Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Advanced Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2023) | Viewed by 26191

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
Interests: solar photovoltaics; appropriate technology; distributed recycling and additive manufacturing; open hardware; resilient food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue follows the publication of the first edition of Innovations in 3-D Printing, which presented nine high-quality papers.

Three-dimensional printing has been growing aggressively, and diverse thought leaders agree that additive manufacturing (AM) technology will cause a new industrial revolution, fundamentally changing the way products are made. Innovation in the 3-D printing intellectual space can be observed in the gold rush for 3-D printing related patents throughout the globe [1]. In addition, the open-source self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) project has created a tidal wave of innovation from hundreds of developers working together over the web. This has resulted in radically reduced costs of 3-D printers, rapid prototyping, and low-volume production, which have popularized the idea of 3-D printing—with dozens of new companies being formed. Conventional patenting and production, as well as the mining of expired or abandoned patents [2] or direct open source innovation, have combined to provide a new approach to the manufacturing of end-use products: distributed manufacturing [3], where raw material (filament, powder, liquid, or sheets) is directly transformed into objects from digital 3-D design files (millions of which are freely shared on the web). Enabled by 3-D printing, this allows for the efficient manufacture of geometrically and functionally complex products within a single process step, which provides enormous opportunities for more efficient product design, custom products, and rapid innovation in the product cycle. Three-dimensional printing also holds the potential for advances in global value chains [4], as well as manufacturing sustainability, including reduced energy consumption, increased materials efficiency, localized production (even in one's own home), and increased opportunities for repair and life cycle upgrading. These opportunities will only be realized with continued invention and innovation. That is why I invite you to submit an article for Inventions for this Special Issue entitled Innovations in 3-D Printing. Inventions is open access, and all papers will be readable by everyone—free of charge.

Suitable topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Innovation to reduce 3-D printing time, materials, energy use, environmental impact, cost, or complexity
  • Innovative 3-D printer software (firmware, controller, slicers, CAD, web interfaces, quality control, monitoring, and integration)
  • Innovative 3-D printer hardware
  • Innovative processing techniques that enable 3-D printing both conventional (FFF/FDM, SLS, SLA, DLP, SLM, EBM, BJ, LOM, etc.), as well as processes beyond common techniques
  • Innovative 3-D printing materials and multi-material printing
  • Innovation that would lead to volumetric 3-D printing rather than layer-by-layer
  • Innovative 3-D printing at different scales (nano to building sized)
  • Innovation impact from open source communities (e.g., the RepRap project)
  • Innovative open source business models applied to 3-D printing
  • Innovation to reduce the cost of 3-D printers
  • Innovations to encourage distributed manufacturing
  • Innovative consumer applications that can be 3-D printed at home
  • Innovative intellectual property approaches to 3-D printing and distributed manufacturing

Prof. Dr. Joshua M. Pearce
Guest Editor

[1] Wee, H. The “gold rush” for 3-D printing patents. CNBC. 2013. http://www.cnbc.com/id/100942655

[2] Nilsiam, Y., Pearce, J.M. Open Source Database and Website to Provide Free and Open Access to Inactive US Patents in the Public Domain. Inventions 2016, 1, 24.

[3] Wittbrodt, B., et al. Life-cycle economic analysis of distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printers. Mechatronics 2013, 23, 713–726

[4]. Laplume, A.O., et al. Global value chains from a 3D printing perspective. Journal of International Business Studies 2016, 47, 595–609

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inventions is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3-D printing
  • 3-D printers
  • additive manufacturing
  • distributed manufacturing
  • digital manufacturing
  • home manufacturing
  • DIY
  • RepRap
  • fused filament fabrication
  • fused deposition modeling
  • stereolithography
  • digital light processing
  • selective laser sintering
  • selective laser melting
  • electron beam melting
  • laminated object manufacturing
  • binder jetting
  • material jetting
  • gas metal arc weld 3-D printing

