Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 7198

Special Issue Editor

ARC Industrial Transformation Research Hub (ITRH), SPARC Hub, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton Campus, VIC 3800, Australia
Interests: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering; Soil Dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The primary goal of geotechnical earthquake engineering is to understand how rocks and soils react to dynamic loadings caused by earthquakes, blasting, pile driving, machine vibrations, ocean waves, transportation, etc., and to solve related seismic problems. Earthquakes are the worst natural disasters and cause significant loss of life and damage to property. Additionally, they often also substantially impede transportation and civil engineering construction. In spite of some success in this area, several post-earthquake disaster investigations have reminded us of the need for further research in this area. Hence, this Special Issue provides an excellent platform for researchers in the field of geotechnical earthquake engineering to disseminate novel research carried out in this topic to help avert disasters and reduce loss of lives occurring due to earthquakes. 

Potential topics of discussion include, but are not limited to, the following areas:

  1. Design of geotechnical structure subjected to earthquake or impact loading;
  2. Dynamic behaviour and seismic design of geotechnical structures;
  3. Dynamic properties of soils and rocks;
  4. Dynamic soil structure interaction;
  5. Engineering seismology;
  6. Ground improvement techniques for mitigation of earthquake hazards;
  7. Constitutive behaviour of soils and rocks under dynamic loading conditions;
  8. Liquefaction;
  9. Field experimentation, and numerical simulation of liquefaction behaviour of soils;
  10. Seismic slope stability and landslides;
  11. Case histories;
  12. Blast generated ground vibration research;
  13. Soil dynamics and foundations;
  14. Wave propagation in soils and rocks;
  15. Seismic instrumentations;
  16. Seismic response of buildings;
  17. Seismic response of bridges;
  18. Pavement engineering;
  19. Seismic microzonation principles and practices.

Dr. Troyee Dutta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • soil dynamics
  • dynamic response of soils and rocks
  • soil liquefaction
  • seismic microzonations
  • wave propagations
  • blast-induced vibrations
  • seismic stability of slopes
  • seismic soil–structure interactions

