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Dental Biomaterials: From Fundamental Principles to Clinical Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 49271

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The history of use of dental materials and biomaterials dates back to the BC era, but the real advances in this field have occurred since the 19th century, due to the invention and understanding of new materials. These advances have been due to the continuous quest for new materials and new technologies used in the design and fabrication of new and novel materials, and, in particular, the understanding of new materials with innovative clinical applications. These have only been possible due to interdisciplinary research of a translational nature, where physicians, surgeons, dentists, and materials scientists work together for a common and targeted goal. It is important for clinicians to understand the needs of the patient, who translates these needs for the materials scientist to develop an implant to improve the quality of life for the patient.

Once the chemical, physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the materials are well understood, then these materials can be tailored to provide specific clinical applications. Developments in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have only been possible due to work from this partnership. This Special Issue will provide an excellent forum to bring together different communities and publish research of a high caliber, which will be beneficial to healthcare.

I would like to take this opportunity to invite you to submit your manuscript to the Special Issue on “Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials” in IJMS, which will surely act as an excellent vehicle for the dissemination of your research. We will accept reviews and original scientific papers in this Special Issue, and very much look forward to your valuable contribution.

Prof. Dr. Mary Anne Melo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • dental materials
  • biomaterials
  • polymers
  • bioceramics
  • nanomaterials
  • nano-technology
  • fibers glass ionomers
  • bioactive glasses
  • biocomposites
  • dental composites
  • characterization
  • properties of dental and biomaterials dental applications
  • dental technology
  • GTR membranes
  • restorative materials
  • dental implants
  • dental tissue engineering
  • scaffold for dental tissue engineering
  • oral biology
  • oral cancers
  • drug delivery

Published Papers (25 papers)

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18 pages, 19014 KiB  
Article
The Cracking Behavior of Two Dental Composite Materials Validated through Multifractal Analyzes
by Irina Nica, Florin Nedeff, Valentin Nedeff, Cristina Popa, Ștefan Lucian Toma, Maricel Agop and Decebal Vasincu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076493 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze, both experimentally and theoretically, the mechanical behavior of two types of composite materials used in restoring dental integrity. The samples of each composite resin, namely Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze, both experimentally and theoretically, the mechanical behavior of two types of composite materials used in restoring dental integrity. The samples of each composite resin, namely Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), were experimentally analyzed by determining their compressive strength and fracture behavior. The fractured fragments of the samples were subjected to surface evaluation by scanning electron microscopy. The compressive stress—compressive strain dependencies revealed stronger cracking of the Filtek Supreme XT composite than Filtek Z250 prior to fracture. Theoretically, the evaluation was made by means of holographic implementations of such types of composite materials. A Hooke-type equation in a differential form is presented, which links the proposed theoretical model with the experimentally obtained data. Full article
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14 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Osteogenic Potential of Autologous Dentin Graft Compared with Bovine Xenograft Mixed with Autologous Bone in the Esthetic Zone: Radiographic, Histologic and Immunohistochemical Evaluation
by Matko Oguić, Marija Čandrlić, Matej Tomas, Bruno Vidaković, Marko Blašković, Ana Terezija Jerbić Radetić, Sanja Zoričić Cvek, Davor Kuiš and Olga Cvijanović Peloza
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076440 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial reports clinical, radiographic, histologic and immunohistochemical results of autologous dentin graft (ADG) and its comparison with a mixture of bovine xenograft with autologous bone (BX+AB). After tooth extraction in the esthetic zone of maxilla, the alveolar ridge [...] Read more.
This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial reports clinical, radiographic, histologic and immunohistochemical results of autologous dentin graft (ADG) and its comparison with a mixture of bovine xenograft with autologous bone (BX+AB). After tooth extraction in the esthetic zone of maxilla, the alveolar ridge of 20 patients in the test group was augmented with ADG, while 17 patients in the control group received the combination of BX+AB. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed before tooth extraction and after 4 months when a total of 22 bone biopsies were harvested and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Radiological analysis showed comparable results of bone dimension loss in both groups. Quantitative histologic analysis showed comparable results with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Immunohistochemical staining with TNF-α and BMP-4 antibodies revealed immunopositivity in both groups. A statistically significant difference between the groups was found in the intensity of TNF-α in the area of newly formed bone (p = 0.0003) and around remaining biomaterial particles (p = 0.0027), and in the intensity of BMP-4 in the area around biomaterial particles (p = 0.0001). Overall, ADG showed biocompatibility and achieved successful bone regeneration in the esthetic zone of the maxilla similar to BX+AB. Full article
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20 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
Dental Material Selection for the Additive Manufacturing of Removable Complete Dentures (RCD)
by Dmitry I. Grachev, Evgeny A. Chizhmakov, Dmitry Yu. Stepanov, Dmitry G. Buslovich, Ibragim V. Khulaev, Aslan V. Deshev, Levon G. Kirakosyan, Anatoly S. Arutyunov, Svetlana Yu. Kardanova, Konstantin S. Panin and Sergey V. Panin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076432 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
This research addresses the development of a formalized approach to dental material selection (DMS) in manufacturing removable complete dentures (RDC). Three types of commercially available polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) grades, processed by an identical Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D printer, were compared. In this [...] Read more.
