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Role of ncRNAs Classes as Biomarkers for Diagnostic and Prognosis in Cancer 2021

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 14878

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The discovery of miRNAs a few decades ago and of lncRNAs in the later years opened a new face of genome understanding as well as the cooperation between coding and noncoding genes in cancer. Their discovery as multiple classes of noncoding genes (snoRNA, siRNA, piRNA, circRNAs, lincRNA, asRNA and other) showed a significant role in regulating the expression of many genes in cancer pathways and progression mechanisms. Characterization and validation as potential biomarkers in different stages of cancer development from early detection to invasion and metastasis are still in its initial development, but new insights considering ncRNAs classes’ role in cancer therapy make them valuable contributors as modulators of response to different treatments. The Special Issue is devoted to all scientists that have an interest in different ncRNAs classes exploring their role in cancer diagnostic or therapy.

Dr. Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • miRNAs
  • lncRNAs
  • short ncRNAs
  • snoRNAs
  • siRNA
  • piRNA
  • circRNAs
  • lincRNA
  • asRNA hallmarks
  • cancer therapy
  • diagnostic
  • prognostic

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

25 pages, 1420 KiB  
Review
Overview of MicroRNAs as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for High-Incidence Cancers in 2021
by Chunyan Zhang, Caifang Sun, Yabin Zhao, Qiwen Wang, Jianlin Guo, Bingyu Ye and Guoying Yu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911389 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) about 22 nucleotides in size, which play an important role in gene regulation and are involved in almost all major cellular physiological processes. In recent years, the abnormal expression of miRNAs has been shown to be [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) about 22 nucleotides in size, which play an important role in gene regulation and are involved in almost all major cellular physiological processes. In recent years, the abnormal expression of miRNAs has been shown to be associated with human diseases including cancer. In the past ten years, the link between miRNAs and various cancers has been extensively studied, and the abnormal expression of miRNAs has been reported in various malignant tumors, such as lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Due to the high malignancy grade of these cancers, it is more necessary to develop the related diagnostic and prognostic methods. According to the study of miRNAs, many potential cancer biomarkers have been proposed for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, especially cancer, thus providing a new theoretical basis and perspective for cancer screening. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis of cancer has the advantages of being less invasive to patients, with better accuracy and lower price. In view of the important clinical significance of miRNAs in human cancer research, this article reviewed the research status of miRNAs in the above-mentioned cancers in 2021, especially in terms of diagnosis and prognosis, and provided some new perspectives and theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. Full article
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19 pages, 1357 KiB  
Review
Reactive Oxygen Species and Long Non-Coding RNAs, an Unexpected Crossroad in Cancer Cells
by Teodor Paul Kacso, Renata Zahu, Alexandru Tirpe, Elina Valeria Paslari, Andreea Nuțu and Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 10133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231710133 - 4 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have recently been identified as key regulators of oxidative stress in several malignancies. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be constantly regulated to maintain cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance and to prevent apoptosis. This review will discuss [...] Read more.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have recently been identified as key regulators of oxidative stress in several malignancies. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be constantly regulated to maintain cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance and to prevent apoptosis. This review will discuss how lncRNAs alter the ROS level in cancer cells. We will first describe the role of lncRNAs in the nuclear factor like 2 (Nrf-2) coordinated antioxidant response of cancer cells. Secondly, we show how lncRNAs can promote the Warburg effect in cancer cells, thus shifting the cancer cell’s “building blocks” towards molecules important in oxidative stress regulation. Lastly, we explain the role that lncRNAs play in ROS-induced cancer cell apoptosis and proliferation. Full article
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34 pages, 1212 KiB  
Review
An Insight into miR-1290: An Oncogenic miRNA with Diagnostic Potential
by Małgorzata Guz, Witold Jeleniewicz and Marek Cybulski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031234 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3489
Abstract
For more than two decades, the view of the roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has been radically changing. These RNA molecules that are transcribed from our genome do not have the capacity to encode proteins, but are critical regulators of gene expression at [...] Read more.
