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New Horizons for Investigating Respiratory Diseases: Inflammation and Repair

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 4352

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), 123 St. Stephens Green, D02 YN77 Dublin, Ireland
2. School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College, D02 PN40 Dublin, Ireland
Interests: inhalation drug delivery; nebulization; pulmonary drug delivery; nanoparticles; respiratory diseases; inflammatory diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Respiratory inflammatory diseases are the leading cause of severe illness globally. Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies, for many patients, these diseases are progressive with associated enhanced morbidity and mortality. In fact, the number of deaths from chronic inflammatory lung diseases has increased by 20% over recent years. The pathogenesis of respiratory inflammatory diseases involves multipart interactions between pro-inflammatory stimuli and a variety of cell types including neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, causing the destruction of lung parenchyma and airway remodeling.

Hence, there is an urgent requirement to develop innovative approaches to diagnose and treat pulmonary inflammatory diseases. To this end, numerous novel treatment strategies and diagnostic methods are required. Moreover, understanding the key regulators of inflammation and repair in pulmonary diseases remains a major impediment.

Lead by Dr. Ronan MacLoughlin and assisted by Dr. Mohammad Doroudian and Dr. Mohsen Moghoofei, this forthcoming Special Issue aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of respiratory diseases and their molecular mechanisms. We invite reviews and original research describing the recent advances in novel treatment strategies, newly identified/better understood molecular mechanisms as well as novel therapeutics and treatments for lung diseases. Of key value from this special issue shall be the translational considerations, and how do we move from the bench to the bedside.

Dr. Ronan MacLoughlin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • asthma
  • COPD
  • ARDS
  • ALI
  • IPF
  • emphysema
  • pulmonary fibrosis
  • inflammasomes
  • exosomes
  • novel therapeutic strategies