This research addresses the development of a formalized approach to dental material selection (DMS) in manufacturing removable complete dentures (RDC). Three types of commercially available polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) grades, processed by an identical Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D printer, were compared. In this way, a combination of mechanical, tribological, technological, microbiological, and economic factors was assessed. The material indices were calculated to compare dental materials for a set of functional parameters related to feedstock cost. However, this did not solve the problem of simultaneous consideration of all the material indices, including their significance. The developed DMS procedure employs the extended VIKOR method, based on the analysis of interval quantitative estimations, which allowed the carrying out of a fully fledged analysis of alternatives. The proposed approach has the potential to enhance the efficiency of prosthetic treatment by optimizing the DMS procedure, taking into consideration the prosthesis design and its production route. Full article
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17 pages, 50048 KiB  
Article
Histological and Histomorphometric Evaluation of Implanted Photodynamic Active Biomaterials for Periodontal Bone Regeneration in an Animal Study
by Bernd Sigusch, Stefan Kranz, Andreas Clemm von Hohenberg, Sabine Wehle, André Guellmar, Dorika Steen, Albrecht Berg, Ute Rabe, Markus Heyder and Markus Reise
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076200 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Recently, our group developed two different polymeric biomaterials with photodynamic antimicrobial surface activity for periodontal bone regeneration. The aim of the present study was to analyze the biocompatibility and osseointegration of these materials in vivo. Two biomaterials based on urethane dimethacrylate (BioM1) and [...] Read more.
Recently, our group developed two different polymeric biomaterials with photodynamic antimicrobial surface activity for periodontal bone regeneration. The aim of the present study was to analyze the biocompatibility and osseointegration of these materials in vivo. Two biomaterials based on urethane dimethacrylate (BioM1) and tri-armed oligoester-urethane methacrylate (BioM2) that additionally contained ß-tricalcium phosphate and the photosensitizer mTHPC (meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin) were implanted in non-critical size bone defects in the femur (n = 16) and tibia (n = 8) of eight female domestic sheep. Bone specimens were harvested and histomorphometrically analyzed after 12 months. BioM1 degraded to a lower extent which resulted in a mean remnant square size of 17.4 mm², while 12.2 mm² was estimated for BioM2 (p = 0.007). For BioM1, a total percentage of new formed bone by 30.3% was found which was significant higher compared to BioM2 (8.4%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, BioM1 was afflicted by significant lower soft tissue formation (3.3%) as compared to BioM2 (29.5%). Additionally, a bone-to-biomaterial ratio of 81.9% was detected for BioM1, while 8.5% was recorded for BioM2. Implantation of BioM2 caused accumulation of inflammatory cells and led to fibrous encapsulation. BioM1 (photosensitizer-armed urethane dimethacrylate) showed favorable regenerative characteristics and can be recommended for further studies. Full article
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19 pages, 4239 KiB  
Article
A Histologic, Histomorphometric, and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Anorganic Bovine Bone and Injectable Biphasic Calcium Phosphate in Humans: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Matej Tomas, Matej Karl, Marija Čandrlić, Marko Matijević, Martina Juzbašić, Olga Cvijanović Peloza, Ana Terezija Jerbić Radetić, Davor Kuiš, Bruno Vidaković, Zrinka Ivanišević and Željka Perić Kačarević
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065539 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Following trauma, chronic periapical process, or tooth extraction, a large loss of bone volume is noticed during the healing process. To facilitate the placement of dental implants, various surgical procedures are used for an optimal alveolar ridge profile, while maintaining adequate bone dimensions. [...] Read more.
Following trauma, chronic periapical process, or tooth extraction, a large loss of bone volume is noticed during the healing process. To facilitate the placement of dental implants, various surgical procedures are used for an optimal alveolar ridge profile, while maintaining adequate bone dimensions. The main aim of this study was to determine the healing ability (histologically and immunohistologically) of alveolar bone defects during augmentation with two different biomaterials: injectable biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and anorganic bovine bone (ABB). Thirty-eight subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received the tested bone substitute biomaterial (BSB), i.e., BCP (maxresorb inject®), and the second group received an alternative to the gold standard, i.e., ABB (Bio-Oss®). The histopathological, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses gave comparable results for these bone substitute materials in terms of newly formed bone: (BCP: 39.91 ± 8.49%, ABB: 41.73 ± 13.99%), residual biomaterial (BCP: 28.61 ± 11.38%, ABB: 31.72 ± 15.52%), and soft tissue (BCP: 31.49 ± 11.09%, ABB: 26.54 ± 7.25%), with no significant difference found between the groups (p < 0.05, t-test), proving that BCP is equally suitable and successful for alveolar bone regeneration. Full article
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9 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
A Non-Invasive Method for Monitoring Osteogenesis and Osseointegration Using Near-Infrared Fluorescent Imaging: A Model of Maxilla Implantation in Rats
by Chien-Chou Lin, Li-Hsuan Chiu, Walter H. Chang, Cheng-An J. Lin, Ruei-Ming Chen, Yuan-Soon Ho, Chun S. Zuo, Austin Changou, Yue-Fa Cheng and Wen-Fu T. Lai
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 5032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24055032 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Currently, computed tomography and conventional X-ray radiography usually generate a micro-artifact around metal implants. This metal artifact frequently causes false positive or negative diagnoses of bone maturation or pathological peri-implantitis around implants. In an attempt to repair the artifacts, a highly specific nanoprobe, [...] Read more.
Currently, computed tomography and conventional X-ray radiography usually generate a micro-artifact around metal implants. This metal artifact frequently causes false positive or negative diagnoses of bone maturation or pathological peri-implantitis around implants. In an attempt to repair the artifacts, a highly specific nanoprobe, an osteogenic biomarker, and nano-Au-Pamidronate were designed to monitor the osteogenesis. In total, 12 Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study and could be chategorized in 3 groups: 4 rats in the X-ray and CT group, 4 rats in the NIRF group, and 4 rats in the sham group. A titanium alloy screw was implanted in the anterior hard palate. The X-ray, CT, and NIRF images were taken 28 days after implantation. The X-ray showed that the tissue surrounded the implant tightly; however, a gap of metal artifacts was noted around the interface between dental implants and palatal bone. Compared to the CT image, a fluorescence image was noted around the implant site in the NIRF group. Furthermore, the histological implant-bone tissue also exhibited a significant NIRF signal. In conclusion, this novel NIRF molecular imaging system precisely identifies the image loss caused by metal artifacts and can be applied to monitoring bone maturation around orthopedic implants. In addition, by observing the new bone formation, a new principle and timetable for an implant osseointegrated with bone can be established and a new type of implant fixture or surface treatment can be evaluated using this system. Full article
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17 pages, 2278 KiB  
Article
Can Modification with Urethane Derivatives or the Addition of an Anti-Hydrolysis Agent Influence the Hydrolytic Stability of Resin Dental Composite?