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 8868 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis in the Balancing Phase for an Open Source Transfemoral Prosthesis with Magneto-Rheological Damper
by Sebastian Muñoz-Vásquez, Zuly Alexandra Mora-Pérez, Paolo Andrés Ospina-Henao, César Hernando Valencia-Niño, Marcelo Becker and Jorge Guillermo Díaz-Rodríguez
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010036 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
The article presents a finite element simulation for the stress analysis of a transfemoral prosthesis with damping for a 100 kg person in the balancing phase. The maximum force is exerted at this stage when the person supports his or her whole body [...] Read more.
The article presents a finite element simulation for the stress analysis of a transfemoral prosthesis with damping for a 100 kg person in the balancing phase. The maximum force is exerted at this stage when the person supports his or her whole body on a single foot. Materials used included stainless steel and polymer matrix composites, for which mechanical testing was performed. The study applied the SolidWorks simulation software tools, where material properties were specified for each part that composes the prosthesis and considered loads, the fastenings, and the meshing. The simulation resembles the manufacturing process for each component, including the sole built by the novel composite fused deposition modeling technique. As a result of the simulation, the stress, displacement fields, and safety factor are obtained. Analysis of the safety factor indicates that the components can withstand the loads imposed. Finally, a fatigue analysis indicated that the most critically loaded component lasts at least 294,107 cycles at maximum constant loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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12 pages, 6106 KiB  
Article
VHCF of the 3D-Printed Aluminum Alloy AlSi10Mg
by Arseny Babaytsev, Alexander Nikitin and Andrey Ripetskiy
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010033 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
The paper is focused on the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) properties of aluminum alloys proceeded in two different technological procedures. The hot-rolled D16T alloy is compared with the selected laser melting (SLM) AlSi10Mg alloy. The fatigue tests were performed at a high [...] Read more.
The paper is focused on the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) properties of aluminum alloys proceeded in two different technological procedures. The hot-rolled D16T alloy is compared with the selected laser melting (SLM) AlSi10Mg alloy. The fatigue tests were performed at a high frequency (20 kHz) in the laboratory air environment at room temperature. The experimental results showed a significant difference in fatigue strength between hot-rolled and SLM materials. The VHCF properties of AlSi10Mg were more than two times lower than those of D16T in spite of the comparable quasi-static tensile properties. The difference in fatigue properties was explained based on fractographic analysis of fracture surfaces. The morphology of the fracture pattern was qualitatively different. In the case of the hot-rolled alloy, the three clear zones of crack growth could be outlined. The main part of the pattern was covered by quasi-brittle facets that are typical for VHCF fractures in Al alloys. In the case of the SLM material, unregulated structures were found in the microstructure. In some local zones, numerous non-melted particles were observed on the fracture surface. The boundaries of certain layers also played an important role in the fracture. Large, separated surfaces were observed on the fracture pattern. It is important to note that these boundaries were not associated with the layer-by-layer building of the specimen. The distance between such features was significantly larger than the thickness of an individual layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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14 pages, 3186 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning-Based Investigation of the 3D Printer Cooling Effect on Print Quality in Fused Filament Fabrication: A Cybersecurity Perspective
by Haijun Si, Zhicheng Zhang, Orkhan Huseynov, Ismail Fidan, Syed Rafay Hasan and Mohamed Mahmoud
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010024 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is the process of building a solid object in a layer-wise manner. Cybersecurity is a prevalent issue that appears more and more frequently as AM becomes popular. This paper focuses on the effect of [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is the process of building a solid object in a layer-wise manner. Cybersecurity is a prevalent issue that appears more and more frequently as AM becomes popular. This paper focuses on the effect of fan speed on the printing quality and presents a plugin called Fan Speed Attack Detection (FSAD) that predicts and monitors fan speeds throughout the printing process. The goal of the plugin is to prevent cybersecurity attacks, specifically targeting fan speed. Using the proposed FSAD, any fan speed changes during the printing process are evaluated to see whether the printer can sustain the abnormal fan speed change and still maintain good print quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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12 pages, 3467 KiB  
Article
Design and Fabrication of an In Situ Short-Fiber Doser for Fused Filament Fabrication 3D Printer: A Novel Method to Manufacture Fiber–Polymer Composite
by Khairul Izwan Ismail, Suganti Ramarad and Tze Chuen Yap
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010010 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D-printed parts are mostly used as prototypes instead of functional parts because they have a weaker mechanical strength compared to their injection molded counterparts. Various methods including a fiber-reinforced polymer composite were proposed to enhance the properties of FFF [...] Read more.
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D-printed parts are mostly used as prototypes instead of functional parts because they have a weaker mechanical strength compared to their injection molded counterparts. Various methods including a fiber-reinforced polymer composite were proposed to enhance the properties of FFF 3D-printed parts. A new concept to fabricate a polymer composite via FFF 3D printing is proposed, where fiber is deposited during printing, instead of using a premixed composite filament. In order to investigate the workability of this concept, a new device is needed. Firstly, the design requirements were identified, and a fiber doser that can be mounted on a commercial 3D printer was designed. Prototype testing was conducted to improve the design. The improved fiber doser was able to deposit varied fiber contents during FFF 3D printing. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to quantify the fiber contents of the fabricated composites. With this newly designed doser, short glass fiber–polylactic acid (PLA) composites with three different fiber contents (1.02 wt.%, 2.39 wt.%, and 4.98 wt.%) were successfully manufactured. A new technique to manufacture a polymer composite is proven; nevertheless, the mechanical and tribological properties of the newly fabricated composites are under investigation and will be reported in a subsequent article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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12 pages, 4396 KiB  
