertime that can be efficiently attenuated by the presence of the marine energy farm. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 953 KiB  
Review
Improving the Ventilation of Machinery Spaces with Direct Adiabatic Cooling System
by Victor Mihai and Liliana Rusu
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030078 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
Machinery spaces are provided with ventilation systems that ensure the necessary airflow for combustion and cooling. In some vessels, due to space constraints, the requested air flow for cooling cannot be achieved under extreme environmental conditions, and the engine load will need to [...] Read more.
Machinery spaces are provided with ventilation systems that ensure the necessary airflow for combustion and cooling. In some vessels, due to space constraints, the requested air flow for cooling cannot be achieved under extreme environmental conditions, and the engine load will need to be reduced. On the other hand, the outside air temperature can increase over 35 °C in some places, and the efficiency of the ventilation will be reduced. In these cases, other solutions for cooling the engine room should be analyzed. In this paper, the environmental conditions in the Romanian Danube area are analyzed to understand whether direct adiabatic cooling can be used to improve ventilation systems and what the challenges are after increasing the relative humidity inside the machinery spaces. Based on the data recorded, it was found that outside relative humidity substantially drops when the temperature increases, which ensures good conditions for the use of adiabatic cooling. This study demonstrates that by using direct adiabatic cooling, the air flow of the ventilation system can be reduced by more than 50%, which will reduce the pressure drop across the ventilation system, together with noise and energy consumption. After adiabatic cooling, the temperature and relative humidity inside the engine room will be fine for the functionality of the equipment, but the temperature–humidity index will be high, which means high discomfort for the crew. Therefore, it is concluded that this cooling solution should only be used in unattended machinery spaces. Full article
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