by Agata Szczesio-Wlodarczyk, Izabela M. Barszczewska-Rybarek, Marta W. Chrószcz-Porębska, Karolina Kopacz, Jerzy Sokolowski and Kinga Bociong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054336 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Due to the questionable durability of dental restorations, there is a need to increase the lifetime of composite restoration. The present study used diethylene glycol monomethacrylate/4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (DEGMMA/CHMDI), diethylene glycol monomethacrylate/isophorone diisocyanate (DEGMMA/IPDI) monomers, and bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)carbodiimide (CHINOX SA-1) as modifiers of a polymer [...] Read more.
Due to the questionable durability of dental restorations, there is a need to increase the lifetime of composite restoration. The present study used diethylene glycol monomethacrylate/4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (DEGMMA/CHMDI), diethylene glycol monomethacrylate/isophorone diisocyanate (DEGMMA/IPDI) monomers, and bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)carbodiimide (CHINOX SA-1) as modifiers of a polymer matrix (40 wt% urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), 40 wt% bisphenol A ethoxylateddimethacrylate (bis-EMA), and 20 wt% triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)). Flexural strength (FS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), hardness (HV), sorption, and solubility were determined. To assess hydrolytic stability, the materials were tested before and after two aging methods (I-7500 cycles, 5 °C and 55 °C, water and 7 days, 60 °C, 0.1 M NaOH; II-5 days, 55 °C, water and 7 days, 60 °C, 0.1 M NaOH). The aging protocol resulted in no noticeable change (median values were the same as or higher than the control value) or a decrease in the DTS value from 4 to 28%, and a decrease in the FS value by 2 to 14%. The hardness values after aging were more than 60% lower than those of the controls. The used additives did not improve the initial (control) properties of the composite material. The addition of CHINOX SA-1 improved the hydrolytic stability of composites based on UDMA/bis-EMA/TEGDMA monomers, which could potentially extend the service life of the modified material. Extended studies are needed to confirm the possible use of CHINOX SA-1 as an antihydrolysis agent in dental composites. Full article
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13 pages, 7884 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Inhibition of Biofilm Formation on Non-Thermal Plasma-Treated TiO2 Nanotubes
by Min-Kyung Ji, Seon-Ki Lee, Hee-Seon Kim, Gye-Jeong Oh, Hoonsung Cho and Hyun-Pil Lim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043335 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease similar to periodontitis, caused by biofilms formed on the surface of dental implants. This inflammation can spread to bone tissues and result in bone loss. Therefore, it is essential to inhibit the formation of biofilms on the surface [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease similar to periodontitis, caused by biofilms formed on the surface of dental implants. This inflammation can spread to bone tissues and result in bone loss. Therefore, it is essential to inhibit the formation of biofilms on the surface of dental implants. Thus, this study examined the inhibition of biofilm formation by treating TiO2 nanotubes with heat and plasma. Commercially pure titanium specimens were anodized to form TiO2 nanotubes. Heat treatment was performed at 400 and 600 °C, and atmospheric pressure plasma was applied using a plasma generator (PGS-200, Expantech, Suwon, Republic of Korea). Contact angles, surface roughness, surface structure, crystal structure, and chemical compositions were measured to analyze the surface properties of the specimens. The inhibition of biofilm formation was assessed using two methods. The results of this study showed that the heat treatment of TiO2 nanotubes at 400 °C inhibited the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), associated with initial biofilm formation, and that heat treatment of TiO2 nanotubes at 600 °C inhibited the adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), which causes peri-implantitis. Applying plasma to the TiO2 nanotubes heat-treated at 600 °C inhibited the adhesion of S. mutans and P. gingivalis. Full article
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13 pages, 7517 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate on Osseointegration after Implantation into Mouse Maxilla
by Sanako Makishi, Taisuke Watanabe, Kotaro Saito and Hayato Ohshima
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043124 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
In our previous study we established an animal model for immediately placed implants using mice and clarified that there were no significant differences in the chronological healing process at the bone-implant interface between immediately and delayed placed implants blasted with hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate [...] Read more.
In our previous study we established an animal model for immediately placed implants using mice and clarified that there were no significant differences in the chronological healing process at the bone-implant interface between immediately and delayed placed implants blasted with hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (ratio 1:4). This study aimed to analyze the effects of HA/β-TCP on osseointegration at the bone-implant interface after immediately placed implants in the maxillae of 4-week-old mice. Right maxillary first molars were extracted and cavities were prepared with a drill and titanium implants, blasted with or without HA/β-TCP, were placed. The fixation was followed-up at 1, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days after implantation, and the decalcified samples were embedded in paraffin and prepared sections were processed for immunohistochemistry using anti-osteopontin (OPN) and Ki67 antibodies, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase histochemistry. The undecalcified sample elements were quantitatively analyzed by an electron probe microanalyzer. Bone formation occurred on the preexisting bone surface (indirect osteogenesis) and on the implant surface (direct osteogenesis), indicating that osseointegration was achieved until 4 weeks post-operation in both of the groups. In the non-blasted group, the OPN immunoreactivity at the bone-implant interface was significantly decreased compared with the blasted group at week 2 and 4, as well as the rate of direct osteogenesis at week 4. These results suggest that the lack of HA/β-TCP on the implant surface affects the OPN immunoreactivity on the bone-implant interface, resulting in decreased direct osteogenesis following immediately placed titanium implants. Full article
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20 pages, 3837 KiB  
Article
Zirconia Nanoparticles as Reinforcing Agents for Contemporary Dental Luting Cements: Physicochemical Properties and Shear Bond Strength to Monolithic Zirconia
by Anastasia Beketova, Emmanouil-Georgios C. Tzanakakis, Evangelia Vouvoudi, Konstantinos Anastasiadis, Athanasios E. Rigos, Panagiotis Pandoleon, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Ioannis G. Tzoutzas and Eleana Kontonasaki
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032067 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Nanofillers in resin materials can improve their mechanical and physicochemical properties. The present work investigated the effects of zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) as fillers in commercial dental luting cements. Two dual-cured self-adhesive composites and one resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) luting cement were employed. [...] Read more.