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 11907 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of a High-Velocity Projectile’s Impact on Shallow Steel Tunnels in Soft Sandstone
by Rupali Sarmah, Troyee Tanu Dutta and K. Seshagiri Rao
Infrastructures 2024, 9(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9030049 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Tunnels are underground infrastructures intended for diverse community applications as well as military applications. During impact loading due to high-velocity projectiles such as ballistic missiles, materials experience a high strain rate. Moreover, there is a superficial augmentation of the dynamic strength when geomaterials [...] Read more.
Tunnels are underground infrastructures intended for diverse community applications as well as military applications. During impact loading due to high-velocity projectiles such as ballistic missiles, materials experience a high strain rate. Moreover, there is a superficial augmentation of the dynamic strength when geomaterials such as rock are subjected to a high strain rate. Despite this strength enhancement, tunnels can get damaged by the impact load of a projectile hitting at a high velocity if they are present at a shallow depth. The present study is an effort to comprehend the response of a shallow tunnel in soft sandstone due to the impact load by a ballistic projectile using the FEM-based software ABAQUS/CAE 6.11. The Drucker–Prager damage model and the Johnson–Cook damage model were used to define the properties of the rock mass and steel tunnel lining, respectively. The crown of the 3 m diameter tunnel was kept at different depths from 1 m to 5 m from the surface. A striking velocity of 1000 m/s at a normal position to the target was given to the projectile. The projectile caused noticeable damage to the tunnel lining up to 3 m crown depth. Increasing the crown depth had a positive effect on the maximum depth of the projectile penetration up to 4 m tunnel crown depth, after which the effect reversed, making the tunnel safer. The maximum von Mises stress on the tunnel lining reduced in a logarithmic trend with an increase in the crown depth, gradually lowering to an impact load lesser than the yield stress of the tunnel lining material after a crown depth of 4.5 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering)
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18 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effect of Near-Field Ground Motions on the Fragility Curves of Multi-Span Simply Supported Concrete Girder Bridges
by Hassan Soltanmohammadi, Mohammadreza Mashayekhi, Mohammad Mahdi Memarpour, Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni and Masoud Mirtaheri
Infrastructures 2024, 9(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9020019 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Investigating the impact of near-field ground motions on the fragility curves of multi-span simply supported concrete girder bridges is the main goal of this paper. Fragility curves are valuable tools for evaluating seismic risks and vulnerabilities of bridges. Numerous studies have investigated the [...] Read more.
Investigating the impact of near-field ground motions on the fragility curves of multi-span simply supported concrete girder bridges is the main goal of this paper. Fragility curves are valuable tools for evaluating seismic risks and vulnerabilities of bridges. Numerous studies have investigated the impact of ground motions on the fragility curves of bridges. Ground motions are commonly categorized into two sets, based on the distance of the recorded station from the seismic source: far-field and near-field. Studies examining the influence of near-field records on bridge fragility curves vary depending on the specific bridge type and type of fragility curve being analyzed. Due to the widespread use of multi-span simply supported concrete girder bridges in the Central and Southeastern United States, this study makes use of this bridge type. This research investigates the component fragility curves for column curvatures, bearing deformations, and abutment displacements by employing 3-D analytical models and conducting nonlinear time history analysis. These curves illustrate the impact of near-field ground motions on different components. The component fragility curves for two sets of records, 91 near-field ground motions and 78 far-field ground motions, were obtained and compared. These findings demonstrate that near-field ground motions have a greater damaging effect on columns and abutments than far-field earthquakes. When it comes to bearing deformations, the far-field earthquake impact is more severe at lower intensities, whereas the impact of the near-field ground motion is stronger at higher intensities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering)
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15 pages, 10308 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Liquefaction Hazard for Sites in Romania Using Empirical Models
by Florin Pavel and Robert Vladut
Infrastructures 2023, 8(9), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8090133 - 05 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1121
Abstract
This paper is focused on the evaluation of the liquefaction hazard for different sites in Romania. To this aim, a database of 139 ground motions recorded during Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes having moment magnitudes MW ≥ 6.0 is employed for the evaluation of [...] Read more.
This paper is focused on the evaluation of the liquefaction hazard for different sites in Romania. To this aim, a database of 139 ground motions recorded during Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes having moment magnitudes MW ≥ 6.0 is employed for the evaluation of the equivalent number of cycles for this seismic source. Several functional forms for the empirical evaluation of the equivalent number of cycles considering various seismological or engineering parameters are tested and evaluated. The regression analysis shows smaller uncertainties for the empirical models based on ground motion engineering parameters. Considering the lack of information in terms of engineering parameters, a simpler empirical model which accounts for the earthquake magnitude, source–site distance and soil conditions is selected for the liquefaction hazard analysis. Based on the proposed empirical model, specific magnitude scaling factors for Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes are proposed for the first time as well. The liquefaction hazard analysis is performed for sites whose seismic hazard is generated by either the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source or by local shallow crustal seismic sources. In the case of some of the selected sites, liquefaction phenomena were observed during past large-magnitude earthquakes. Unlike previous studies dealing with liquefaction analyses for sites in Romania, in this research, the hazard assessment is performed for various ground motion levels evaluated based on probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Liquefaction hazard curves are constructed for each analyzed site. The results of the liquefaction hazard analysis show that this phenomenon is more likely to occur in the areas exposed to Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes, compared to the areas affected by local shallow earthquakes. In the case of the analyzed soil profiles from Bucharest, Craiova and Ianca, the minimum liquefaction safety factors less than one even for seismic hazard levels having mean return periods of 100 years and less. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering)
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20 pages, 2626 KiB  
Article
Soft Computing to Predict Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction via CPT Results
by Ali Reza Ghanizadeh, Ahmad Aziminejad, Panagiotis G. Asteris and Danial Jahed Armaghani
Infrastructures 2023, 8(8), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8080125 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction (EISL) can cause significant damage to structures, facilities, and vital urban arteries. Thus, the accurate prediction of EISL is a challenge for geotechnical engineers in mitigating irreparable loss to buildings and human lives. This research aims to propose a binary [...] Read more.
Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction (EISL) can cause significant damage to structures, facilities, and vital urban arteries. Thus, the accurate prediction of EISL is a challenge for geotechnical engineers in mitigating irreparable loss to buildings and human lives. This research aims to propose a binary classification model based on the hybrid method of a wavelet neural network (WNN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to predict EISL based on cone penetration test (CPT) results. To this end, a well-known dataset consisting of 109 datapoints has been used. The developed WNN-PSO model can predict liquefaction with an overall accuracy of 99.09% based on seven input variables, including total vertical stress (σv), effective vertical stress (σv), mean grain size (D50), normalized peak horizontal acceleration at ground surface (αmax), cone resistance (qc), cyclic stress ratio (CSR), and earthquake magnitude (Mw). The results show that the proposed WNN-PSO model has superior performance against other computational intelligence models. The results of sensitivity analysis using the neighborhood component analysis (NCA) method reveal that among the seven input variables, qc has the highest degree of importance and Mw has the lowest degree of importance in predicting EISL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering)
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19 pages, 7001 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Liquefaction Hazard and Mapping Based on Standard Penetration Tests in the Long Beach and Tuzla Regions of Cyprus
by Onur Selcukhan and Abdullah Ekinci
Infrastructures 2023, 8(6), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8060099 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Cyprus is the third largest and populated island in the Mediterranean Sea, and is still rapidly expanding. Significant infrastructures, such as hotels, educational institutions, and large residential complexes, are being built. Historically, 15 destructive earthquakes were reported on Cyprus from 1896 to 2019 [...] Read more.
Cyprus is the third largest and populated island in the Mediterranean Sea, and is still rapidly expanding. Significant infrastructures, such as hotels, educational institutions, and large residential complexes, are being built. Historically, 15 destructive earthquakes were reported on Cyprus from 1896 to 2019 that caused structural damages and casualties. In this study, the liquefaction potential of Tuzla and Long Beach on the east coast of Cyprus is estimated using the standard penetration test (SPT) data from more than 200 boreholes at different locations at the sites. The overall results are presented in a liquefaction potential index obtained from the factor of safety (F.S.) coefficient. Both study areas are susceptible to liquefaction. Thus, liquefaction potential maps are prepared to identify hazards in Tuzla and Long Beach. Additionally, the average factor of the safety line was introduced for both sites to create a correlation between the liquefaction area and F.S. values of every borehole. The adopted approach precisely provides the liquefiable regions when compared with historical evidence, CPT measurements, surface geology aspects, and geospatial data. Additionally, the results prove that the liquefaction potential must be considered during the design stage of new infrastructure in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering)
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