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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pathogenesis and Future Developments

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 13939

Special Issue Editors


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UOC di Medicina Interna e Gastroenterologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Roma, Italy
Interests: mucosal immunology; inflammatory bowel disease; single cell analysis

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Guest Editor
UOC di Gastroenterologia, Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Medicina dei Sistemi, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, 00133 Roma, Italy
Interests: inflammatory bowel disease; translational research; immunology; nutrition

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Guest Editor
UOC di Medicina Intena e Gastroenterologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Roma, Italy
Interests: inflammatory bowel disease; endoscopy; nutrition; gut microbiota
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal disorders that are typically categorized as one of two subtypes: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

The pathophysiology of IBD involves complex genetic, environmental, epithelial, microbial and immunological factors. Therefore, IBD pathogenesis is a result of an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental impact with regard to the gut microbiome that, through a weakened intestinal barrier, leads to inappropriate intestinal immune activation. The components involved in IBD pathogenesis are continuously being investigated, and this improved knowledge is contributing to the development of new therapies. New approaches must integrate all relevant factors in their totality—the “omes”—and identify the key controllers of biological responses. This can be accomplished with advanced bioinformatics tools, which together represent the essence of network medicine. Here, we invite experts to contribute to this Special Issue with original research or review articles that investigate the cellular and molecular basis of IBD, thereby implicating a number of immune and nonimmune cell types in its pathogenesis, such as macrophages, innate lymphoid cells and subsets of CD4+ T cells, as well as fibroblasts, epithelial cells and endothelial cells.

Dr. Valentina Petito
Dr. Irene Marafini
Dr. Franco Scaldaferri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Innate and adaptative immunity
  • Mucus layer
  • Autophagy
  • Toll-like receptors
  • Dysbiosis
  • Short-chain fatty acids
  • Inflammatory bowel disease

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

16 pages, 1113 KiB  
Review
MicroRNAs as Innovative Biomarkers for Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Prediction of Colorectal Cancer
by Letizia Masi, Ivan Capobianco, Carlotta Magrì, Irene Marafini, Valentina Petito and Franco Scaldaferri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147991 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2997
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). These are autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with a chronic relapsing and remitting course. Due to complex interactions between multiple factors in the etiology of IBD, the discovery of new [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). These are autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with a chronic relapsing and remitting course. Due to complex interactions between multiple factors in the etiology of IBD, the discovery of new predictors of disease course and response to therapy, and the development of effective therapies is a significant challenge. The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of conserved endogenous, small non-coding RNA molecules with a length of 18–25 nucleotides, that regulate gene expression by an RNA interference process, is implicated in the complex pathogenetic context of IBD. Both tissue-derived, circulating, and fecal microRNAs have been explored as promising biomarkers in the diagnosis and the prognosis of disease severity of IBD. In this review, we summarize the expressed miRNA profile in blood, mucosal tissue, and stool and highlight the role of miRNAs as biomarkers with potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Moreover, we discuss the new perspectives in developing a new screening model for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) based on fecal miRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pathogenesis and Future Developments)
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30 pages, 16554 KiB  
Review
Fat of the Gut: Epithelial Phospholipids in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
by Lidiya V. Boldyreva, Maryana V. Morozova, Snezhanna S. Saydakova and Elena N. Kozhevnikova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111682 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6701
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a distinct set of clinical symptoms resulting from chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Despite the significant progress in understanding the etiology and development of treatment strategies, IBD remain incurable for thousands of patients. Metabolic deregulation is [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a distinct set of clinical symptoms resulting from chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Despite the significant progress in understanding the etiology and development of treatment strategies, IBD remain incurable for thousands of patients. Metabolic deregulation is indicative of IBD, including substantial shifts in lipid metabolism. Recent data showed that changes in some phospholipids are very common in IBD patients. For instance, phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/PC ratios are associated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Composition of phospholipids also changes upon IBD towards an increase in arachidonic acid and a decrease in linoleic and a-linolenic acid levels. Moreover, an increase in certain phospholipid metabolites, such as lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide, can result in enhanced intestinal inflammation, malignancy, apoptosis or necroptosis. Because some phospholipids are associated with pathogenesis of IBD, they may provide a basis for new strategies to treat IBD. Current attempts are aimed at controlling phospholipid and fatty acid levels through the diet or via pharmacological manipulation of lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pathogenesis and Future Developments)
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10 pages, 4577 KiB  
Review
Multi-Omics Analysis of Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: What Benefits for Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Tools?
by Vickie Lacroix, Alexis Cassard, Emmanuel Mas and Frederick Barreau
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011255 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3307
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are multifactorial diseases that involve in particular a modification of the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis. The initial sets of metataxonomic and metagenomic data first made it possible to approximate the microbiota [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are multifactorial diseases that involve in particular a modification of the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis. The initial sets of metataxonomic and metagenomic data first made it possible to approximate the microbiota profile in IBD. In addition, today the new ‘omics’ techniques have enabled us to draw up a functional and integrative map of the microbiota. The key concern in IBD is to develop biomarkers that allow us to assess the activity of the disease and predict the complications and progression, while also guiding the therapeutic care so as to develop personalized medicine. In this review, we present all of the latest discoveries on the microbiota provided by “omics” and we outline the benefits of these techniques in developing new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pathogenesis and Future Developments)
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