Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage

A special issue of Information (ISSN 2078-2489). This special issue belongs to the section "Information Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 20977

Special Issue Editor


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Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: satellite and deep space telecommunications; radio propagation; information theory; mathematics of alphabetical texts
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cultural heritage is known as an invaluable asset of human beings, which portrays our achievements over the centuries. The identification and conservation of cultural heritage has always been a challenge for the populations called to manage it. Experts have attempted to exploit any possible method to fulfill this aim. With the development of humanity and invention of new tools and technologies, the concept of conservation of cultural heritage has changed considerably. New technologies such as computers and digital tools have opened new windows and bestowed new opportunities in the process of conservation of cultural heritage.

In this Special Issue, we focus on techniques and data analytics methods that have been adopted, or could be adopted, in the domain of cultural heritage. This Special Issue invites the submission of original and unpublished research articles on topics related to techniques and data concerning cultural heritage.

Prof. Emilio Matricciani
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dating of cultural heritage artifacts
  • data mining
  • data processing
  • mathematical methods and techniques
  • remote sensing of archeological sites and artifacts

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 6156 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of the Bayesian Regularization and Levenberg–Marquardt Training Algorithms in Neural Networks for Small Datasets: A Metrics Prediction of Neolithic Laminar Artefacts
by Maurizio Troiano, Eugenio Nobile, Fabio Mangini, Marco Mastrogiuseppe, Cecilia Conati Barbaro and Fabrizio Frezza
Information 2024, 15(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/info15050270 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
This study aims to present a comparative analysis of the Bayesian regularization backpropagation and Levenberg–Marquardt training algorithms in neural networks for the metrics prediction of damaged archaeological artifacts, of which the state of conservation is often fragmented due to different reasons, such as [...] Read more.
This study aims to present a comparative analysis of the Bayesian regularization backpropagation and Levenberg–Marquardt training algorithms in neural networks for the metrics prediction of damaged archaeological artifacts, of which the state of conservation is often fragmented due to different reasons, such as ritual, use wear, or post-depositional processes. The archaeological artifacts, specifically laminar blanks (so-called blades), come from different sites located in the Southern Levant that belong to the Pre-Pottery B Neolithic (PPNB) (10,100/9500–400 cal B.P.). This paper shows the entire procedure of the analysis, from its normalization of the dataset to its comparative analysis and overfitting problem resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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18 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Public Opinions Regarding Virtual Tourism in the Context of COVID-19: Unidirectional vs. 360-Degree Videos
by Hoc Huynh Thai, Petr Silhavy, Sandeep Kumar Dey, Sinh Duc Hoang, Zdenka Prokopova and Radek Silhavy
Information 2023, 14(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/info14010011 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
Over the last few years, more and more people have been using YouTube videos to experience virtual reality travel. Many individuals utilize comments to voice their ideas or criticize a subject on YouTube. The number of replies to 360-degree and unidirectional videos is [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, more and more people have been using YouTube videos to experience virtual reality travel. Many individuals utilize comments to voice their ideas or criticize a subject on YouTube. The number of replies to 360-degree and unidirectional videos is enormous and might differ between the two kinds of videos. This presents the problem of efficiently evaluating user opinions with respect to which type of video will be more appealing to viewers, positive comments, or interest. This paper aims to study SentiStrength-SE and SenticNet7 techniques for sentiment analysis. The findings demonstrate that the sentiment analysis obtained from SenticNet7 outperforms that from SentiStrength-SE. It is revealed through the sentiment analysis that sentiment disparity among the viewers of 360-degree and unidirectional videos is low and insignificant. Furthermore, the study shows that unidirectional videos garnered the most traffic during COVID-19 induced global travel bans. The study elaborates on the capacity of unidirectional videos on travel and the implications for industry and academia. The second aim of this paper also employs a Convolutional Neural Network and Random Forest for sentiment analysis of YouTube viewers’ comments, where the sentiment analysis output by SenticNet7 is used as actual values. Cross-validation with 10-folds is employed in the proposed models. The findings demonstrate that the max-voting technique outperforms compared with an individual fold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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22 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
An Examination of Classical Art Impact and Popularity through Social Media Emotion Analysis of Art Memes and Museum Posts
by Sofia Vlachou and Michail Panagopoulos
Information 2022, 13(10), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/info13100468 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3953
