Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology

A special issue of Inorganics (ISSN 2304-6740). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 26676

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
Interests: rechargeable batteries; metal-ion batteries; solid-state electrolytes; supercapacitors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 218889, China
Interests: Li/Na/K-ion battery; lithium sulfur battery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today's society is relying on the use of lithium (Li) ion batteries to power portable electronics and electric vehicles. However, with the increasing demand for higher energy density, better safety and lower cost, Li-ion batteries are encountering different kinds of challenges and issues. First, the specific capacities of state-of-the-art cathode materials for Li-ion batteries are gradually approaching the theoretical limit. The energy densities of current Li-ion batteries remain insufficient for many emerging applications. Second, the lithium resource is not abundant on the Earth’s crust, which remains a critical barrier to the widespread scale-up of Li-ion batteries to stationary energy storage systems. Moreover, the use of flammable organic liquid electrolytes in Li-ion batteries possesses serious safety issues under abuse overheated or overcharged conditions.

Continuous development of novel battery chemistries and electrode materials are highly desired to build better batteries beyond Li-ion batteries. The “beyond Li-ion” batteries with various anodes (like Na, Zn and Al), cathodes (such as sulfur and air) and solid-state electrolytes are emerging alternative systems because of their high energy density, low cost, good safety, environmental friendliness, etc. In this context, we are calling for papers on this Special Issue to promote current research on inorganic materials for battery technology beyond lithium-ion.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • Sulfur, air and carbon dioxide cathodes;
  • Li-metal anodes;
  • Na/K ion batteries;
  • Multivalent metal (Zn, Ca, Mg, Al) ion batteries;
  • Redox flow batteries;
  • Inorganic or polymer solid-state electrolytes.

Dr. Faxing Wang
Dr. Tao Wang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

• high-energy cathodes
• metal anodes
• multivalent ion batteries
• electrolytes
• flow batteries