For more than two decades, the view of the roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has been radically changing. These RNA molecules that are transcribed from our genome do not have the capacity to encode proteins, but are critical regulators of gene expression at different levels. Our knowledge is constantly enriched by new reports revealing the role of these new molecular players in the development of many pathological conditions, including cancer. One of the ncRNA classes includes short RNA molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs), which are involved in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression affecting various cellular processes. The aberrant expression of miRNAs with oncogenic and tumor-suppressive function is associated with cancer initiation, promotion, malignant transformation, progression and metastasis. Oncogenic miRNAs, also known as oncomirs, mediate the downregulation of tumor-suppressor genes and their expression is upregulated in cancer. Nowadays, miRNAs show promising application in diagnosis, prediction, disease monitoring and therapy response. Our review presents a current view of the oncogenic role of miR-1290 with emphasis on its properties as a cancer biomarker in clinical medicine. Full article
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21 pages, 1625 KiB  
Review
Molecular Mechanisms of lncRNAs in the Dependent Regulation of Cancer and Their Potential Therapeutic Use
by Carlos García-Padilla, Ángel Dueñas, Virginio García-López, Amelia Aránega, Diego Franco, Virginio Garcia-Martínez and Carmen López-Sánchez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020764 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
Deep whole genome and transcriptome sequencing have highlighted the importance of an emerging class of non-coding RNA longer than 200 nucleotides (i.e., long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)) that are involved in multiple cellular processes such as cell differentiation, embryonic development, and tissue homeostasis. Cancer [...] Read more.
Deep whole genome and transcriptome sequencing have highlighted the importance of an emerging class of non-coding RNA longer than 200 nucleotides (i.e., long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)) that are involved in multiple cellular processes such as cell differentiation, embryonic development, and tissue homeostasis. Cancer is a prime example derived from a loss of homeostasis, primarily caused by genetic alterations both in the genomic and epigenetic landscape, which results in deregulation of the gene networks. Deregulation of the expression of many lncRNAs in samples, tissues or patients has been pointed out as a molecular regulator in carcinogenesis, with them acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Herein, we summarize the distinct molecular regulatory mechanisms described in literature in which lncRNAs modulate carcinogenesis, emphasizing epigenetic and genetic alterations in particular. Furthermore, we also reviewed the current strategies used to block lncRNA oncogenic functions and their usefulness as potential therapeutic targets in several carcinomas. Full article
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26 pages, 1511 KiB  
Review
The Roles of the Colon Cancer Associated Transcript 2 (CCAT2) Long Non-Coding RNA in Cancer: A Comprehensive Characterization of the Tumorigenic and Molecular Functions
by Radu Pirlog, Rares Drula, Andreea Nutu, George Adrian Calin and Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212491 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3202
Abstract
Colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) is an intensively studied lncRNA with important regulatory roles in cancer. As such, cumulative studies indicate that CCAT2 displays a high functional versatility due to its direct interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins, transcription factors, and other species [...] Read more.
Colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) is an intensively studied lncRNA with important regulatory roles in cancer. As such, cumulative studies indicate that CCAT2 displays a high functional versatility due to its direct interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins, transcription factors, and other species of non-coding RNA, especially microRNA. The definitory mechanisms of CCAT2 are its role as a regulator of the TCF7L2 transcription factor, enhancer of MYC expression, and activator of the WNT/β-catenin pathway, as well as a role in promoting and maintaining chromosome instability through the BOP1–AURKB pathway. Additionally, we highlight how the encompassing rs6983267 SNP has been shown to confer CCAT2 with allele-specific functional and structural particularities, such as the allelic-specific reprogramming of glutamine metabolism. Additionally, we emphasize CCAT2’s role as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for multiple tumor suppressor miRNAs, such as miR-4496, miR-493, miR-424, miR-216b, miR-23b, miR-34a, miR-145, miR-200b, and miR-143 and the pro-tumorigenic role of the altered regulatory axis. Additionally, due to its upregulation in tumor tissues, wide distribution across cancer types, and presence in serum samples, we outline CCAT2’s potential as a biomarker and disease indicator and its implications for the development of resistance against current cancer therapy regiments and metastasis. Full article
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