Abstract
On Instagram, we have all seen memes. Honestly, what would you do if you encountered a meme in a museum? The purpose of the study is to evaluate the nexus between posts uploaded by museum visitors and emotions, as well as the popularity [...] Read more.
On Instagram, we have all seen memes. Honestly, what would you do if you encountered a meme in a museum? The purpose of the study is to evaluate the nexus between posts uploaded by museum visitors and emotions, as well as the popularity of artworks and memes. We gathered N = 4.526 (N = 1.222 for memes and N = 3.304 for museum posts) entire posts using API. We selected the total number of likes, comments, frequency, nwords, and text emotions as indicators for several supervised machine learning tasks. Moreover, we used a ranking algorithm to measure meme and artwork popularity. Our experiments revealed the most prevalent emotions in both the memes dataset and museum posts dataset. The ranking task showed the most popular meme and museum post, respectively, that can influence the aesthetic experience and its popularity. This study provided further insight into the social media sphere that has had a significant effect on the aesthetic experience of museums and artwork’s popularity. As a final point, we anticipate that our outcomes will serve as a springboard for future studies in social media, art, and cultural analytics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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14 pages, 3270 KiB  
Article
Neutron-Enhanced Information on the Laboratory Characterization of Ancient Egyptian Leathers: Hydration and Preservation Status
by Giovanni Romanelli, Carla Andreani, Enrico Ferraris, Christian Greco, Salima Ikram, Silvia Licoccia, Giuseppe Paladini, Stewart F. Parker, Enrico Preziosi, Roberto Senesi, Lucy Skinner, André J. Veldmeijer, Valentina Venuti and Valentina Turina
Information 2022, 13(10), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/info13100467 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1661
Abstract
The Museo Egizio’s collection contains 200 precious and unique leather artifacts belonging to different historical periods. The materials used during the tanning and curing procedures affect the chemical and elemental composition of the surface of the samples as well as their preservation status, [...] Read more.
The Museo Egizio’s collection contains 200 precious and unique leather artifacts belonging to different historical periods. The materials used during the tanning and curing procedures affect the chemical and elemental composition of the surface of the samples as well as their preservation status, specifically through the hydration level within the bulk. Here we provide an experimental characterization of a series of samples from Museo Egizio that document an extensive denaturation phenomenon (gelatinization), by combining non-destructive techniques including surface probes (X-ray fluorescence, Raman scattering, and scanning electron microscopy enhanced by X-ray energy spectroscopy) and neutron-based bulk techniques (inelastic and deep-inelastic neutron scattering). Results show partial dehydration of the samples in the bulk, affecting the morphology of their surface, the presence of potassium alum, and iron oxides, as well as phosphates and hydroxides related to the tanning and curing procedures. Finally, we briefly discuss the need for a versatile and adaptable software package that is capable of combining quantitative analyses with complementary techniques including morphological, elemental, and chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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20 pages, 3012 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Temperature Effects on the Natural Linen Aging of the Turin Shroud
by Liberato De Caro, César Barta, Giulio Fanti, Emilio Matricciani, Teresa Sibillano and Cinzia Giannini
Information 2022, 13(10), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/info13100458 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3367
Abstract
In 2021, Wide-angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) was applied to a sample of the Turin Shroud as a new method for dating ancient linen threads by inspecting their structural degradation. The major result of the research was to estimate the natural aging of the [...] Read more.
In 2021, Wide-angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) was applied to a sample of the Turin Shroud as a new method for dating ancient linen threads by inspecting their structural degradation. The major result of the research was to estimate the natural aging of the linen of the Shroud, through which it was found to be compatible with the hypothesis of a 2000-year-old relic, and not a medieval fabric. The present work regards the theoretical natural aging of the linen versus different alleged historical–geographical paths of the Shroud through cities where the presence of icons of Jesus Christ is attested. The theoretical results of the natural aging of the Shroud, calculated for the year 2021, agree extremely well with the experimental results for at least one alleged path. The results also show that if the Shroud were medieval and kept in Europe for 7 centuries, natural aging that is one order of magnitude less than that measured by WAXS would have resulted. Today, the Shroud is kept in a reliquary with a controlled atmosphere, at 19~20 °C temperature, and 50% relative humidity. These values are shown to be unsuitable for maintaining the depolymerization of the cellulose at a level that is sufficiently low enough to preserve the image visible on the Shroud for a long time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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28 pages, 5743 KiB  
Article
Linguistic Mathematical Relationships Saved or Lost in Translating Texts: Extension of the Statistical Theory of Translation and Its Application to the New Testament