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 3644 KiB  
Article
Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 3 Induces Endothelial Barrier Loss via ADAM10-Mediated Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin Cleavage
by Jialin Wu, Ying Liang, Panfeng Fu, Anlin Feng, Qing Lu, Hoshang J. Unwalla, David P. Marciano, Stephen M. Black and Ting Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216083 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-supporting strategy employed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). However, MV-associated mechanical stress exacerbates existing lung inflammation in ICU patients, resulting in limited improvement in mortality and a condition known as Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is [...] Read more.
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-supporting strategy employed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). However, MV-associated mechanical stress exacerbates existing lung inflammation in ICU patients, resulting in limited improvement in mortality and a condition known as Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a circulating bioactive lipid that maintains endothelial integrity primarily through S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). During VILI, mechanical stress upregulates endothelial S1PR3 levels. Unlike S1PR1, S1PR3 mediates endothelial barrier disruption through Rho-dependent pathways. However, the specific impact of elevated S1PR3 on lung endothelial function, apart from Rho activation, remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of S1PR3 in endothelial pathobiology during VILI using an S1PR3 overexpression adenovirus. S1PR3 overexpression caused cytoskeleton rearrangement, formation of paracellular gaps, and a modified endothelial response towards S1P. It resulted in a shift from S1PR1-dependent barrier enhancement to S1PR3-dependent barrier disruption. Moreover, S1PR3 overexpression induced an ADAM10-dependent cleavage of Vascular Endothelial (VE)-cadherin, which hindered endothelial barrier recovery. S1PR3-induced cleavage of VE-cadherin was at least partially regulated by S1PR3-mediated NFκB activation. Additionally, we employed an S1PR3 inhibitor TY-52156 in a murine model of VILI. TY-52156 effectively attenuated VILI-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts and protein concentration, suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited lung inflammation as assessed via a histological evaluation. These findings confirm that mechanical stress associated with VILI increases S1PR3 levels, thereby altering the pulmonary endothelial response towards S1P and impairing barrier recovery. Inhibiting S1PR3 is validated as an effective therapeutic strategy for VILI. Full article
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12 pages, 2572 KiB  
Article
Imbalance of Lymphocyte Subsets and CD45RA-Expressing Cells in Intrathoracic Lymph Nodes, Alveolar Compartment and Bloodstream of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Patients
by Miriana d’Alessandro, Laura Bergantini, Sara Gangi, Paolo Cameli, Martina Armati, Matteo Fanetti, Fabrizio Mezzasalma, Stefano Baglioni, SARC-SI Study Group and Elena Bargagli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 10344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241210344 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease mainly affecting the lungs and hilomediastinal lymph nodes. It is characterized by non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas in lymph nodes and lungs. Our study aimed to evaluate and compare T, B and NK cell subsets in the alveolar [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease mainly affecting the lungs and hilomediastinal lymph nodes. It is characterized by non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas in lymph nodes and lungs. Our study aimed to evaluate and compare T, B and NK cell subsets in the alveolar compartment, lymph nodes and the bloodstream simultaneously in the same patients to elucidate the immune responses associated with the development and progression of sarcoidosis. A secondary aim was to evaluate the distribution of CD45RA-expressing cells in the different anatomical compartments. Patients suspected to have sarcoidosis and who underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung-draining lymph node (LLN) biopsy by EBUS-TBNA and peripheral blood (PB) sampling were included in the study. They were monitored at the Regional Referral Centre of Siena University Hospital and the Respiratory Diseases Unit of Perugia Hospital. Multicolour flow cytometry analysis through FASCLyric was performed to assess T, B and NK cell subsets. Thirty-two patients (median age (IQR) 57 (52–58) years) were consecutively and prospectively enrolled. Machine learning analysis created a model which selected CD56dim16bright, CD8, Tfc, Th17, Th12, Tfh17, Tfh2, TcemRA, ThemRA, T naïve, Tc naïve, Breg, CD1d+CD5+, Th-reg, Tfh, Th1 and CD4 cells with an accuracy of 0.9500 (kappa 0.8750). Comparative analysis found 18 cell populations that differed significantly between the three anatomical compartments. The bloodstream was enriched in ThemRA (p = 0.0416), Tfh2 (p = 0.0189), Tfh17 (p = 0.0257), Th2 (p = 0.0212), Th17 (p = 0.0177), Th-naïve (p = 0.0368), CD56dimCD16bright (p < 0.0001), CD8 (p = 0.0319), TcemRA (p < 0.0001) and Tfc cells (p = 0.0004) compared with the alveolar compartment, while Th-reg were lower in PB than BAL (p = 0.0329). The alveolar compartment was enriched in Breg (p = 0.0249) and CD1d+CD5+ (p = 0.0013) with respect to LLN samples and PB. Conversely, Tfh (p = 0.0470), Th1 (p = 0.0322), CD4 (p = 0.0486) and Tc-naïve (p = 0.0009) were more abundant in LLN than in BAL and PB. It has been speculated that changes in the relative contents of PB cells could be related to changes in production and to the selective redistribution of PB cells to granulomatous foci. This study further supports the fact that sarcoidosis is multisystemic in nature. However, the low level of immune cells in peripheral blood of patients with sarcoidosis is concerning. A re-expression of CD45RA on CD4+ and CD8+ cells could result in a reduction in peripheral immune activity. Thus, changes in the spectrum of the bloodstream may reflect both pathogenic and compensatory processes. Full article
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16 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
Electronic Cigarette Exposure Increases the Severity of Influenza a Virus Infection via TRAIL Dysregulation in Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices
by Hina Agraval, Taylor Crue, Niccolette Schaunaman, Mari Numata, Brian J. Day and Hong Wei Chu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054295 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
The use of electronic nicotine dispensing systems (ENDS), also known as electronic cigarettes (ECs), is common among adolescents and young adults with limited knowledge about the detrimental effects on lung health such as respiratory viral infections and underlying mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related [...] Read more.
The use of electronic nicotine dispensing systems (ENDS), also known as electronic cigarettes (ECs), is common among adolescents and young adults with limited knowledge about the detrimental effects on lung health such as respiratory viral infections and underlying mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a protein of the TNF family involved in cell apoptosis, is upregulated in COPD patients and during influenza A virus (IAV) infections, but its role in viral infection during EC exposures remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of ECs on viral infection and TRAIL release in a human lung precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) model, and the role of TRAIL in regulating IAV infection. PCLS prepared from lungs of nonsmoker healthy human donors were exposed to EC juice (E-juice) and IAV for up to 3 days during which viral load, TRAIL, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and TNF-α in the tissue and supernatants were determined. TRAIL neutralizing antibody and recombinant TRAIL were utilized to determine the contribution of TRAIL to viral infection during EC exposures. E-juice increased viral load, TRAIL, TNF-α release and cytotoxicity in IAV-infected PCLS. TRAIL neutralizing antibody increased tissue viral load but reduced viral release into supernatants. Conversely, recombinant TRAIL decreased tissue viral load but increased viral release into supernatants. Further, recombinant TRAIL enhanced the expression of interferon-β and interferon-λ induced by E-juice exposure in IAV-infected PCLS. Our results suggest that EC exposure in human distal lungs amplifies viral infection and TRAIL release, and that TRAIL may serve as a mechanism to regulate viral infection. Appropriate levels of TRAIL may be important to control IAV infection in EC users. Full article
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