Nanofillers in resin materials can improve their mechanical and physicochemical properties. The present work investigated the effects of zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) as fillers in commercial dental luting cements. Two dual-cured self-adhesive composites and one resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) luting cement were employed. Film thickness (FT), flexural strength (FS), water sorption (Wsp), and shear bond strength (SBS) to monolithic zirconia were evaluated according to ISO 16506:2017 and ISO 9917-2:2017, whereas polymerization progress was evaluated with FTIR. Photopolymerization resulted in double the values of DC%. The addition of 1% wt NPs does not significantly influence polymerization, however, greater amounts do not promote crosslinking. The sorption behavior and the mechanical performance of the composites were not affected, while the film thickness increased in all luting agents, within the acceptable limits. Thermocycling (TC) resulted in a deteriorating effect on all composites. The addition of NPs significantly improved the mechanical properties of the RMGI cement only, without negatively affecting the other cements. Adhesive primer increased the initial SBS significantly, however after TC, its application was only beneficial for RMGI. The MDP containing luting cement showed higher SBS compared to the RMGI and 4-META luting agents. Future commercial adhesives containing zirconia nanoparticles could provide cements with improved mechanical properties. Full article
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17 pages, 4063 KiB  
Article
A Novel High-Energy Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Photofunctionalization Approach for Decomposing Organic Molecules around Titanium
by Toshikatsu Suzumura, Takanori Matsuura, Keiji Komatsu and Takahiro Ogawa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24031978 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Titanium undergoes biological aging, represented by increased hydrophobicity and surface accumulation of organic molecules over time, which compromises the osseointegration of dental and orthopedic implants. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel UV light source, 172 nm wavelength vacuum UV (VUV), in [...] Read more.
Titanium undergoes biological aging, represented by increased hydrophobicity and surface accumulation of organic molecules over time, which compromises the osseointegration of dental and orthopedic implants. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel UV light source, 172 nm wavelength vacuum UV (VUV), in decomposing organic molecules around titanium. Methylene blue solution used as a model organic molecule placed in a quartz ampoule with and without titanium specimens was treated with four different UV light sources: (i) ultraviolet C (UVC), (ii) high-energy UVC (HUVC), (iii) proprietary UV (PUV), and (iv) VUV. After one minute of treatment, VUV decomposed over 90% of methylene blue, while there was 3-, 3-, and 8-fold more methylene blue after the HUVC, PUV, and UVC treatments, respectively. In dose-dependency experiments, maximal methylene blue decomposition occurred after one minute of VUV treatment and after 20–30 min of UVC treatment. Rapid and effective VUV-mediated organic decomposition was not influenced by the surface topography of titanium or its alloy and even occurred in the absence of titanium, indicating only a minimal photocatalytic contribution of titanium dioxide to organic decomposition. VUV-mediated but not other light source-mediated methylene blue decomposition was proportional to its concentration. Plastic tubes significantly reduced methylene blue decomposition for all light sources. These results suggest that VUV, in synergy with quartz ampoules, mediates rapid and effective organic decomposition compared with other UV sources. This proof-of-concept study paves the way for rapid and effective VUV-powered photofunctionalization of titanium to overcome biological aging. Full article
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11 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Biofilm Formation on Novel PEEK, Titanium, and Zirconia Implant Abutment Materials
by Andreas Wiessner, Torsten Wassmann, Johanna Maria Wiessner, Andrea Schubert, Bernhard Wiechens, Tristan Hampe and Ralf Bürgers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021779 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
The formation of biofilms on the surface of dental implants and abutment materials may lead to peri-implantitis and subsequent implant failure. Recently, innovative materials such as polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and its modifications have been used as abutment materials. However, there is limited knowledge on [...] Read more.