by Emilio Matricciani
Information 2022, 13(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/info13010020 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to extend the general theory of translation to texts written in the same language and show some possible applications. The main result shows that the mutual mathematical relationships of texts in a language have been saved or [...] Read more.
The purpose of the paper is to extend the general theory of translation to texts written in the same language and show some possible applications. The main result shows that the mutual mathematical relationships of texts in a language have been saved or lost in translating them into another language and consequently texts have been mathematically distorted. To make objective comparisons, we have defined a “likeness index”—based on probability and communication theory of noisy binary digital channels-and have shown that it can reveal similarities and differences of texts. We have applied the extended theory to the New Testament translations and have assessed how much the mutual mathematical relationships present in the original Greek texts have been saved or lost in 36 languages. To avoid the inaccuracy, due to the small sample size from which the input data (regression lines) are calculated, we have adopted a “renormalization” based on Monte Carlo simulations whose results we consider as “experimental”. In general, we have found that in many languages/translations the original linguistic relationships have been lost and texts mathematically distorted. The theory can be applied to texts translated by machines. Because the theory deals with linear regression lines, the concepts of signal-to-noise-ratio and likenss index can be applied any time a scientific/technical problem involves two or more linear regression lines, therefore it is not limited to linguistic variables but it is universal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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19 pages, 6144 KiB  
Article
Service Facilities in Heritage Tourism: Identification and Planning Based on Space Syntax
by Min Wang, Jianqiang Yang, Wei-Ling Hsu, Chunmei Zhang and Hsin-Lung Liu
Information 2021, 12(12), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/info12120504 - 5 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3608
Abstract
Improving the development level of tourism service facilities in historic areas of old cities and realizing the sustainable tourism are important strategies for urban historical protection, economic development, and cultural rejuvenation. Districts at different tourism development stages show different characteristics of tourism service [...] Read more.
Improving the development level of tourism service facilities in historic areas of old cities and realizing the sustainable tourism are important strategies for urban historical protection, economic development, and cultural rejuvenation. Districts at different tourism development stages show different characteristics of tourism service facilities. This study collects location-based service data and uses space syntax to identify the correlation between the distribution of tourism service facilities and street networks, which helps decision-makers to optimize the spatial layout of tourism facilities in the planning of historic areas. Taking the southern historic area of Nanjing, China, as an example, this is an area with a rich collection of cultural heritage and many historic districts, and the study reveals that the areas with strongest street agglomeration and best accessibility, as well as the districts with most mature tourism development, are the core of the tourism facilities. The agglomeration of transportation and accommodation facilities should be set at the traffic nodes as much as possible due to the highest correlation with the street network. Instead, the entertainment, catering, and shopping facilities can be set in the nontraffic node areas under the premise of ensuring good traffic accessibility owing to the insignificantly relationship with the street network. The research results can be used as an important reference for urban decision-makers regarding the planning of historic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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13 pages, 4229 KiB  
Article
GPR Investigation at the Archaeological Site of Le Cesine, Lecce, Italy
by Emanuele Colica, Antonella Antonazzo, Rita Auriemma, Luigi Coluccia, Ilaria Catapano, Giovanni Ludeno, Sebastiano D’Amico and Raffaele Persico
Information 2021, 12(10), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/info12100412 - 8 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
In this contribution, we present some results achieved in the archaeological site of Le Cesine, close to Lecce, in southern Italy. The investigations have been performed in a site close to the Adriatic Sea, only slightly explored up to now, and where the [...] Read more.
In this contribution, we present some results achieved in the archaeological site of Le Cesine, close to Lecce, in southern Italy. The investigations have been performed in a site close to the Adriatic Sea, only slightly explored up to now, and where the presence of an ancient Roman harbour is alleged on the basis of remains visible above all under the current sea level. This measurement campaign has been performed in the framework of a short-term scientific mission (STSM) performed in the framework of the European Cost Action 17131 (acronym SAGA), and has been aimed to identify possible points where future localized excavation might and hopefully will be performed in the next few years. Both a traditional elaboration and an innovative data processing based on a linear inverse scattering model have been performed on the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Data Analysis in Cultural Heritage)
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