The Outlook of Insect Study for Generation of New Approaches in Science and Practice

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 8158

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Phylogeny and Faunogenesis, Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk, Russia
Interests: paleontology; paleoentomology; entomology; phylogeny; systematics; faunogenesis; insecta; Coleoptera

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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630091, Russia
2. Invertebrate Zoology, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia
Interests: taxonomic entomology; faunogenesis; insect distribution; beetles of the families Malachiidae; Dasytidae; Byrrhidae; Meloidae; paleoentomology; biogeography; insect role in human life
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Insect studies can last hundreds of years. They were initially related to new recourses of food, cloth, and constructional material surveys, and have since focussed on the diversity cognition of forms and adaptive strategies relating to the different environmental conditions for insects. Over the past few years, the phylogenetic tree has been systemised and implemented to develop the historical evolution theory of the biosphere and understand the close interrelation between all elements of ecosystems, with a specific focus on insects. At the end of the previous century and the beginning of the present century, technical advancements have spurred the digitalisation of various study methods, allowing for extended insect studies. Electronic microscopy provided insight into the fine structures of cells and tissues, new methods in molecular study afforded additional evidence on the construction of natural systems, and tomography drew attention to the remains of fossil insects and described ancient forms. New potentialities, inherent in the current insect study, have facilitated new approaches in the generation of our scientific knowledge, and their further implementation has improved real economic practice. We are pleased to propose the Special Issue for a wide spectrum of insect studies based on new approaches and perspectives which expand entomological research.

Dr. Andrei Legalov
Dr. Sergei Eduardovich Tshernyshev
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • species distribution
  • faunogenesis
  • molecular study
  • gene barcoding
  • phylogeny
  • taxonomic diversity
  • fossil history
  • palaeoenvironment
  • palaeobiogeography
  • climate change
  • new taxa
  • insect nutrients

