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The Emerging Role of Quantum Sciences and Radiation Biology in Biomedical Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 16105

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Soltofts Plads 228A, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Interests: bioresonance; molecular biology; genomics; bioinformatics; AMR—antimicrobial resistance; stem cell biology and regenerative medicine; quantum electrodynamics (coherent domains); new science of water; water structuring devices

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Guest Editor
Department of Biosciences & Medical Biology, University of Salzburg, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
Interests: non-ionizing radiation (ELF to THz radiation); biophotonics (ultraweak photon emissions from living samples); quantum-electrodynamics (coherence); peculiar properties of water (coherence domains); ion cyclotron resonance (Zhadin effect)

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Guest Editor
ICEMS-CIRPS (Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile), 00038 Rome, Italy
Interests: quantum molecular physics of water; water and heavywater interaction with electromagnetic fields; quantum electrodynamics; thermodynamics of interaction between electromagnetic fields and water; water solvation dynamics; water spectroscopy; electromagnetic interference with respect to viruses; prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells; solitons interaction in living organisms; electromagnetic fields and regenerative medicine; AMR—antibiotic microbial resistance; non-ionizing radiation (NIR) and ionizing radiation (IR) impact on living cells; criteria for NIR exposure limits determination for people and workers; carcinogenicity of NIR and IR in combination with carcinogenic pollutants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The discovery of the quantum properties of water and their origins in the interactions between electromagnetic fields and condensed matter provided a new perspective for investigating the detailed nature of life and its thermodynamics. Highlighting the relationship between the coherent and the uncoherent fraction of water, one responsible for life (negentropy) and the other for the displacement of free energy, it is now possible to understand the mutual exchange between coherent and uncoherent sides of water and the emerging of life from such a mutual game. Early applications of such knowledge in biomedical sciences are encouraging and they suggest that the secret of life lies in this mutual game. The aim of the present Special Issue is to collect and classify the findings of both biochemical and biomedical applications, from the arising of electric currents in water due to the complex dynamics of the Liboff-Zhadin effect, to evidence of the influence of cyclotron frequencies in the maturation of cells, as well as in the modulation of the antibiotic resistance of bacteria and the malignancy in cancer proliferation. Additionally, another aim is to correlate such unexpected results with the fundamentals of water and its interaction with non-ionizing radiation. Paraphrasing Albert Szent Györgyi, it is time to pay attention to the only two matrixes of life that are not considered by classical, natural sciences: water and electromagnetic fields!

Dr. Nikolaj Sorgenfrei Blom
Dr. Pierre Madl
Dr. Livio Giuliani
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • quantum electrodynamics
  • negentropy and quantum physics in life
  • impact of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on living organisms
  • coherence in water
  • thermodynamics of water
  • quantum sciences and biomedical applications
  • ion cyclotron resonance

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 2234 KiB  
Article
Holographic Brain Theory: Super-Radiance, Memory Capacity and Control Theory
by Akihiro Nishiyama, Shigenori Tanaka, Jack A. Tuszynski and Roumiana Tsenkova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042399 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 930
Abstract
We investigate Quantum Electrodynamics corresponding to the holographic brain theory introduced by Pribram to describe memory in the human brain. First, we derive a super-radiance solution in Quantum Electrodynamics with non-relativistic charged bosons (a model of molecular conformational states of water) for coherent [...] Read more.
We investigate Quantum Electrodynamics corresponding to the holographic brain theory introduced by Pribram to describe memory in the human brain. First, we derive a super-radiance solution in Quantum Electrodynamics with non-relativistic charged bosons (a model of molecular conformational states of water) for coherent light sources of holograms. Next, we estimate memory capacity of a brain neocortex, and adopt binary holograms to manipulate optical information. Finally, we introduce a control theory to manipulate holograms involving biological water’s molecular conformational states. We show how a desired waveform in holography is achieved in a hierarchical model using numerical simulations. Full article
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20 pages, 4503 KiB  
Article
Molecular Signal Transfer of Highly Diluted Antibodies to Interferon-Gamma Regarding Kind, Time, and Distance of Exposition
by Igor Jerman, Linda Ogrizek, Vesna Periček Krapež and Luka Jan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010656 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Physicochemical examinations of very high dilution (UHD) solutions subjected to certain physical factors (such as shaking) are becoming more frequent and are increasingly producing conclusive results. A much less studied phenomenon is the transfer of molecular information (i.e., UHD signals of dilute substances) [...] Read more.