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 911 KiB  
Communication
Generalized Peukert Equation with Due Account of Temperature for Estimating the Remaining Capacity of Nickel–Metal Hydride Batteries
by Nataliya N. Yazvinskaya
Inorganics 2022, 10(12), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10120255 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
In this paper, it is experimentally proven that the generalized Peukert equation C(i,T) = Cm(T)/(1 + (i/i0(T))n(T)) is applicable to nickel–metal hydride [...] Read more.
In this paper, it is experimentally proven that the generalized Peukert equation C(i,T) = Cm(T)/(1 + (i/i0(T))n(T)) is applicable to nickel–metal hydride batteries at any discharge currents, while the classical Peukert equation can be used only in a limited range of the discharge currents (approximately from 0.3 Cn to 3 Cn). In addition, the classical Peikert equation does not take into account the influence of the temperature of a battery on its released capacity. It is also proven that for the nickel–metal hydride batteries, the generalized Peukert equation heavily depends on battery temperature (via the parameters Cm(T), i0(T) and n(T)). The temperature dependencies of the parameters of the generalized Peukert equation and their physical meaning are also established. The obtained generalized Peukert equation, which considers the batteries’ temperature, can be used at any discharge current and temperature of the batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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14 pages, 5543 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Ternary rGO/VS2/WS2 Composite Hydrogel for Supercapacitor Applications
by Sahil S. Magdum, Sadhasivam Thangarasu and Tae Hwan Oh
Inorganics 2022, 10(12), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10120229 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2627
Abstract
In recent years, the development of lightweight electrode materials with excellent performance (energy density versus power density) has increased the number of uses for supercapacitors. Creating three-dimensional skeletal network structures with excellent specific capacitance and high energy density is still challenging. This study [...] Read more.
In recent years, the development of lightweight electrode materials with excellent performance (energy density versus power density) has increased the number of uses for supercapacitors. Creating three-dimensional skeletal network structures with excellent specific capacitance and high energy density is still challenging. This study utilized a straightforward one-pot hydrothermal technique to construct a supercapacitor based on hydrogel 3D skeletal networks comprising rGO nanosheets with VS2/WS2 nanoparticles. The rGO appeared as flakes and layers, interconnected in nature, allowing for more ion transport pathways and a larger active surface area for EDLC performance. The heterostructured VS2 and WS2 nanoparticles were homogeneously anchored to the rGO layers and were porous in the hydrogel structure. The functioning rGO, rGO-VS2, and rGO-VS2-WS2 composite hydrogel electrodes were created without a binder on the Ni foam current collector using a hydraulic press. The rGO-VS2-WS2 composite hydrogel electrode showed excellent supercapacitor performance of 220 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 in 3M KOH electrolyte, which was more than those of the GO (158 F g−1) and rGO-VS2 (199 F g−1) hydrogels under similar conditions. Hydrogel electrodes made of rGO-VS2-WS2 had a power density of 355 Whkg−1 and a high energy density of 30.55 Whkg−1. It maintained a high energy density of up to 21.11 W/kg−1, even at a high power density of 3454 W/kg−1. Given the 3D shape and the excellent surface properties of rGO nanosheets with VS2 and WS2 nanoparticles as the hydrogel, this electrode has essential properties that make it a good choice for making high-performance capacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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12 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Graphite Felt Electrode Modified by Quaternary Ammonium for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with an Ultra-Long Cycle Life
by Xuejiao Liu, Junping Hu, Jun Liu, Hongyi Liu, Sha Fu, Xiongwei Wu and Yuping Wu
Inorganics 2022, 10(11), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10110208 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are one of the most attractive devices for grid-scale energy storage due to their advantages of high safety, flexible assembly, and electrolyte-class recycling. However, the conventional graphite felt electrodes usually possess inferior electrocatalytic activity for vanadium ion redox [...] Read more.
Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are one of the most attractive devices for grid-scale energy storage due to their advantages of high safety, flexible assembly, and electrolyte-class recycling. However, the conventional graphite felt electrodes usually possess inferior electrocatalytic activity for vanadium ion redox reactions, vastly limiting the rate and lifespans of VRFBs. Herein, we demonstrate a high-rate and ultra-stable vanadium redox flow battery based on quaternary ammonium salt-modified graphite felt electrodes. At a high current density of 200 mA cm−2, the constructed VRFB exhibited a superior cycling life of up to 1000 cycles. This work affords a straightforward approach for developing efficient, environmentally friendly, and low-cost graphite felt electrodes for ultra-stable and high-rate VRFBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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19 pages, 2873 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Performance of Potassium Hydroxide and Ammonia Activated Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon in Sodium-Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors
by Yuliya V. Fedoseeva, Elena V. Shlyakhova, Svetlana G. Stolyarova, Anna A. Vorfolomeeva, Alina D. Nishchakova, Mariya A. Grebenkina, Anna A. Makarova, Konstantin A. Kovalenko, Alexander V. Okotrub and Lyubov G. Bulusheva
Inorganics 2022, 10(11), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10110198 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Carbon nanomaterials possessing a high specific surface area, electrical conductivity and chemical stability are promising electrode materials for alkali metal-ion batteries and supercapacitors. In this work, we study nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) obtained by chemical vapor deposition of acetonitrile over the pyrolysis product of [...] Read more.
Carbon nanomaterials possessing a high specific surface area, electrical conductivity and chemical stability are promising electrode materials for alkali metal-ion batteries and supercapacitors. In this work, we study nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) obtained by chemical vapor deposition of acetonitrile over the pyrolysis product of calcium tartrate, and activated with a potassium hydroxide melt followed by hydrothermal treatment in an aqueous ammonia solution. Such a two-stage chemical modification leads to an increase in the specific surface area up to 1180 m2 g−1, due to the formation of nanopores 0.6–1.5 nm in size. According to a spectroscopic study, the pore edges are decorated with imine, amine, and amide groups. In sodium-ion batteries, the modified material mNC exhibits a stable reversible gravimetric capacity in the range of 252–160 mA h g−1 at current densities of 0.05–1.00 A g−1, which is higher than the corresponding capacity of 142–96 mA h g−1 for the initial NC sample. In supercapacitors, the mNC demonstrates the highest specific capacitance of 172 F g−1 and 151 F g−1 at 2 V s−1 in 1 M H2SO4 and 6 M KOH electrolytes, respectively. The improvement in the electrochemical performance of mNC is explained by the cumulative contribution of a developed pore structure, which ensures rapid diffusion of ions, and the presence of imine, amine, and amide groups, which enhance binding with sodium ions and react with protons or hydroxyl ions. These findings indicate that hydrogenated nitrogen functional groups grafted to the edges of graphitic domains are responsible for Na+ ion storage sites and surface redox reactions in acidic and alkaline electrolytes, making modified carbon a promising electrode material for electrochemical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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10 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Electronic Structure, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Oxygen-Deficient Gray TiO2–δ(B)
by Denis P. Opra, Alexander A. Sokolov, Sergey L. Sinebryukhov, Ivan A. Tkachenko, Albert M. Ziatdinov and Sergey V. Gnedenkov
Inorganics 2022, 10(11), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10110184 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
The gray-colored oxygen-deficient TiO2–δ(B) nanobelts have been synthesized through a combination of the hydrothermal method followed by an ion exchange process and vacuum annealing. Electron paramagnetic resonance reveals an existence of F-centers in the form of electron-trapped oxygen vacancies within [...] Read more.
The gray-colored oxygen-deficient TiO2–δ(B) nanobelts have been synthesized through a combination of the hydrothermal method followed by an ion exchange process and vacuum annealing. Electron paramagnetic resonance reveals an existence of F-centers in the form of electron-trapped oxygen vacancies within the anionic sublattice of the gray bronze TiO2 that induces its colouration. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed that the formation of oxygen vacancies into TiO2(B) significantly increases its absorption intensity in both visible and near infrared ranges. The band gap of TiO2(B) with anionic defects is equal to 3.03 eV (against 3.24 eV for white TiO2(B) treated in air). Room temperature ferromagnetism associated with the defects was detected in gray TiO2–δ(B), thus indicating it belongs it to the class of dilute magnetic oxide semiconductors. It was found that in the low-temperature range (4 K), the magnetic properties of vacuum annealed TiO2(B) do not differ from those for TiO2(B) treated in air. We hope that the findings are defined here make a contribution to further progress in fabrication and manufacturing of defective TiO2-based nanomaterials for catalysis, magnetic applications, batteries, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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10 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Lithium Cation Desolvation Process at the Electrolyte/Electrode Interface on the Performance of Lithium Batteries
by Olga V. Yarmolenko, Guzaliya R. Baymuratova, Kyunsylu G. Khatmullina, Galiya Z. Tulibayeva, Alena V. Yudina, Tatiana A. Savinykh, Igor K. Yakushchenko, Pavel A. Troshin and Alexander F. Shestakov
Inorganics 2022, 10(11), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10110176 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
The article considers the effect of the solvate environment of the lithium cation in various aprotic solvents.The redox reactions of electrodes made from a polymeric condensation product of triquinoyl with 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene are studied. A 1 M LiPF6 solution was used as an [...] Read more.
The article considers the effect of the solvate environment of the lithium cation in various aprotic solvents.The redox reactions of electrodes made from a polymeric condensation product of triquinoyl with 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene are studied. A 1 M LiPF6 solution was used as an electrolyte, in either ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC) or tetraglyme. Based on the electrochemical studies and quantum chemical modeling, it was shown that the desolvation of lithium cations in the tetraglyme-based electrolyte makes it possible to obtain a capacity close to the theoretical one (up to 546 mAh g−1) and only 125 mAh g−1 for the EC/DMC electrolyte. This decrease is due to the fact that the lithium cation adds to the functional groups of the organic material with two dimethyl carbonate molecules, as well as the PF6 anion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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Review