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2736 KiB  
Article
Breaking the Law: Is It Correct to Use the Converse Bergmann Rule in Ceroglossus chilensis? An Overview Using Geometric Morphometrics
by Hugo A. Benítez, Carlos Muñoz-Ramírez, Margarita Correa, Ian S. Acuña-Rodríguez, Amado Villalobos-Leiva, Tamara Contador, Nelson A. Velásquez and Manuel J. Suazo
Insects 2024, 15(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15020097 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 948
Abstract
The converse Bergmann’s rule is a pattern of body size variation observed in many ectothermic organisms that contradicts the classic Bergmann’s rule and suggests that individuals inhabiting warmer climates tend to exhibit larger body sizes compared to those inhabiting colder environments. Due to [...] Read more.
The converse Bergmann’s rule is a pattern of body size variation observed in many ectothermic organisms that contradicts the classic Bergmann’s rule and suggests that individuals inhabiting warmer climates tend to exhibit larger body sizes compared to those inhabiting colder environments. Due to the thermoregulatory nature of Bergmann’s rule, its application among ectotherms might prove to be more complicated, given that these organisms obtain heat by absorbing it from their habitat. The existence of this inverse pattern therefore challenges the prevailing notion that larger body size is universally advantageous in colder climates. Ceroglossus chilensis is a native Chilean beetle that has the largest latitudinal range of any species in the genus, from 34.3° S to 47.8° S. Within Chile, it continuously inhabits regions extending from Maule to Aysen, thriving on both native and non-native forest species. Beyond their remarkable color variation, populations of C. chilensis show minimal morphological disparity, noticeable only through advanced morphological techniques (geometric morphometrics). Based on both (1) the “temperature–size rule”, which suggests that body size decreases with increasing temperature, and (2) the reduced resource availability in high-latitude environments that may lead to smaller body sizes, we predict that C. chilensis populations will follow the converse Bergmann’s rule. Our results show a clear converse pattern to the normal Bergmann rule, where smaller centroid sizes were found to be measured in the specimens inhabiting the southern areas of Chile. Understanding the prevalence of the converse Bergmann’s rule for ectotherm animals and how often this rule is broken is of utmost importance to understand the underlying mechanisms allowing organisms to adapt to different environments and the selective pressures they face. Full article
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26 pages, 11647 KiB  
Article
Insufficient Cold Resistance as a Possible Reason for the Absence of Darkling Beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in Pleistocene Sediments of Siberia
by Roman Yu. Dudko, Arcady V. Alfimov, Anna A. Gurina, Ekaterina N. Meshcheryakova, Sergei V. Reshetnikov, Andrei A. Legalov and Daniil I. Berman
Insects 2024, 15(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15010064 - 16 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
The level of diversity and abundance of darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) is the main difference between the late Pleistocene and modern insect faunas of arid regions. In the Pleistocene assemblages they are extremely rare, whereas in the modern ones they predominate. It is [...] Read more.
The level of diversity and abundance of darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) is the main difference between the late Pleistocene and modern insect faunas of arid regions. In the Pleistocene assemblages they are extremely rare, whereas in the modern ones they predominate. It is assumed that the reason for their rarity in fossil entomological complexes is their lack of cold resistance. The supercooling points (SCP) and low lethal temperatures (LLT) of adults from five species of Altai darkling beetles that overwinter in the soil and larvae from one such species were measured in the laboratory. All beetles supercooled at negative temperatures but could not survive freezing, with the average SCP of the most cold-resistant species between −25.7 and −21.7 °C (Bioramix picipes, Anatolica dashidorzsi, and Penthicus altaicus). However, 50% of the individuals from different species in the experiment died after exposure during two days at temperatures ranging from −22 to −20 °C. The focal species are distributed in parts of Central Asia with an extreme continental climate, and the temperatures measured in the soil of these natural areas turned out to be lower than or close to the limit of cold resistance of the beetles. Overwintering of darkling beetles is therefore only possible in areas with deep snow: in hollows, under bushes, and under large cereals. Darkling beetles with poor cold resistance could not have existed in the colder climate of the late Pleistocene, which explains their absence from fossil fauna. Full article
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0 pages, 9283 KiB  
Article
A Diet with Amikacin Changes the Bacteriobiome and the Physiological State of Galleria mellonella and Causes Its Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis
by Olga V. Polenogova, Tatyana N. Klementeva, Marsel R. Kabilov, Tatyana Y. Alikina, Anton V. Krivopalov, Natalya A. Kruykova and Viktor V. Glupov
Insects 2023, 14(11), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14110889 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Environmental pollution with antibiotics can cause antibiotic resistance in microorganisms, including the intestinal microbiota of various insects. The effects of low-dose aminoglycoside antibiotic (amikacin) on the resident gut microbiota of Galleria mellonella, its digestion, its physiological parameters, and the resistance of this [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution with antibiotics can cause antibiotic resistance in microorganisms, including the intestinal microbiota of various insects. The effects of low-dose aminoglycoside antibiotic (amikacin) on the resident gut microbiota of Galleria mellonella, its digestion, its physiological parameters, and the resistance of this species to bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. Here, 16S rDNA analysis revealed that the number of non-dominant Enterococcus mundtii bacteria in the eighteenth generation of the wax moth treated with amikacin was increased 73 fold compared to E. faecalis, the dominant bacteria in the native line of the wax moth. These changes were accompanied by increased activity of acidic protease and glutathione-S-transferase in the midgut tissues of larvae. Ultra-thin section electron microscopy detected no changes in the structure of the midgut tissues. In addition, reduced pupa weight and resistance of larvae to B. thuringiensis were observed in the eighteenth generation of the wax moth reared on a diet with amikacin. We suggest that long-term cultivation of wax moth larvae on an artificial diet with an antibiotic leads to its adaptation due to changes in both the gut microbiota community and the physiological state of the insect organism. Full article
