Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This special issue belongs to the section "Insect Pest and Vector Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 15750

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
IVIA-Centre of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, 46113 Moncada, Spain
Interests: pest biological control (in general); Xylella fastidiosa vectors; parasitoids of Ceratitis capitata; whiteflies on citrus and persimmon crops
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Protection, Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valle de Guerra, 38270 Tenerife, Spain
Interests: agricultural entomology; integrated pest management (IPM); biological control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Currently, the need for sustainable resource management is growing increasingly urgent, and the demand for agricultural commodities is rising rapidly as the world's population grows.

The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society’s need for food at present, in the current scenario of environmental change, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, and all this by integrating three main objectives: a healthy environment, economic profitability, and social and economic equity.

In this context, pest management in sustainable agriculture requires us to progressively replace the use of non-renewable and unsustainable inputs with the application of eco-friendly practices that balance the double objective of efficient plant protection and reducing environmental risk.

Where possible, biological and ecological means should be used that promote naturally occurring biological agents and other inherent strengths as components of total agricultural ecosystems. We should design our cropping systems so that these natural forces keep the numbers of pests within acceptable bounds.

This Special Issue aims to include original research articles and reviews that focus on practical and sustainable methods for the management of insect and mite pests in orchards (including citrus trees), in both the laboratory and the field. Articles may deal, among other things, with: cultural control practices (intercropping, increasing soil health, etc.); management and selection of plants (plant nutritional quality, induced plant resistance); physical control practices (soil steaming, solarization); use of botanicals (essential oils, plant extracts); insect control by using traps; and the conservation of biological control agents (predators, parasitoids, and entomopathogens) through different ecosystem services (cover crops, hedges, etc.). 

Dr. Francisco José Beitia
Dr. Estrella Hernández Suárez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • integrated pest management
  • cultural control
  • physical control
  • plant management
  • botanical insecticides
  • mass trapping
  • conservation of biological control agents

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Sustainable Management Methods of Orchard Insect Pests
by Estrella M. Hernández-Suárez and Francisco Beitia
Insects 2021, 12(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010080 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
The current need for sustainable resource management is increasingly urgent, as demand for agricultural commodities is rising rapidly as the world’s population grows [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