Article
Waste Plastic Direct Extrusion Hangprinter
by Aliaksei Petsiuk, Bharath Lavu, Rachel Dick and Joshua M. Pearce
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030070 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2990
Abstract
As the additive manufacturing industry grows, it is compounding the global plastic waste problem. Distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) offers an economic solution to this challenge, but it has been relegated to either small-volume 3D printers (limiting waste recycling throughput) or expensive [...] Read more.
As the additive manufacturing industry grows, it is compounding the global plastic waste problem. Distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) offers an economic solution to this challenge, but it has been relegated to either small-volume 3D printers (limiting waste recycling throughput) or expensive industrial machines (limiting accessibility and lateral scaling). To overcome these challenges, this paper provides proof-of-concept for a novel, open-source hybrid 3D printer that combines a low-cost hanging printer design with a compression-screw-based end-effector that allows for the direct extrusion of recycled plastic waste in large expandable printing volumes. Mechanical testing of the resultant prints from 100% waste plastic, however, showed that combining the challenges of non-uniform feedstocks and a heavy printhead for a hangprinter reduced the strength of the parts compared to fused filament fabrication. The preliminary results are technologically promising, however, and provide opportunities to improve on the open-source design to help process the volumes of waste plastic needed for DRAM to address the negative environmental impacts of global plastic use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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16 pages, 3370 KiB  
Article
Calibration Dependencies and Accuracy Assessment of a Silicone Rubber 3D Printer
by Laszlo Jaksa, Dieter Pahr, Gernot Kronreif and Andrea Lorenz
Inventions 2022, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7020035 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3184
Abstract
Silicone rubbers are relatively new in additive manufacturing, with only a few commercial printing services and reports on custom-built printers available. Publications and standards on calibration and accuracy assessment are especially lacking. In this study, the printhead calibration process of a custom-built silicone [...] Read more.
Silicone rubbers are relatively new in additive manufacturing, with only a few commercial printing services and reports on custom-built printers available. Publications and standards on calibration and accuracy assessment are especially lacking. In this study, the printhead calibration process of a custom-built silicone printer is explained, and a set of test objects is proposed and evaluated. The printer in use is based on an open-source filament printer, capable of multi-material printing with silicone rubbers and thermoplastic polymers. Three different high-viscosity single-component liquid silicone rubbers and one polylactic acid thermoplastic filament were used as printing materials. First, the calibration process of the silicone printhead was conducted, and the dependency of the dosing accuracy on silicone viscosity, nozzle diameter and extrusion speed was evaluated. Second, various test specimens were proposed and printed to characterize the accuracy and geometric limitations of this printer. These test parts contained features such as thin walls, slender towers, small holes and slots, unsupported overhangs and bridges. It was concluded that silicone viscosity strongly affects geometric inaccuracies. Design recommendations were deducted from the results, advising for wall thicknesses above 1 mm, slenderness ratios below 2, bridging lengths below 2 mm and unsupported overhang angles below 30°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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12 pages, 2463 KiB  
Article
Development of a Multicolor 3D Printer Using a Novel Filament Shifting Mechanism
by Van Nguyen Thi Hai, Sinh Nguyen Phu, Terence Essomba and Jiing-Yih Lai
Inventions 2022, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7020034 - 3 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing has become an unchallenged method for the manufacturing of complex shape objects. Although multicolor devices in Fuse Filament Feeder category recently have shown promising developments, their number still remains limited. The present study introduces the design of a new prototype of [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing has become an unchallenged method for the manufacturing of complex shape objects. Although multicolor devices in Fuse Filament Feeder category recently have shown promising developments, their number still remains limited. The present study introduces the design of a new prototype of three-dimensional printer using Fused Filament Feeder and capable of printing multicolor objects. A single-color three-dimensional printer is used as a platform and is augmented for multicolor printing by the implementation of a mechatronic device that provides two functions. First, a transmission mechanism based on planetary gears allows feeding the selected filament color toward the printing head. The second function is provided by a combination of a central cam disk and several pushing rods. It allows selecting the filament color to be fed by the transmission system. The mechatronic device has been dimensioned to manage five different filament colors and the printing head has been modified to accommodate a five-to-one diamond nozzle. The filament shifting device is integrated into the single-color three-dimensional printer and a series of validation experiments has been carried out. These tests have demonstrated the new prototype ability to print out multicolor objects and to rival with commercial three-dimensional printers in terms of dimensional accuracy. This shows the ability of the proposed design and method to be used to upgrade a standard single-color 3D printer into a multicolor one. The presented multicolor 3D printer will be available to the 3D printing community for free. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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Review