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20 pages, 1439 KiB  
Article
The Adaptive Value of Chromosomal Inversions and Climatic Change—Studies on the Natural Populations of Drosophila subobscura from the Balkans
by Goran Zivanovic, Concepció Arenas and Francesc Mestres
Insects 2023, 14(7), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070596 - 1 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
The adaptive value of the Drosophila subobscura chromosomal inversion polymorphism with regard to environmental effects is well-known. However, the specific details of the inversion adaptations to the global warming scenario deserve to be analyzed. Toward this aim, polymorphism and karyotypes were studied in [...] Read more.
The adaptive value of the Drosophila subobscura chromosomal inversion polymorphism with regard to environmental effects is well-known. However, the specific details of the inversion adaptations to the global warming scenario deserve to be analyzed. Toward this aim, polymorphism and karyotypes were studied in 574 individuals from Petnica (Serbia) in annual samples taken in June for the period 2019–2022. Comparing the results of Petnica (Cfa: humid subtropical climate) with those from Avala (Serbia: Cfb, temperate oceanic climate) and Font Groga (Barcelona, Spain; Csa: hot-summer Mediterranean climate), significant differences were observed for their chromosomal polymorphism. In Petnica, inversions from U and E chromosomes mainly reacted significantly with regard to temperature, humidity, and rainfall. Moreover, the inversion polymorphism from Petnica (2019–2022) was compared with that from 1995. In this period, a significant increase in mean and maximum temperature was observed. However, to properly explain the observed variations of inversions over time, it was necessary to carefully analyze annual seasonal changes and particular heat wave episodes. Interestingly, yearly fluctuations of U chromosome ‘warm’-adapted inversions corresponded with opposite changes in ‘non-thermal’ inversions. Perhaps these types of inversions were not correctly defined with regard to thermal adaptation, or these fluctuations were also due to adaptations to other physical and/or biological variables. Finally, a joint study of chromosomal inversion polymorphism from many Balkan populations of D. subobscura indicated that different climatic regions presented distinct composition, including thermal-adapted inversions. Full article
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12 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Is Every Vein a Real Vein? Cross-Section of the Wing of Matsucoccus Pini (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae)
by Barbara Franielczyk-Pietyra, Małgorzata Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk and Jowita Drohojowska
Insects 2023, 14(4), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14040390 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Wings of Matsucoccus pini males were studied. Using light and scanning electron microscopes, both sides of the wing membrane, dorsal and ventral, were examined. The presence of only one vein in the common stem was confirmed by the cross-section, namely the radius. The [...] Read more.
Wings of Matsucoccus pini males were studied. Using light and scanning electron microscopes, both sides of the wing membrane, dorsal and ventral, were examined. The presence of only one vein in the common stem was confirmed by the cross-section, namely the radius. The elements regarded as subcostal and medial veins were not confirmed as veins. On the dorsal side of the wings, a cluster of campaniform sensilla is shown for the first time in the family Matsucoccidae, through SEM, and two additional sensilla were found on the ventral side. There was a lack of alar setae, microtrichia as well as pterostigma. This is the second cross-section of the wing among scale insects. We propose the following nomenclature for the wings in the family Matsucoccidae: subcostal thickening (sct), radius (R), median fold (med) and anal fold (af). Full article
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16 pages, 5194 KiB  
Article
Phenological Features of the Spongy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in the Northernmost Portions of Its Eurasian Range
by Vasiliy I. Ponomarev, Georgiy I. Klobukov, Viktoria V. Napalkova, Yuriy B. Akhanaev, Sergey V. Pavlushin, Maria E. Yakimova, Anna O. Subbotina, Sandrine Picq, Michel Cusson and Vyacheslav V. Martemyanov
Insects 2023, 14(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030276 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The spongy moth, Lymatria dispar, is a classic example of an invasive pest accidentally introduced from Europe to North America, where it has become one of the most serious forest defoliators, as in its native range. The present study was aimed at [...] Read more.
The spongy moth, Lymatria dispar, is a classic example of an invasive pest accidentally introduced from Europe to North America, where it has become one of the most serious forest defoliators, as in its native range. The present study was aimed at (i) identifying the current northern limit of L. dispar’s Eurasian range and exploring its northward expansion in Canada using pheromone trap data, and (ii) comparing northern Eurasian populations with those from central and southern regions with respect to male flight phenology, the sums of effective temperatures (SETs) above the 7 °C threshold necessary for development to the adult stage, and heat availability. We show that the range of L. dispar in Eurasia now reaches the 61st parallel, and comparisons with historical data identify the average speed of spread as 50 km/year. We also document the northern progression of L. dispar in southern Canada, where the actual northern boundary of its range remains to be identified. We show that the median date of male flight does not vary greatly between northern and southern regions of the spongy moth range in Eurasia despite climate differences. Synchronization of flight at different latitudes of the range is associated with an acceleration of larval development in northern Eurasian populations. Similar changes in developmental rate along a latitudinal gradient have not been documented for North American populations. Thus, we argue that this feature of spongy moths from northern Eurasia poses a significant invasive threat to North America in terms of enhanced risks for rapid northward range expansion. Full article
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