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Magnetic-Responsive Molecular Particles Based Smart Materials: Model, Characterization and Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 13163

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The State University of New York at Korea (SUNY Korea), 119 Songdo Moonhwa-Ro, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 21985, Korea
Interests: magnetorheological (MR) fluid; electrorheological (ER) fluid; polymer particles; magnetic particles; vibration control; haptic devices using MR/ER fluids; sensors and actuators using MR/ER fluids
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Magnetorheological (MR) materials are one of the best candidates to fulfil the scope of controllable discrete devices and smart structure that react to the magnetic field. This is possible due to the chain-like structures of molecular nano- and micro-sized particles with respect to the magnetic field direction. The field-dependent properties of MR materials such as the viscoelastic modulus can be tuned by the magnetic field intensity and hence the performance of application devices can be easily controlled by implementing appropriate controllers those can provide an optimal magnetic field intensity to achieve desired responses. Thanks to this salient and eminent feature, MR materials are widely applied to numerous fields such as automotive shock absorber, vibration isolator, flexible haptic structure and so on. In general, MR materials are divided into 5 categories including MR fluid, MR grease, MR elastomer, MR gel and MR foam. They are different in terms of the physical appearances like liquid, semi-liquid, solid and semi-solid. Thus, the field-dependent properties of each MR material are different and application fields are specialized.

The followings are the topics proposed for this special issue (but not limited to):

  • Molecular model of MR materials
  • Modelling and simulation of MR materials behaviors
  • New formulation of MR materials
  • Materials selection of MR materials
  • Properties and characterization of MR materials
  • Design for manufacture of MR materials
  • Reliability of MR materials
  • MR materials based sensors and actuators
  • Potential applications of MR materials
  • Smart flexible structure based on MR materials

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Materials.

Prof. Dr. Seung-bok Choi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Magnetorheological (MR) material
  • Molecular particles
  • Molecular model
  • Phenomenological model
  • Material characterization
  • MR sensors and actuators
  • Application devices
  • Smart flexible structure
  • MR fluid
  • MR grease
  • MR elastomer
  • MR gel
  • MR foam

