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Special Issue "Carbonic Anhydrase and Biomarker Research 2022"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2023) | Viewed by 1611

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our previous series of Special Issues “Carbonic Anhydrase and Biomarker Research”, “Carbonic Anhydrase and Biomarker Research 2020” and “Carbonic Anhydrase and Biomarker Research 2021”.

Carbonic anhydrase is a widely distributed metalloenzyme catalysing the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. It plays a fundamental role in a number of physiological processes, including gas exchange, pH homeostasis, electrolyte transport, metabolic reactions, bone resorption and calcification. Recently, its involvement in several pathological conditions, as well as sensitivity to chemical pollutants, has advanced the research on carbonic anhydrase in the biomarker discovery field.

A biomarker is defined as a cellular, biochemical or molecular alteration that is measurable in biological media as an indicator of normal biological or pathogenic processes, or a response to an exposure or intervention. Biomarkers are useful tools in a wide range of fields, including medicine, drug discovery, environmental health and ecotoxicology.

In recent years, alterations in the expression of specific carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been proposed as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in the clinical field, mainly in cancer research.

Moreover, the sensitivity of specific carbonic anhydrase isoforms to environmental pollutants has given rise to new perspectives in the potential use of carbonic anhydrase as a pollution biomarker.

This Special Issue of IJMS is aimed to cover the more recent insights into the research of carbonic anhydrase as a promising biomarker in several areas of interest, from human health to environmental sciences, opening new perspectives for the translation of advances in basic sciences on this ancient enzyme into innovative applications.

Dr. Maria Giulia Lionetto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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  • carbonic anhydrase
  • biomarker
  • pH regulation
  • cancer
  • tumor microenvironment
  • heavy metals
  • pollutant
  • biomonitoring

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Tumor Tissue and Plasma of Breast Cancer Patients: Reliable Biomarker of Hypoxia and Prognosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054325 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1226
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is recognized as an excellent marker of hypoxia and an adverse prognostic factor in solid tumors, including breast cancer (BC). Clinical studies confirm that soluble CA IX (sCA IX), shed into body fluids, predicts the response to some [...] Read more.
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is recognized as an excellent marker of hypoxia and an adverse prognostic factor in solid tumors, including breast cancer (BC). Clinical studies confirm that soluble CA IX (sCA IX), shed into body fluids, predicts the response to some therapeutics. However, CA IX is not included in clinical practice guidelines, possibly due to a lack of validated diagnostic tools. Here, we present two novel diagnostic tools—a monoclonal antibody for CA IX detection by immunohistochemistry and an ELISA kit for the detection of sCA IX in the plasma—validated on a cohort of 100 patients with early BC. We confirm that tissue CA IX positivity (24%) correlates with tumor grading, necrosis, negative hormone receptor status, and the TNBC molecular subtype. We show that antibody IV/18 can specifically detect all subcellular forms of CA IX. Our ELISA test provides 70% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Although we showed that this test could detect exosomes in addition to shed CA IX ectodomain, we could not demonstrate a clear association of sCA IX with prognosis. Our results indicate that the amount of sCA IX depends on subcellular CA IX localization, but more strictly on the molecular composition of individual molecular subtypes of BC, particularly on metalloproteinases inhibitor expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrase and Biomarker Research 2022)
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