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45 pages, 5909 KiB  
Review
Recent Inventions in Additive Manufacturing: Holistic Review
by Ismail Fidan, Orkhan Huseynov, Mohammad Alshaikh Ali, Suhas Alkunte, Mithila Rajeshirke, Ankit Gupta, Seymur Hasanov, Khalid Tantawi, Evren Yasa, Oguzhan Yilmaz, Jennifer Loy, Vladimir Popov and Ankit Sharma
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040103 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4342
Abstract
This general review paper presents a condensed view of recent inventions in the Additive Manufacturing (AM) field. It outlines factors affecting the development and commercialization of inventions via research collaboration and discusses breakthroughs in materials and AM technologies and their integration with emerging [...] Read more.
This general review paper presents a condensed view of recent inventions in the Additive Manufacturing (AM) field. It outlines factors affecting the development and commercialization of inventions via research collaboration and discusses breakthroughs in materials and AM technologies and their integration with emerging technologies. The paper explores the impact of AM across various sectors, including the aerospace, automotive, healthcare, food, and construction industries, since the 1970s. It also addresses challenges and future directions, such as hybrid manufacturing and bio-printing, along with socio-economic and environmental implications. This collaborative study provides a concise understanding of the latest inventions in AM, offering valuable insights for researchers, practitioners, and decision makers in diverse industries and institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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9 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in 3D Printing of Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets
by Chitnarong Sirisathitkul and Yaowarat Sirisathitkul
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030071 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2792
Abstract
This article reviews the advances in additive manufacturing of magnetic ceramics and alloys without rare-earth elements. Near-net-shaped permanent magnets with varying shapes and dimensions overcome traditional limitations of the cast, sintered, and bonded magnets. The published articles are categorized based on material types [...] Read more.
This article reviews the advances in additive manufacturing of magnetic ceramics and alloys without rare-earth elements. Near-net-shaped permanent magnets with varying shapes and dimensions overcome traditional limitations of the cast, sintered, and bonded magnets. The published articles are categorized based on material types and 3D printing techniques. Selective laser melting and electron beam melting were predominantly used to produce alnico magnets. In addition to the electron beam melting, manganese aluminium-based alloys were successfully printed by fuse filament fabrication. By incorporating magnetic powders in polymers and then printing via extrusion, the fuse filament fabrication was also used to produce strontium ferrite magnets. Moreover, hard ferrites were printed by stereolithography and extrusion free-forming, without drawing composites into filaments. Magnetic properties in some cases are comparable to those of conventional magnets with the same compositions. Currently, available software packages can simulate magnetic fields for designing magnets and optimize the integration in electrical machines. These developments open up opportunities for next-generation permanent magnet applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in 3D Printing 2.0)
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