16 pages, 868 KiB  
Article
Effect of Horticultural Mineral Oil on Huanglongbing Transmission by Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Population in a Commercial Citrus Orchard in Sarawak, Malaysia, Northern Borneo
by Sui S. Leong, Stephen C. T. Leong and George Andrew Charles Beattie
Insects 2021, 12(9), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090772 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama transmits a destructive citrus disease caused by a fastidious bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) designated as Huanglongbing (HLB) which posed a risk of detrimental threat to the Malaysian citrus industry. All D. citri life stages show a lumped habit [...] Read more.
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama transmits a destructive citrus disease caused by a fastidious bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) designated as Huanglongbing (HLB) which posed a risk of detrimental threat to the Malaysian citrus industry. All D. citri life stages show a lumped habit on young flushes and its population fluctuations was closely related to accessibility of young flushes. The study aimed to investigate if the appearance of young flush shoots on citrus influences ACP population fluctuation and if horticultural mineral oil (HMO) could reduce spread of HLB transmission by ACP in a commercial healthy orchard. Field research was carried out from 1 April 2011 to 1 December 2014 in a 2-year-old 1 ha citrus farm that consisted of 200 PCR-certified disease-free grafted non-bearing honey tangerine (Citrus reticulata L.) in southwestern Sarawak, Malaysia. The experiment had two treatments namely control (unsprayed) and nC24 HMO with four replications arranged in a simple randomized block design. ACP eggs, nymphs, and adults per flush shoot was assessed and HLB incidence was monitored for visual inspection of the citrus trees for the current existence of usual signs of characteristic symptoms of HLB such as yellowing shoots, leaf mottling, and corky or enlarged veins on leaves. HLB-specific primer was employed in 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction to detect the CLas gene in diseased trees. Increase in abundance of D. citri is mainly affected by the citrus flushing cycles and their life stages are completed on these flush shoots. Relative degree of aggregation index for D. citri adults increased during periods of cyclic production of new flush. HMO-treated plots produced a significantly lower percentage up to 11.43% of diseased trees against 42.20% in untreated control plots. HMO is effective against D. citri and recommended to be incorporated in the IPM program to prevent infection and reduce the spread of HLB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests)
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11 pages, 940 KiB  
Article
Feeding and Oviposition Behaviour of Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Different Citrus Rootstock Material Available in Europe
by Estrella Hernández-Suárez, Laura Suárez-Méndez, Moneyba Parrilla, Juan M. Arjona-López, Aurea Hervalejo and Francisco J. Arenas-Arenas
Insects 2021, 12(7), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070623 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio, 1918) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter spp., the causal agent of Huanglongbing disease (HLB). This study evaluates the preference of T. erytreae in different citrus seedlings. Thus, six different non-grafted citrus rootstocks were used for these [...] Read more.
Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio, 1918) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter spp., the causal agent of Huanglongbing disease (HLB). This study evaluates the preference of T. erytreae in different citrus seedlings. Thus, six different non-grafted citrus rootstocks were used for these experiments: (a) Carrizo citrange; (b) Citrus macrophylla; (c) ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin; (d) Forner-Alcaide No. 5; (e) Forner-Alcaide No. 517, and (f) Poncirus trifoliata (‘Flying Dragon’). The behaviour and survival of this psyllid was evaluated through the feeding preference of T. erytreae adults for different rootstocks (in a choice trial under greenhouse conditions) and oviposition and survival of T. erytreae adults on the different citrus material (in a no-choice trial under laboratory conditions). Trioza erytreae showed a clear preference for hosting and feeding on C. macrophylla, and Carrizo citrange was the most suitable rootstock for insect reproduction and survival followed by C. macrophylla. Conversely, Poncirus trifoliata was the least attractive rootstock to T. erytreae adults in the greenhouse trial and led to significantly lower T. erytreae survival. Our results suggest that conventional citrus rootstocks, such as Carrizo citrange and C. macrophylla, could increase T. erytreae populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests)
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12 pages, 546 KiB  
Article
Influence of Pre-Harvest Bagging on the Incidence of Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and Fruit Quality in Mango
by Modesto del Pino, Claudia Bienvenido, María Eva Wong, María del Carmen Rodríguez, Juan Ramón Boyero and José Miguel Vela
Insects 2021, 12(6), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060500 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is the main pest of mango, Mangifera indica L., in Spain, causing significant economic losses by aesthetic damage that reduce the commercial value of fruit. Bagging fruit with two commercial bags (a yellow satin paper and a white [...] Read more.
Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is the main pest of mango, Mangifera indica L., in Spain, causing significant economic losses by aesthetic damage that reduce the commercial value of fruit. Bagging fruit with two commercial bags (a yellow satin paper and a white muslin cloth bag) was evaluated for control of A. tubercularis in two organic mango orchards during the 2020 cropping season in pursuit of the development of a mango IPM program to produce pest-free and residue-free fruits. Results from fruit damage evaluations at harvest showed that bagging significantly reduced pest incidence and fruit damage compared with non-bagged plots. Of the two bags evaluated, white muslin cloth bag provided higher levels of fruit protection from A. tubercularis damage, reducing the non-commercial fruit percentage by up to 93.42%. Fruit quality assessment indicated that weight and size of bagged fruit were significantly higher than the non-bagged. Paper-bagged mangoes showed higher whiteness and yellowness compared to the other treatments. Soluble solids content (ºBrix) was higher in paper-bagged fruit than all other treatment plots. The results from this study indicate that pre-harvest fruit bagging is effective at controlling A. tubercularis and should be integrated into an IPM program for Spanish mango production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests)
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15 pages, 1943 KiB  
Article
Insecticidal Activities Against Odontotermes formosanus and Plutella xylostella and Corresponding Constituents of Tung Meal from Vernicia fordii
by Hui Zhang, Guilin Chen, Shiyou Lü, Lin Zhang and Mingquan Guo
Insects 2021, 12(5), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050425 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2835
Abstract
The environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and other associated problems caused by traditional chemical pesticides with limited modes of action make it urgent to seek alternative environmentally-friendly pesticides from natural products. Tung meal, the byproduct of the detoxified Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) seed, has been [...] Read more.
The environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and other associated problems caused by traditional chemical pesticides with limited modes of action make it urgent to seek alternative environmentally-friendly pesticides from natural products. Tung meal, the byproduct of the detoxified Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) seed, has been commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer and as a pesticide. However, its active insecticidal extracts and ingredients remain elusive. In the present study, the contact toxicities of tung meal extracts against the agricultural and forest pests like O. formosanus and P. xylostella were examined. Our results showed that ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts showed the strongest toxicity against O. formosanus and P. xylostella, respectively. In order to further explore the chemical profiles of the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts, UPLC-Q/TOF-MS and GC-MS analyses have been performed, and 20 and 29 compounds were identified from EA and PE extracts, respectively. The present study, for the first time, verified the noteworthy insecticidal activities on the aforementioned agricultural and forest pesticides and revealed the potential active parts and chemical composition, which are conducive to further exploiting the potential of tung meal as a natural plant-derived insecticide for biological control of agricultural and forest pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests)
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16 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
A Minor Role of Host Fruit on the Parasitic Performance of Aganaspis daci (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) on Medfly Larvae
by Luis de Pedro, Ahlem Harbi, José Tormos, Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz and Francisco Beitia
Insects 2021, 12(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040345 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2524
Abstract
Host fruit is known to strongly affect the performance of both fruit pests and their potential natural enemies. This is particularly important in the control of tephritid fruit flies, whose larvae develop inside the fruit and thus create a set of foraging problems [...] Read more.
Host fruit is known to strongly affect the performance of both fruit pests and their potential natural enemies. This is particularly important in the control of tephritid fruit flies, whose larvae develop inside the fruit and thus create a set of foraging problems for parasitoids. In the present study, we assessed the response of female Aganaspis daci (Weld) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), one of the most promising parasitoids for tephritid biocontrol in the Mediterranean Basin, to different potential host fruit species. We measured the olfactory response to medfly-infested and uninfested fruits, and several biological parameters of A. daci when different infested fruits were offered under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Our results showed that this parasitoid was significantly more attracted to apples and uninfested fruit. Moreover, parasitic activity was similar among the tested fruits under both conditions, showing very high values in the laboratory and a much poorer performance when conditions were variable. This suggests that A. daci may be a good candidate to be included in mass releases against the medfly regardless of the affected crop, but only when climate conditions are not expected to hinder its normal activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management Methods for Orchard Insect Pests)
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