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Advances in the Understanding of Adipose Tissue Biology and Energy Metabolism 2.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 2374

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Interests: adipose tissue biology; brown adipose tissue; energy expenditure; lipid metabolism; obesity; diabetes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For those working on adipose tissue biology, recent years have been extremely exciting. New evidence has emerged in many aspects of the biology of this tissue and it is now clear that fat is a central organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. Adipose tissues can be better defined as a multi-depot endocrine organ composed of unilocular white adipocytes forming pads of white adipose tissue (WAT), which mainly functions as an energy reservoir by storing lipids, and multilocular brown adipocytes that aggregate in specific anatomical locations constitute discrete depots of brown adipose tissue (BAT), which uses lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Besides these two cell types, especially in specific depots of the organ and both in rodents and in humans, brite/beige adipocytes with morphofunctional features that allow them to modify the phenotype and thus function differentially based on energy metabolism requirements are found. Thus, the whole organ can be “whitened” when there is a surplus of energy intake or we can observe massive browning of it in case of adrenergically driven heat production with increasing energy expenditure for thermoregulation. Furthermore, both WAT and BAT secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites that control systemic energy balance by modulating various neuroendocrine functions acting on the central nervous system as well as in the metabolic activity of peripheral tissues. Nutritional status and environmental stimuli drive the dynamic remodeling of the whole adipose organ and the molecular mechanisms underlying white, beige and brown adipocytes physiology are under intense investigation. Understanding the tissue- and fat-depot-specific molecular details could pave the way for the development of novel therapeutics to curb metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

This Special Issue aims to feature insights into WAT, BAT and beige adipocytes biology in the molecular mechanisms related to these cells/tissues in the physiological modulation of energy metabolism. We also welcome etiological mechanisms of adipose tissue-related metabolic disorders. Brief reports, communications, articles and reviews that include, but are not limited to, topics like adipose tissue crosstalk with other organs (neuroendocrine cue), BAT activation, browning, WAT expandability are welcome. In addition, we will consider articles addressing cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues and the interaction between adipose resident immune cells and metabolic dysfunctions.

Due to the success of the first volume of this Special Issue, we would like to continue the push to advance this field and are therefore looking to publish more results and new insights from recent research projects. You can find Volume 1 by using the following link:

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/EST275UZ80

Dr. Andrea Frontini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • white adipose tissue
  • brown adipose tissue
  • brite/beige adipocytes
  • neuro-endocrine system
  • energy metabolism
  • obesity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 3402 KiB  
Article
Chemerin Stimulates the Secretory Activity of BME-UV1 Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
by Żaneta Dzięgelewska-Sokołowska, Alicja Majewska, Iwona Szopa and Małgorzata Gajewska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(8), 4147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25084147 - 9 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Adipose tissue is an active endocrine gland, synthesizing and secreting multiple signaling molecules termed adipokines. Following the detection of adipokines and their receptors in the mammary tissue of various species, it is indicated that adipokines play a role in the development of the [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue is an active endocrine gland, synthesizing and secreting multiple signaling molecules termed adipokines. Following the detection of adipokines and their receptors in the mammary tissue of various species, it is indicated that adipokines play a role in the development of the mammary gland. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration-dependent influence of three adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, and chemerin, on the viability, apoptosis, and secretory activity of BME-UV1 bovine mammary epithelial cells. The study confirmed that BME-UV1 cells contain the leptin receptor (Ob-R) protein, and express transcripts of adiponectin (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) and chemerin (CMLKR1 and GPR1) receptors. Regardless of the administered dose, none of the three tested adipokines had an effect on the viability of BME-UV1 cells, and the number of apoptotic cells remained unchanged. However, chemerin (100 ng/mL) stimulated BME-UV1 cells to synthesize and secrete αS1-casein, the major protein component of milk. These results indicate that chemerin may be a potent regulator of the bovine mammary epithelial cells’ functional differentiation, contributing, along with the major systemic hormones and local growth factors, to the development of the bovine mammary gland. Full article
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14 pages, 486 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Circulating Biomarkers and Body Composition Parameters in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Community-Based Study
by Nader Tarabeih, Alexander Kalinkovich, Shai Ashkenazi, Stacey S. Cherny, Adel Shalata and Gregory Livshits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25020881 - 10 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disease involving multiple physiological, biochemical, and metabolic abnormalities. The search for reliable biomarkers may help to better elucidate its pathogenesis and develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies. In the present population-based study, we looked for biomarkers of [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disease involving multiple physiological, biochemical, and metabolic abnormalities. The search for reliable biomarkers may help to better elucidate its pathogenesis and develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies. In the present population-based study, we looked for biomarkers of MetS among obesity- and inflammation-related circulating factors and body composition parameters in 1079 individuals (with age range between 18 and 80) belonging to an ethnically homogeneous population. Plasma levels of soluble markers were measured by using ELISA. Body composition parameters were assessed using bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Statistical analysis, including mixed-effects regression, with MetS as a dependent variable, revealed that the most significant independent variables were mainly adipose tissue-related phenotypes, including fat mass/weight (FM/WT) [OR (95% CI)], 2.77 (2.01–3.81); leptin/adiponectin ratio (L/A ratio), 1.50 (1.23–1.83); growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) levels, 1.32 (1.08–1.62); inflammatory markers, specifically monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR), 2.53 (2.00–3.15), and a few others. Additive Bayesian network modeling suggests that age, sex, MHR, and FM/WT are directly associated with MetS and probably affect its manifestation. Additionally, MetS may be causing the GDF-15 and L/A ratio. Our novel findings suggest the existence of complex, age-related, and possibly hierarchical relationships between MetS and factors associated with obesity. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 1364 KiB  
Review
New Mediators in the Crosstalk between Different Adipose Tissues
by Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Natalia de las Heras, Beatriz G. Gálvez, Tamara Fernández-Marcelo, Elisa Fernández-Millán and Óscar Escribano
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(9), 4659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25094659 - 25 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Adipose tissue is a multifunctional organ that regulates many physiological processes such as energy homeostasis, nutrition, the regulation of insulin sensitivity, body temperature, and immune response. In this review, we highlight the relevance of the different mediators that control adipose tissue activity through [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue is a multifunctional organ that regulates many physiological processes such as energy homeostasis, nutrition, the regulation of insulin sensitivity, body temperature, and immune response. In this review, we highlight the relevance of the different mediators that control adipose tissue activity through a systematic review of the main players present in white and brown adipose tissues. Among them, inflammatory mediators secreted by the adipose tissue, such as classical adipokines and more recent ones, elements of the immune system infiltrated into the adipose tissue (certain cell types and interleukins), as well as the role of intestinal microbiota and derived metabolites, have been reviewed. Furthermore, anti-obesity mediators that promote the activation of beige adipose tissue, e.g., myokines, thyroid hormones, amino acids, and both long and micro RNAs, are exhaustively examined. Finally, we also analyze therapeutic strategies based on those mediators that have been described to date. In conclusion, novel regulators of obesity, such as microRNAs or microbiota, are being characterized and are promising tools to treat obesity in the future. Full article
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