Physicochemical examinations of very high dilution (UHD) solutions subjected to certain physical factors (such as shaking) are becoming more frequent and are increasingly producing conclusive results. A much less studied phenomenon is the transfer of molecular information (i.e., UHD signals of dilute substances) from one liquid to another without an intermediate liquid phase. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of such a transfer of the UHD signal from the UHD solutions to the receiver solution, in particular, if the molecular source used in the donor solutions was the biologically active antibodies to interferon-gamma molecule. We were especially interested in how the transfer of the UHD signal is affected by the time of exposure of the receiver to the donor, the distance between the two, and how the transfer is affected by activation (striking) versus exposure alone. Signal transfer was evaluated by differential measurements of electrical conductivity, ORP, pH, and UV/VIS spectroscopy of the exposed liquid. The results showed that activation strongly influences signal transfer and that this can be compensated to some extent by prolonged direct exposure. In principle, exposure time has a positive effect on signal transfer. Interestingly, the results of different distances between the donor and receiver showed similar changes in the parameters in the range of 0–4 cm, as estimated in this study. While the study mainly confirms the two hypotheses, it also raises a number of new questions and provides clues for further research. Full article
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23 pages, 5681 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Study of the Molecular Signal Transfer of Ultra-High Diluted Antibodies to Interferon-Gamma
by Igor Jerman, Linda Ogrizek, Vesna Periček Krapež and Luka Jan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 11961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241511961 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Physicochemical investigations of (UHD) solutions subjected to certain physical factors (like shaking) are becoming more frequent and increasingly yielding convincing results. A much less studied phenomenon is the transfer of molecular information (UHD signals) from one fluid to another without an intermediate liquid [...] Read more.
Physicochemical investigations of (UHD) solutions subjected to certain physical factors (like shaking) are becoming more frequent and increasingly yielding convincing results. A much less studied phenomenon is the transfer of molecular information (UHD signals) from one fluid to another without an intermediate liquid phase. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of such a UHD signal transfer from UHD solutions into the receiver fluid, especially when the molecular source used in solutions was a biologically active molecule of antibodies to interferon-gamma. We used physicochemical measurements and UV spectroscopy for this purpose. The results of this large pilot study confirm the possibility of such a transfer and a rough similarity to the original UHD signal donors, the weaker signal detection relative to the original donor fluids, and that exposure time improves the effect. Full article
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21 pages, 4160 KiB  
Article
Highly Diluted Glyphosate Mitigates Its Effects on Artemia salina: Physicochemical Implications
by Mirian Yaeko Dias de Oliveira Nagai, Suham Nowrooz Mohammad, Andreia Adelaide G. Pinto, Ednar Nascimento Coimbra, Giovani Bravin Peres, Ivana Barbosa Suffredini, Maria Martha Bernardi, Alexander L. Tournier, Igor Jerman, Steven John Cartwright and Leoni Villano Bonamin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119478 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture but can present chronic toxicity in low concentrations. Artemia salina is a common bio-indicator of ecotoxicity; it was used herein as a model to evaluate the effect of highly diluted-succussed glyphosate (potentized glyphosate) in glyphosate-based [...] Read more.
Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture but can present chronic toxicity in low concentrations. Artemia salina is a common bio-indicator of ecotoxicity; it was used herein as a model to evaluate the effect of highly diluted-succussed glyphosate (potentized glyphosate) in glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) exposed living systems. Artemia salina cysts were kept in artificial seawater with 0.02% glyphosate (corresponding to 10% lethal concentration or LC10) under constant oxygenation, luminosity, and controlled temperature, to promote hatching in 48 h. Cysts were treated with 1% (v/v) potentized glyphosate in different dilution levels (Gly 6 cH, 30 cH, 200 cH) prepared the day before according to homeopathic techniques, using GBH from the same batch. Controls were unchallenged cysts, and cysts treated with succussed water or potentized vehicle. After 48 h, the number of born nauplii per 100 µL, nauplii vitality, and morphology were evaluated. The remaining seawater was used for physicochemical analyses using solvatochromic dyes. In a second set of experiments, Gly 6 cH treated cysts were observed under different degrees of salinity (50 to 100% seawater) and GBH concentrations (zero to LC 50); hatching and nauplii activity were recorded and analyzed using the ImageJ 1.52, plug-in Trackmate. The treatments were performed blind, and the codes were revealed after statistical analysis. Gly 6 cH increased nauplii vitality (p = 0.01) and improved the healthy/defective nauplii ratio (p = 0.005) but delayed hatching (p = 0.02). Overall, these results suggest Gly 6cH treatment promotes the emergence of the more GBH-resistant phenotype in the nauplii population. Also, Gly 6cH delays hatching, another useful survival mechanism in the presence of stress. Hatching arrest was most marked in 80% seawater when exposed to glyphosate at LC10. Water samples treated with Gly 6 cH showed specific interactions with solvatochromic dyes, mainly Coumarin 7, such that it appears to be a potential physicochemical marker for Gly 6 cH. In short, Gly 6 cH treatment appears to protect the Artemia salina population exposed to GBH at low concentrations. Full article