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24 pages, 2972 KiB  
Review
A Minireview on the Regeneration of NCM Cathode Material Directly from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries with Different Cathode Chemistries
by Alexander A. Pavlovskii, Konstantin Pushnitsa, Alexandra Kosenko, Pavel Novikov and Anatoliy A. Popovich
Inorganics 2022, 10(9), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics10090141 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4705
Abstract
Research on the regeneration of cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries for resource reclamation and environmental protection is attracting more and more attention today. However, the majority of studies on recycling lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) placed the emphasis only on recovering target metals, such [...] Read more.
Research on the regeneration of cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries for resource reclamation and environmental protection is attracting more and more attention today. However, the majority of studies on recycling lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) placed the emphasis only on recovering target metals, such as Co, Ni, and Li, from the cathode materials, or how to recycle spent LIBs by conventional means. Effective reclamation strategies (e.g., pyrometallurgical technologies, hydrometallurgy techniques, and biological strategies) have been used in research on recycling used LIBs. Nevertheless, none of the existing reviews of regenerating cathode materials from waste LIBs elucidated the strategies to regenerate lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NCM or LiNixCoyMnzO2) cathode materials directly from spent LIBs containing other than NCM cathodes but, at the same time, frequently used commercial cathode materials such as LiCoO2 (LCO), LiFePO4 (LFP), LiMn2O4 (LMO), etc. or from spent mixed cathode materials. This review showcases the strategies and techniques for regenerating LiNixCoyMnzO2 cathode active materials directly from some commonly used and different types of mixed-cathode materials. The article summarizes the various technologies and processes of regenerating LiNixCoyMnzO2 cathode active materials directly from some individual cathode materials and the mixed-cathode scraps of spent LIBs without their preliminary separation. In the meantime, the economic benefits and diverse synthetic routes of regenerating LiNixCoyMnzO2 cathode materials reported in the literature are analyzed systematically. This minireview can lay guidance and a theoretical basis for restoring LiNixCoyMnzO2 cathode materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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Other

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15 pages, 4979 KiB  
Perspective
Silicon Anode: A Perspective on Fast Charging Lithium-Ion Battery
by Jun Lee, Gwangeon Oh, Ho-Young Jung and Jang-Yeon Hwang
Inorganics 2023, 11(5), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics11050182 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 9566
Abstract
Power sources supported by lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology has been considered to be the most suitable for public and military use. Battery quality is always a critical issue since electric engines and portable devices use power-consuming algorithms for security. For the practical use [...] Read more.
Power sources supported by lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology has been considered to be the most suitable for public and military use. Battery quality is always a critical issue since electric engines and portable devices use power-consuming algorithms for security. For the practical use of LIBs in public applications, low heat generation, and fast charging are essential requirements, but those features are still unsatisfactory so far. In particular, the slow Li+ intercalation kinetics, lithium plating, and self-heat generation of conventional graphite-anode LIBs under fast-charging conditions are impediments to the use of these batteries by the public demands. The use of silicon-based anodes, which are associated with fast reaction kinetics and rapid Li+ diffusion, has great potential to render LIBs suitable for public use in the near future. In this perspective, the challenges in and future directions for developing silicon-based anode materials for realizing LIBs with fast-charging capability are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Lithium-Ion Battery Technology)
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