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 9040 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Analysis of Sphere-Like Iron Particles Based Magnetorheological Damper for Waveform-Generating Test System
by Jong-Seok Oh, Chang Won Shul, Tae Hyeong Kim, Tae-Hoon Lee, Sung-Wan Son and Seung-Bok Choi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031149 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
In this study, a new double pulse waveform-generating test system with an integrated magnetorheological (MR) damper is proposed. Since the total shear stress of MR fluid can be varied according to the shape of particles, sphere-like iron particles-based MR fluid is filled into [...] Read more.
In this study, a new double pulse waveform-generating test system with an integrated magnetorheological (MR) damper is proposed. Since the total shear stress of MR fluid can be varied according to the shape of particles, sphere-like iron particles-based MR fluid is filled into the MR damper. The test system consists of a velocity generator, three masses (impact, test, and dummy), a spring, and an MR damper. To tune the double pulse waveform profile, a damping force model is constructed to determine the fundamental parameters of the simulator. Then, the first and second shock waveform profiles are analyzed to solve the governing equation of motions representing the damping force and velocity. The mathematical model of the MR damper is formulated and applied to a simulator with a graphical user interface programmed using MATLAB. The effectiveness of the proposed simulator-featuring controllable MR damper is demonstrated by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Full article
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13 pages, 2597 KiB  
Article
The Synthesis of Organic Oils Blended Magnetorheological Fluids with the Field-Dependent Material Characterization
by Rakesh Jinaga, T. Jagadeesha, Shreedhar Kolekar and Seung-Bok Choi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225766 - 16 Nov 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3064
Abstract
Automation is one of the trending terminologies in the field of engineering to achieve various sensors and actuators such as the hydraulic system. Smart fluid is also one of the hot topics for researchers to develop a type of actuator in many control [...] Read more.
Automation is one of the trending terminologies in the field of engineering to achieve various sensors and actuators such as the hydraulic system. Smart fluid is also one of the hot topics for researchers to develop a type of actuator in many control systems since the fluid’s rheological characteristics can be controlled or tuned by the intensity of the external stimuli. In this work, a new smart fluid of magnetorheological (MR) fluid is proposed and its field-dependent rheological characteristics are experimentally identified. An MR fluid using the carrier fluid as the blend of three different fluids, namely silicon oil, honey, and organic oil is prepared. In addition, two types of natural oils are used, sunflower oil and cottonseed oil. The samples are prepared using the blend as the carrier fluid, electrolytic iron powder coated with guar gum as the dispersed phase, and oleic acid as an additive. The quantity of oleic acid is optimized for 30% by weight of electrolytic iron powder. Two samples based on sunflower and cottonseed oil are synthesized and characterized for shear viscosity and shear stress with respect to shear rate subjected to a variable magnetic field. The blend-based MR fluid shows about 10% improvement over the sedimentation rate of silicon oil-based MR fluid as compared to that to conventional MR fluid. The cottonseed oil blend-based MR fluid performs better than sunflower-based fluid in terms of the viscosity and structure. Full article
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15 pages, 4485 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Particle Alignment Using Silicone Oil Plasticizer and Its Effects on the Field-Dependent Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomers
by Muntaz Hana Ahmad Khairi, Abdul Yasser Abd Fatah, Saiful Amri Mazlan, U. Ubaidillah, Nur Azmah Nordin, Nik Intan Nik Ismail, Seung Bok Choi and Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174085 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3809
Abstract
The existing mold concept of fabricating magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) tends to encounter several flux issues due to magnetic flux losses inside the chamber. Therefore, this paper presents a new approach for enhancing particle alignment through MRE fabrication as a means to provide better [...] Read more.
The existing mold concept of fabricating magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) tends to encounter several flux issues due to magnetic flux losses inside the chamber. Therefore, this paper presents a new approach for enhancing particle alignment through MRE fabrication as a means to provide better rheological properties. A closed-loop mold, which is essentially a fully guided magnetic field inside the chamber, was designed in order to strengthen the magnetic flux during the curing process with the help of silicone oil (SO) plasticizers. The oil serves the purpose of softening the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of the fabricated MRE samples. The field-dependent dynamic properties of the MREs were measured several ways using a rheometer, namely, strain sweep, frequency sweep, and magnetic field sweep. The analysis implied that the effectiveness of the MRE was associated with the use of the SO, and the closed-loop mold helped enhance the absolute modulus up to 0.8 MPa. The relative magnetorheological (MR) effects exhibited high values up to 646%. The high modulus properties offered by the MRE with SO are believed to be potentially useful in industry applications, particularly as vibration absorbers, which require a high range of stiffness. Full article
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20 pages, 4775 KiB  
Article
Material Characterization of Magnetorheological Elastomers with Corroded Carbonyl Iron Particles: Morphological Images and Field-dependent Viscoelastic Properties
by Siti Aishah Binti Abdul Aziz, Saiful Amri Mazlan, Nur Azmah Nordin, Nor Azlin Nazira Abd Rahman, U Ubaidillah, Seung-Bok Choi and Norzilawati Mohamad
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133311 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2825
Abstract
High temperatures and humidity could alter the field-dependent rheological properties of MR materials. These environmental phenomena may accelerate the deterioration processes that will affect the long-term rheological reliability of MR materials such as MR elastomer (MRE). This study therefore attempts to investigate the [...] Read more.
High temperatures and humidity could alter the field-dependent rheological properties of MR materials. These environmental phenomena may accelerate the deterioration processes that will affect the long-term rheological reliability of MR materials such as MR elastomer (MRE). This study therefore attempts to investigate the field-dependent rheological characteristics of MRE with corroded carbonyl iron particles (CIPs). The corroded CIPs were treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a way of providing realistic environments in gauging the CIPs reaction towards the ambient conditions. The corroded CIPs along with silicone rubber as a matrix material were used in the fabrication of the MRE samples. To observe the effect of HCl treatment on the CIPs, the morphological observations of MREs with non-corroded and corroded CIPs were investigated via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and x-ray diffractometer (XRD). In addition, the magnetic properties were examined through the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), while the field-dependent rheological characteristics such as the storage modulus of MRE with the corroded CIPs were also tested and compared with the non-corroded CIPs. The results showed that the corroded CIPs possessed hydrangea-like structures. In the meantime, it was identified that a sudden reduction of up to 114% of the field-dependent MR effect of MRE with the corroded CIPs was observed as a result of the weakened interfacial bonding between the CIPs and the silicon in the outer layers of the CIPs structure. Full article
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