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16 pages, 3547 KiB  
Article
50 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure Inhibited Spontaneous Movement of Zebrafish Larvae through ROS-Mediated syn2a Expression
by Yixin Guo, Yiti Fu and Wenjun Sun
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087576 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exists widely in public and occupational environments. However, its potential adverse effects and the underlying mechanism on nervous system, especially behavior are still poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish embryos (including a transfected synapsin IIa (syn2a) overexpression [...] Read more.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exists widely in public and occupational environments. However, its potential adverse effects and the underlying mechanism on nervous system, especially behavior are still poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish embryos (including a transfected synapsin IIa (syn2a) overexpression plasmid) at 3 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) with a series of intensities (100, 200, 400 and 800 μT, respectively) for 1 h or 24 h every day for 5 days. Results showed that, although MF exposure did not affect the basic development parameters including hatching rate, mortality and malformation rate, yet MF at 200 μT could significantly induce spontaneous movement (SM) hypoactivity in zebrafish larvae. Histological examination presented morphological abnormalities of the brain such as condensed cell nucleus and cytoplasm, increased intercellular space. Moreover, exposure to MF at 200 μT inhibited syn2a transcription and expression, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level as well. Overexpression of syn2a could effectively rescue MF-induced SM hypoactivity in zebrafish. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) could not only recover syn2a protein expression which was weakened by MF exposure, but also abolish MF-induced SM hypoactivity. However, syn2a overexpression did not affect MF-increased ROS. Taken together, the findings suggested that exposure to a 50-Hz MF inhibited spontaneous movement of zebrafish larvae via ROS-mediated syn2a expression in a nonlinear manner. Full article
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17 pages, 1925 KiB  
Article
Effects of Ultra-Weak Fractal Electromagnetic Signals on Malassezia furfur
by Pierre Madl, Roberto Germano, Alberto Tedeschi and Herbert Lettner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 4099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24044099 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Malassezia spp. are dimorphic, lipophilic fungi that are part of the normal human cutaneous commensal microbiome. However, under adverse conditions, these fungi can be involved in various cutaneous diseases. In this study, we analysed the effect of ultra-weak fractal electromagnetic (uwf-EMF) field exposure [...] Read more.
Malassezia spp. are dimorphic, lipophilic fungi that are part of the normal human cutaneous commensal microbiome. However, under adverse conditions, these fungi can be involved in various cutaneous diseases. In this study, we analysed the effect of ultra-weak fractal electromagnetic (uwf-EMF) field exposure (12.6 nT covering 0.5 to 20 kHz) on the growth dynamics and invasiveness of M. furfur. The ability to modulate inflammation and innate immunity in normal human keratinocytes was also investigated. Using a microbiological assay, it was possible to demonstrate that, under the influence of uwf-EMF, the invasiveness of M. furfur was drastically reduced (d = 2.456, p < 0.001), while at the same time, its growth dynamic after 72 h having been in contact with HaCaT cells both without (d = 0.211, p = 0.390) and with (d = 0.118, p = 0.438) uwf-EM exposure, were hardly affected. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that a uwf-EMF exposure is able to modulate human-β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) in treated keratinocytes and at the same time reduce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes. The findings suggest that the underlying principle of action is hormetic in nature and that this method might be an adjunctive therapeutic tool to modulate the inflammatory properties of Malassezia in related cutaneous diseases. The underlying principle of action becomes understandable by means of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Given that living systems consist mainly of water and within the framework of QED, this water, as a biphasic system, provides the basis for electromagnetic coupling. The oscillatory properties of water dipoles modulated by weak electromagnetic stimuli not only affect biochemical processes, but also pave the way for a more general understanding of the observed nonthermal effects in biota. Full article
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20 pages, 2259 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Bacteriophage Behavior of a Human RNA Virus, SARS-CoV-2, through the Integrated Approach of Immunofluorescence Microscopy, Proteomics and D-Amino Acid Quantification
by Carlo Brogna, Vincenzo Costanzo, Barbara Brogna, Domenico Rocco Bisaccia, Giancarlo Brogna, Marino Giuliano, Luigi Montano, Valentina Viduto, Simone Cristoni, Mark Fabrowski and Marina Piscopo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043929 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4988