The formation of biofilms on the surface of dental implants and abutment materials may lead to peri-implantitis and subsequent implant failure. Recently, innovative materials such as polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and its modifications have been used as abutment materials. However, there is limited knowledge on microbial adhesion to PEEK materials. The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate biofilm formation on the surface of conventional (titanium and zirconia) and PEEK implant abutment materials. Split specimens of titanium, zirconia, PEEK, and modified PEEK (PEEK-BioHPP) were manufactured, mounted in individual removable acrylic upper jaw splints, and worn by 20 healthy volunteers for 24 h. The surface roughness was determined using widefield confocal microscopy. Biofilm accumulation was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by imaging software. The surface roughness of the investigated materials was <0.2 µm and showed no significant differences between the materials. Zirconia showed the lowest biofilm formation, followed by titanium, PEEK, and PEEK-BioHPP. Differences were significant (p < 0.001) between the investigated materials, except for the polyether-ether-ketones. Generally, biofilm formation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the posterior region of the oral cavity than in the anterior region. The results of the present study show a material-dependent susceptibility to biofilm formation. The risk of developing peri-implantitis may be reduced by a specific choice of abutment material. Full article
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14 pages, 2152 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties of Novel Copolymers of Quaternary Ammonium UDMA Analogues, Bis-GMA, and TEGDMA
by Marta W. Chrószcz-Porębska, Izabela M. Barszczewska-Rybarek and Grzegorz Chladek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021400 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the physicochemical properties of copolymers comprising 40 wt.% bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), 40 wt.% quaternary ammonium urethane-dimethacrylate analogues (QAUDMA-m, where m corresponds to the number of carbon atoms in the N-alkyl substituent), and 20 wt.% triethylene [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate the physicochemical properties of copolymers comprising 40 wt.% bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), 40 wt.% quaternary ammonium urethane-dimethacrylate analogues (QAUDMA-m, where m corresponds to the number of carbon atoms in the N-alkyl substituent), and 20 wt.% triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) copolymers (BG:QAm:TEGs). The BG:QAm:TEG liquid monomer compositions and reference compositions (40 wt.% Bis-GMA, 40 wt.% urethane-dimethacrylate (UDMA), 20 wt.% TEGDMA (BG:UD:TEG) and 60 wt.% Bis-GMA, 40 wt.% TEGDMA (BG:TEG)) were characterized in terms of their refractive index (RI) and monomer glass transition temperature (Tgm) and then photocured. The resulting copolymers were characterized in terms of the polymer glass transition temperature (Tgp), experimental polymerization shrinkage (Se), water contact angle (WCA), water sorption (WS), and water solubility (SL). The prepared BG:QAm:TEG liquid monomer compositions had RI in the range 1.4997–1.5129, and Tgm in the range −52.22 to −42.12 °C. The BG:QAm:TEG copolymers had Tgp ranging from 42.21 to 50.81 °C, Se ranging from 5.08 to 6.40%, WCA ranging from 81.41 to 99.53°, WS ranging from 25.94 to 68.27 µg/mm3, and SL ranging from 5.15 to 5.58 µg/mm3. Almost all of the developed BG:QAm:TEGs fulfilled the requirements for dental materials (except BG:QA8:TEG and BG:QA10:TEG, whose WS values exceeded the 40 µg/mm3 limit). Full article
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16 pages, 2424 KiB  
Article
Biomimetic Nanopillar Silicon Surfaces Rupture Fungal Spores
by Denver P. Linklater, Phuc H. Le, Arturo Aburto-Medina, Russell J. Crawford, Shane Maclaughlin, Saulius Juodkazis and Elena P. Ivanova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021298 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
The mechano-bactericidal action of nanostructured surfaces is well-documented; however, synthetic nanostructured surfaces have not yet been explored for their antifungal properties toward filamentous fungal species. In this study, we developed a biomimetic nanostructured surface inspired by dragonfly wings. A high-aspect-ratio nanopillar topography was [...] Read more.
The mechano-bactericidal action of nanostructured surfaces is well-documented; however, synthetic nanostructured surfaces have not yet been explored for their antifungal properties toward filamentous fungal species. In this study, we developed a biomimetic nanostructured surface inspired by dragonfly wings. A high-aspect-ratio nanopillar topography was created on silicon (nano-Si) surfaces using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP RIE). To mimic the superhydrophobic nature of insect wings, the nano-Si was further functionalised with trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane (PFTS). The viability of Aspergillus brasiliensis spores, in contact with either hydrophobic or hydrophilic nano-Si surfaces, was determined using a combination of standard microbiological assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Results indicated the breakdown of the fungal spore membrane upon contact with the hydrophilic nano-Si surfaces. By contrast, hydrophobised nano-Si surfaces prevented the initial attachment of the fungal conidia. Hydrophilic nano-Si surfaces exhibited both antifungal and fungicidal properties toward attached A. brasisiensis spores via a 4-fold reduction of attached spores and approximately 9-fold reduction of viable conidia from initial solution after 24 h compared to their planar Si counterparts. Thus, we reveal, for the first time, the physical rupturing of attaching fungal spores by biomimetic hydrophilic nanostructured surfaces. Full article
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11 pages, 1708 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Surface Treatments of Woven Glass Fibers on Mechanical Properties of an Acrylic Denture Base Material
by Zdravko Schauperl, Luka Ivanković, Leonard Bauer, Sanja Šolić and Marica Ivanković
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24020909 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Silanized glass fibers are popular reinforcements of acrylic denture base materials. To increase the number of surface hydroxyl groups and to improve interfacial adhesion between the matrix and reinforcements, acid or base treatments of glass fibers are commonly performed before the silanization. However, [...] Read more.
Silanized glass fibers are popular reinforcements of acrylic denture base materials. To increase the number of surface hydroxyl groups and to improve interfacial adhesion between the matrix and reinforcements, acid or base treatments of glass fibers are commonly performed before the silanization. However, limited data are available on the effect of these treatments on the mechanical properties of acrylic matrix composite materials used for denture base applications. In this work, before the silanization of a woven glass fiber fabric (GF) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate, activation pretreatments using HCl and NH4OH aqueous solutions have been performed. To characterize the glass surface, FTIR spectroscopy was used. Specimens of cured acrylic denture base resin and composites were divided into five groups: (1) cured acrylic denture base resin-control group; (2) composite with non-silanized GF; (3) composite with silanized GF; (4) composite with NH4OH activated and silanized GF; (5) composite with HCl activated and silanized GF. The flexural and impact properties of specimens were evaluated by means of three-point-bending tests and Charpy impact testing, respectively. The residual reactivity of the samples was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry. The results of mechanical testing showed that acid and base pretreatments of the glass fabric had a positive effect on the flexural modulus of prepared composites but a negative effect on their impact strength. Possible interfacial adhesion mechanisms and the diffusion control of isothermal cure reactions due to vitrification have been discussed. Full article
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19 pages, 2926 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pre-Heating on the Monomer Elution and Porosity of Conventional and Bulk-Fill Resin-Based Dental Composites
by Erika Dunavári, Gergely Berta, Tamás Kiss, József Szalma, Márk Fráter, Katalin Böddi and Edina Lempel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416188 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
The pre-heating of dental resin-based composites (RBCs) improves adaptability to cavity walls, reducing microleakages. However, the rapid cooling of the pre-heated RBC may change the polymerization kinetics, and thus the final network configuration of the RBC. It is well known that unreacted monomers [...] Read more.
