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Heterogeneous Catalysts: Design, Synthesis, and Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 June 2024 | Viewed by 1650

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Chemistry Department, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: heterogeneous catalysis in liquid-phase; metal nanoparticles for catalysis; explore the properties of non-noble metals for catalysis; NMR relaxometry to study the interaction between substrate and catalyst surfaces; hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis for biomass valorization; oxidation process of biomass derived molecules for biochemical production
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heterogeneous catalysis is now vital in the chemical industry, considering that over 90% of all chemical manufacturing is based on catalytic processes, and the fact that catalysis contributes to approximately 35% of the world's gross domestic product.

Catalytic reactions do not only occur on the basis of the production of several chemicals and materials, but they play a crucial role in energy applications, pollution control, medical applications, and food production. Progressively, more and more, the increasingly complex reaction networks require not only a given desired conversion being promoted, but any undesirable side reactions must also be avoided: the essential target today deals with an improvement in reaction yields, the simplification of the overall manufacturing process, the elimination of expensive product separation steps, and the minimization of polluting by-products.

Novel nanotechnologies developed in recent years allow for the synthesizing of complex solids with well-defined characteristics. The ability to produce samples with specific sizes or shapes, or to grow complex solid nanostructures, can be exploited to fulfil specific requirements in catalysis in terms of selectivity, as identified via molecular-level investigations on the reaction mechanisms.

This synergy between the surface chemistry of catalysis and nanotechnology is still in its infancy, but has already led to many exciting developments, and promises to revolutionize chemical manufacturing.

For this Special Issue, we welcome work concerning the tenets that can direct research into catalysis, i.e., nanoparticle synthesis, characterization under reaction conditions, and reaction studies using these nanoparticles to determine kinetics, selectivity, deactivation, and other catalytic kinetic parameters which underpin molecular catalysis.

Dr. Marta Stucchi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • metal nanoparticles
  • metal active sites
  • single-site catalysts
  • structure–activity relations
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • nanoparticle synthesis
  • in situ characterization
  • selectivity
  • molecular catalysis

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

15 pages, 4598 KiB  
Review
Catalyst Design through Grafting of Diazonium Salts—A Critical Review on Catalyst Stability
by Szymon Smołka and Katarzyna Krukiewicz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(16), 12575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241612575 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
In the pursuit of designing a reusable catalyst with enhanced catalytic activity, recent studies indicate that electrochemical grafting of diazonium salts is an efficient method of forming heterogeneous catalysts. The aim of this review is to assess the industrial applicability of diazonium-based catalysts [...] Read more.
In the pursuit of designing a reusable catalyst with enhanced catalytic activity, recent studies indicate that electrochemical grafting of diazonium salts is an efficient method of forming heterogeneous catalysts. The aim of this review is to assess the industrial applicability of diazonium-based catalysts with particular emphasis on their mechanical, chemical, and thermal stability. To this end, different approaches to catalyst production via diazonium salt chemistry have been compared, including the immobilization of catalysts by a chemical reaction with a diazonium moiety, the direct use of diazonium salts and nanoparticles as catalysts, the use of diazonium layers to modulate wettability of a carrier, as well as the possibility of transforming the catalyst into the corresponding diazonium salt. After providing descriptions of the most suitable carriers, the most common deactivation routes of catalysts have been discussed. Although diazonium-based catalysts are expected to exhibit good stability owing to the covalent bond created between a catalyst and a post-diazonium layer, this review indicates the paucity of studies that experimentally verify this hypothesis. Therefore, use of diazonium salts appears a promising approach in catalysts formation if more research efforts can focus on assessing their stability and long-term catalytic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysts: Design, Synthesis, and Applications)
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