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2, one of the human RNA viruses, is widely studied around the world. Significant efforts have been made to understand its molecular mechanisms of action and how it interacts with epithelial cells and the human microbiome since it has also been observed in [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2, one of the human RNA viruses, is widely studied around the world. Significant efforts have been made to understand its molecular mechanisms of action and how it interacts with epithelial cells and the human microbiome since it has also been observed in gut microbiome bacteria. Many studies emphasize the importance of surface immunity and also that the mucosal system is critical in the interaction of the pathogen with the cells of the oral, nasal, pharyngeal, and intestinal epithelium. Recent studies have shown how bacteria in the human gut microbiome produce toxins capable of altering the classical mechanisms of interaction of viruses with surface cells. This paper presents a simple approach to highlight the initial behavior of a novel pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, on the human microbiome. The immunofluorescence microscopy technique can be combined with spectral counting performed at mass spectrometry of viral peptides in bacterial cultures, along with identification of the presence of D-amino acids within viral peptides in bacterial cultures and in patients’ blood. This approach makes it possible to establish the possible expression or increase of viral RNA viruses in general and SARS-CoV-2, as discussed in this study, and to determine whether or not the microbiome is involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of the viruses. This novel combined approach can provide information more rapidly, avoiding the biases of virological diagnosis and identifying whether a virus can interact with, bind to, and infect bacteria and epithelial cells. Understanding whether some viruses have bacteriophagic behavior allows vaccine therapies to be focused either toward certain toxins produced by bacteria in the microbiome or toward finding inert or symbiotic viral mutations with the human microbiome. This new knowledge opens a scenario on a possible future vaccine: the probiotics vaccine, engineered with the right resistance to viruses that attach to both the epithelium human surface and gut microbiome bacteria. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 4590 KiB  
Review
What Is the “Hydrogen Bond”? A QFT-QED Perspective
by Paolo Renati and Pierre Madl
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(7), 3846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25073846 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 354
Abstract
In this paper we would like to highlight the problems of conceiving the “Hydrogen Bond” (HB) as a real short-range, directional, electrostatic, attractive interaction and to reframe its nature through the non-approximated view of condensed matter offered by a Quantum Electro-Dynamic (QED) perspective. [...] Read more.
In this paper we would like to highlight the problems of conceiving the “Hydrogen Bond” (HB) as a real short-range, directional, electrostatic, attractive interaction and to reframe its nature through the non-approximated view of condensed matter offered by a Quantum Electro-Dynamic (QED) perspective. We focus our attention on water, as the paramount case to show the effectiveness of this 40-year-old theoretical background, which represents water as a two-fluid system (where one of the two phases is coherent). The HB turns out to be the result of the electromagnetic field gradient in the coherent phase of water, whose vacuum level is lower than in the non-coherent (gas-like) fraction. In this way, the HB can be properly considered, i.e., no longer as a “dipolar force” between molecules, but as the phenomenological effect of their collective thermodynamic tendency to occupy a lower ground state, compatible with temperature and pressure. This perspective allows to explain many “anomalous” behaviours of water and to understand why the calculated energy associated with the HB should change when considering two molecules (water-dimer), or the liquid state, or the different types of ice. The appearance of a condensed, liquid, phase at room temperature is indeed the consequence of the boson condensation as described in the context of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). For a more realistic and authentic description of water, condensed matter and living systems, the transition from a still semi-classical Quantum Mechanical (QM) view in the first quantization to a Quantum Field Theory (QFT) view embedded in the second quantization is advocated. Full article
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32 pages, 5109 KiB  
Review
Quantum Electrodynamics Coherence and Hormesis: Foundations of Quantum Biology
by Pierre Madl and Paolo Renati
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(18), 14003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241814003 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Background: “Quantum biology” (QB) is a promising theoretical approach addressing questions about how living systems are able to unfold dynamics that cannot be solved on a chemical basis or seem to violate some fundamental laws (e.g., thermodynamic yield, morphogenesis, adaptation, autopoiesis, memory, teleology, [...] Read more.
Background: “Quantum biology” (QB) is a promising theoretical approach addressing questions about how living systems are able to unfold dynamics that cannot be solved on a chemical basis or seem to violate some fundamental laws (e.g., thermodynamic yield, morphogenesis, adaptation, autopoiesis, memory, teleology, biosemiotics). Current “quantum” approaches in biology are still very basic and “corpuscular”, as these rely on a semi-classical and approximated view. We review important considerations of theory and experiments of the recent past in the field of condensed matter, water, physics of living systems, and biochemistry to join them by creating a consistent picture applicable for life sciences. Within quantum field theory (QFT), the field (also in the matter field) has the primacy whereby the particle, or “quantum”, is a derivative of it. The phase of the oscillation and not the number of quanta is the most important observable of the system. Thermodynamics of open systems, symmetry breaking, fractals, and quantum electrodynamics (QED) provide a consistent picture of condensed matter, liquid water, and living matter. Coherence, resonance-driven biochemistry, and ion cyclotron resonance (Liboff–Zhadin effect) emerge as crucial hormetic phenomena. We offer a paradigmatic approach when dealing with living systems in order to enrich and ultimately better understand the implications of current research activities in the field of life sciences. Full article
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