The pre-heating of dental resin-based composites (RBCs) improves adaptability to cavity walls, reducing microleakages. However, the rapid cooling of the pre-heated RBC may change the polymerization kinetics, and thus the final network configuration of the RBC. It is well known that unreacted monomers remaining in the set RBC can leach into the oral cavity. However, it is still not clear how the pre-heating and cooling of RBCs alter monomer elution (ME). Thus, the purpose was to determine the ME from room-temperature and pre-heated RBCs, in addition to determining the closed porosity (CP) volume. Bulk-filled RBCs and layered conventional RBC samples were prepared. The pre-polymerization temperature was set at 24 °C and 55/65 °C. The ME from RBC samples was assessed with high-performance liquid chromatography using standard monomers. CP was measured with micro-computed tomography. ME decreased significantly from bulk fills and increased from layered samples as a result of pre-heating. Pre-heating was unfavorable in terms of CP in most RBCs. Based on the effect size analysis, ME and CP were greatly influenced by both material composition, pre-polymerization temperature, and their interaction. While the pre-heating of high-viscosity bulk-fill RBCs is advantageous from a clinical aspect regarding biocompatibility, it increases CP, which is undesirable from a mechanical point of view. Full article
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15 pages, 3515 KiB  
Article
N-Acetyl Cysteine-Mediated Improvements in Dental Restorative Material Biocompatibility
by Takanori Matsuura, Keiji Komatsu and Takahiro Ogawa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415869 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
The fibroblast-rich gingival tissue is usually in contact with or adjacent to cytotoxic polymer-based dental restoration materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether the antioxidant amino acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), reduces the toxicity of dental restorative materials. Human oral fibroblasts [...] Read more.
The fibroblast-rich gingival tissue is usually in contact with or adjacent to cytotoxic polymer-based dental restoration materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether the antioxidant amino acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), reduces the toxicity of dental restorative materials. Human oral fibroblasts were cultured with bis-acrylic, flowable composite, bulk-fill composite, self-curing acrylic, and titanium alloy test specimens. Cellular behavior and function were analyzed on and around the materials. Impregnation of the bulk-fill composite and self-curing acrylic with NAC reduced their toxicity, improving the attachment, growth, and function of human oral fibroblasts on and around the materials. These mitigating effects were NAC dose dependent. However, NAC impregnation of the bis-acrylic and flowable composite was ineffective, with no cells attaching to nor around the materials. Although supplementing the culture medium with NAC also effectively improved fibroblast behaviors, direct impregnation of materials with NAC was more effective than supplementing the cultures. NAC-mediated improvements in fibroblast behavior were associated with reduced production of reactive oxygen species and oxidized glutathione together with increased glutathione reserves, indicating that NAC effectively directly scavenged ROS from materials and reinforced the cellular antioxidant defense system. These results establish a proof of concept of NAC-mediated improvements in biocompatibility in the selected dental restorative materials. Full article
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14 pages, 3783 KiB  
Article
The Treatment Efficiency and Microbiota Analysis of Sapindus mukorossi Seed Oil on the Ligature-Induced Periodontitis Rat Model
by Shih-Kai Lin, Yi-Fan Wu, Wei-Jen Chang, Sheng-Wei Feng and Haw-Ming Huang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158560 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Periodontitis is a common oral disease mainly caused by bacterial infection and inflammation of the gingiva. In the prevention or treatment of periodontitis, anti-bacterial agents are used to inhibit pathogen growth, despite increasing levels of bacterial resistance. Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (SM) seed oil [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a common oral disease mainly caused by bacterial infection and inflammation of the gingiva. In the prevention or treatment of periodontitis, anti-bacterial agents are used to inhibit pathogen growth, despite increasing levels of bacterial resistance. Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (SM) seed oil has proven anti-bacterial and anti-inflammation properties. However, the possibility of using this plant to prevent or treat periodontitis has not been reported previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SM oil on experimental periodontitis in rats by using micro-CT and microbiota analysis. The distance between cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and alveolar bone crest (ABC) on the sagittal micro-CT slide showed that total bone loss (TBL) was significantly lower in CEJ-ABC distances between SM oil and SM oil-free groups on Day 14. Histology data also showed less alveolar bone resorption, a result consistent result with micro-CT imaging. The microbiota analyzed at phylum and class levels were compared between the SM oil and SM oil-free groups on Day 7 and Day 14. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacterium. Firmicutes in box plot analysis was significantly less in the SM oil group than in the SM oil-free group on Day 7. At the class level, Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridia, and Erysipelotrichia were the dominant bacteria. The bacteria composition proportion of Bacilli, Clostridiay, and Erysipelotrichia could be seen in the SM oil group significantly less than in t SM oil-free group on Day 7. Overall, the present results show that topical application of SM oil can reduce bone resorption and change bacteria composition in the ligature-induced periodontitis model. According to these results, it is reasonable to suggest SM oil as a potential material for preventing oral disease. Full article
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14 pages, 4712 KiB  
Article
Parameter Screening and Optimization for a Polycaprolactone-Based GTR/GBR Membrane Using Taguchi Design
by Lohitha Kalluri and Yuanyuan Duan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158149 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Our objective was to determine and optimize the significant parameters affecting mechanical properties and mean fiber diameter (MFD) of a novel GTR/GBR membrane composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chicken eggshell membrane (ESM). For this, we prepared electrospun membrane specimens (n = 16) [...] Read more.
Our objective was to determine and optimize the significant parameters affecting mechanical properties and mean fiber diameter (MFD) of a novel GTR/GBR membrane composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chicken eggshell membrane (ESM). For this, we prepared electrospun membrane specimens (n = 16) with varying concentrations of PCL, ESM, nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp), and altered electrospinning parameters as generated by DOE++ software. After the determination of MFD and mechanical properties for all specimens, Taguchi orthogonal array L8 design was used to screen significant factors affecting the MFD and mechanical properties. PCL wt%, ESM wt%, HAp wt%, applied voltage (AV), flow rate (FR), and spinneret-collector distance (SCD) were the independent variables investigated. The response variables analyzed were MFD, tensile strength (TS), and elastic modulus. ANOVA outlined ESM wt%, HAp wt%, AV, FR, SCD, and an interactive effect between PCL wt% and AV to be the significant factors affecting modulus values of an electrospun PCL/ESM membrane (p < 0.05). Furthermore, concentrations of PCL and ESM were the significant factors affecting MFD (p < 0.05) and there were no significant factors affecting the TS values. Optimization using DOE++ software predicted that the maximal TS of 3.125 MPa, modulus of 278.168 MPa, and MFD of 882.75 nm could be achieved. Full article
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17 pages, 6235 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Cytocompatible: Combining Silver Nitrate with Strontium Acetate Increases the Therapeutic Window
by Marjan Kheirmand Parizi, Katharina Doll, Muhammad Imran Rahim, Carina Mikolai, Andreas Winkel and Meike Stiesch
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158058 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Microbial infection and insufficient tissue formation are considered to be the two main causes of dental implant failure. Novel studies have focused on designing dual-functional strategies to promote antibacterial properties and improve tissue cell response simultaneously. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial [...] Read more.
Microbial infection and insufficient tissue formation are considered to be the two main causes of dental implant failure. Novel studies have focused on designing dual-functional strategies to promote antibacterial properties and improve tissue cell response simultaneously. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial properties and cytocompatibility of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and strontium acetate (SrAc) in a mono-culture setup for dental application. Additionally, we defined the therapeutic window between the minimum inhibitory concentration against pathogenic bacteria and maximum cytocompatible dose in the case of combined applications in a co-culture setup. Antibacterial properties were screened using Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cell response experiments were performed with osteoblastic cells (MC3T3) and fibroblastic cells (NIH3T3). The osteoinductive behavior was investigated separately on MC3T3 cells using alizarin red staining. A therapeutic window for AgNO3 as well as SrAc applications could be defined in the case of MC3T3 cells while the cytocompatibility of NIH3T3 cells was compromised for all concentrations with an antibacterial effect. However, the combined application of AgNO3/SrAc caused an enhanced antibacterial effect and opened a therapeutic window for both cell lines. Enhanced mineralization rates could be observed in cultures containing SrAc. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate that adding SrAc to AgNO3 not only intensifies antibacterial properties but also exhibits bone inductive characteristics, thereby offering a promising strategy to combat peri-implantitis and at the same time improve osseointegration in implant therapy. Full article
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18 pages, 6977 KiB  
Article
Preclinical Evaluation of BMP-9-Treated Human Bone-like Substitutes for Alveolar Ridge Preservation following Tooth Extraction
by Fabien Kawecki, Jessica Jann, Michel Fortin, François A. Auger, Nathalie Faucheux and Julie Fradette
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063302 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2275
Abstract
The success of dental implant treatment after tooth extraction is generally maximized by preserving the alveolar ridge using cell-free biomaterials. However, these treatments can be associated with inflammatory reactions, leading to additional bone volume loss hampering dental implant positioning. Our group developed a [...] Read more.
The success of dental implant treatment after tooth extraction is generally maximized by preserving the alveolar ridge using cell-free biomaterials. However, these treatments can be associated with inflammatory reactions, leading to additional bone volume loss hampering dental implant positioning. Our group developed a self-assembled bone-like substitute constituted of osteogenically induced human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs). We hypothesized that a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) supplementation could improve the in vitro osteogenic potential of the bone-like substitute, which would subsequently translate into enhanced alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction. ASCs displayed a better osteogenic response to BMP-9 than to BMP-2 in monolayer cell culture, as shown by higher transcript levels of the osteogenic markers RUNX2, osterix (OSX/SP7), and alkaline phosphatase after three and six days of treatment. Interestingly, BMP-9 treatment significantly increased OSX transcripts and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as pro-angiogenic angiopoietin-1 gene expression, in engineered bone-like substitutes after 21 days of culture. Alveolar bone healing was investigated after molar extraction in nude rats. Microcomputed tomography and histological evaluations revealed similar, or even superior, global alveolar bone preservation when defects were filled with BMP-9-treated bone-like substitutes for ten weeks compared to a clinical-grade biomaterial, with adequate gingival re-epithelialization in the absence of resorption. Full article
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21 pages, 66602 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Selected Properties of Advanced Biomedical n-HA/ZnS/Sulfonated PEEK Coatings Fabricated on Zirconium Alloy by Duplex Treatment
by Filip Kuśmierczyk, Aleksandra Fiołek, Alicja Łukaszczyk, Agnieszka Kopia, Maciej Sitarz, Sławomir Zimowski, Łukasz Cieniek and Tomasz Moskalewicz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063244 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
In this work, sulfonated polyetheretherketone (S-PEEK)-based coatings, nanocrystalline ZnS and hydroxyapatite (n-HA) particles were developed on Zr-2.5Nb zirconium alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) combined with subsequent heat treatment. The properties of suspensions and deposition kinetics were studied. Cationic chitosan polyelectrolyte ensured the [...] Read more.
In this work, sulfonated polyetheretherketone (S-PEEK)-based coatings, nanocrystalline ZnS and hydroxyapatite (n-HA) particles were developed on Zr-2.5Nb zirconium alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) combined with subsequent heat treatment. The properties of suspensions and deposition kinetics were studied. Cationic chitosan polyelectrolyte ensured the stabilization of the suspension and allowed for the co-deposition of all coating components on the cathode. The heating of the coated samples at a temperature of 450 °C and slow cooling resulted in sulfonation of the PEEK and the formation of dense coatings. The coatings were characterized by high roughness, hardness, modulus of elasticity and adhesion strength. The coatings revealed mild hydrophilicity, improved the electrochemical corrosion resistance of the alloy and induced the formation of hydroxyapatite with a cauliflower-like morphology on its surface during the Kokubo test. This work explored the great development potential of advanced sulfonated PEEK-based coatings, incorporating antibacterial and bioactive components by EPD combined with heat treatment to stimulate the surface properties of zirconium alloy for prospective dental and orthopedic applications. The antibacterial and osteoconductive properties of the obtained coatings should be further investigated. Full article
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14 pages, 41621 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Plasma Gas Type on the Surface Characteristics of 3Y-TZP Ceramic
by Sung-Un Kang, Chul-Ho Kim, Hee-Kyung Kim, Ye-Won Yoon, Yu-Kwon Kim and Seung-Joo Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063007 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Plasma surface treatment can be an attractive strategy for modifying the chemically inert nature of zirconia to improve its clinical performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of plasma gas compositions on the physicochemical surface modifications of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP). [...] Read more.
Plasma surface treatment can be an attractive strategy for modifying the chemically inert nature of zirconia to improve its clinical performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of plasma gas compositions on the physicochemical surface modifications of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP). The cold, atmospheric plasma discharges were carried out by using four different plasma gases, which are He/O2, N2/Ar, N2, and Ar from an application distance of 10 mm for 60 s. Static contact angles were measured to define the surface free energy. Changes in elemental composition, surface crystallinity, and surface topography were assessed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. A significant decrease in water contact angle was observed in all plasma groups with the lowest value of 69° in the N2/Ar group. CLSM and SEM investigations exhibited no morphological changes in all plasma groups. XPS revealed that a reduction in the surface C content along with an increase in O content was pronounced in the case of N2/Ar compared to others, which was responsible for high hydrophilicity of the surface. XRD showed that the changes in crystallite size and microstrain due to oxygen atom displacements were observed in the N2/Ar group. The N2/Ar plasma treatment may contribute to enhancing the bioactivity as well as the bonding performance of 3Y-TZP by controlling the plasma-generated nitrogen functionalities. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

26 pages, 15871 KiB  
Review
Applications of Plasma-Activated Water in Dentistry: A Review
by Noala Vicensoto Moreira Milhan, William Chiappim, Aline da Graça Sampaio, Mariana Raquel da Cruz Vegian, Rodrigo Sávio Pessoa and Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084131 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4205
Abstract
The activation of water by non-thermal plasma creates a liquid with active constituents referred to as plasma-activated water (PAW). Due to its active constituents, PAW may play an important role in different fields, such as agriculture, the food industry and healthcare. Plasma liquid [...] Read more.
The activation of water by non-thermal plasma creates a liquid with active constituents referred to as plasma-activated water (PAW). Due to its active constituents, PAW may play an important role in different fields, such as agriculture, the food industry and healthcare. Plasma liquid technology has received attention in recent years due to its versatility and good potential, mainly focused on different health care purposes. This interest has extended to dentistry, since the use of a plasma–liquid technology could bring clinical advantages, compared to direct application of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas (NTAPPs). The aim of this paper is to discuss the applicability of PAW in different areas of dentistry, according to the published literature about NTAPPs and plasma–liquid technology. The direct and indirect application of NTAPPs are presented in the introduction. Posteriorly, the main reactors for generating PAW and its active constituents with a role in biomedical applications are specified, followed by a section that discusses, in detail, the use of PAW as a tool for different oral diseases. Full article
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17 pages, 2000 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Early Saliva Interaction on Dental Implants and Biomaterials for Oral Regeneration: An Overview
by Marcel Ferreira Kunrath and Christer Dahlin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042024 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2761
Abstract
The presence of saliva in the oral environment is relevant for several essential health processes. However, the noncontrolled early saliva interaction with biomaterials manufactured for oral rehabilitation may generate alterations in the superficial properties causing negative biological outcomes. Therefore, the present review aimed [...] Read more.
The presence of saliva in the oral environment is relevant for several essential health processes. However, the noncontrolled early saliva interaction with biomaterials manufactured for oral rehabilitation may generate alterations in the superficial properties causing negative biological outcomes. Therefore, the present review aimed to provide a compilation of all possible physical–chemical–biological changes caused by the early saliva interaction in dental implants and materials for oral regeneration. Dental implants, bone substitutes and membranes in dentistry possess different properties focused on improving the healing process when in contact with oral tissues. The early saliva interaction was shown to impair some positive features present in biomaterials related to quick cellular adhesion and proliferation, such as surface hydrophilicity, cellular viability and antibacterial properties. Moreover, biomaterials that interacted with contaminated saliva containing specific bacteria demonstrated favorable conditions for increased bacterial metabolism. Additionally, the quantity of investigations associating biomaterials with early saliva interaction is still scarce in the current literature and requires clarification to prevent clinical failures. Therefore, clinically, controlling saliva exposure to sites involving the application of biomaterials must be prioritized in order to reduce impairment in important biomaterial properties developed for rapid healing. Full article
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