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Adsorption Mechanism of Novel Porous Materials in Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 12742

Special Issue Editor

College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, P.R. China
Interests: adsorption mechanism; clay; medical drug; molecular simulation; MOF material; halloysite
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental pollutants such as heavy metals and organic contaminants are discharged in a huge quantity from industries and agriculture. On the other hand, medical drugs such as antimicrobials are used for the therapeutic treatment of diseases in humans and animals such as cattle, swine, poultry, and fish for growth promotion. Today, as a consequence of the overuse of chemicals in agriculture, industries, and uprising of prescription medicines as polar molecule pollutants in the aquatic environment, we have found ourselves in a more hostile environment with many hazardous materials, with an omnipresent impact on the local environment. Today, this phenomenon has aroused concerns because these discharged contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, can persist in the environment and be consumed by humans via the food chain or via drinking water in the long run. We cannot overemphasize the importance of the removal of adsorbents. Consequently, public detection, investigation of their environmental behaviors, and their removal using different techniques have become an urgent issue, which is why various articles have discussed removal technologies and adsorption mechanisms—albeit only from a macroscopic or microscopic view, and not from the nanoscale.

The main objective of this Special Issue is to remind everyone of our collective responsibility as regards removing environmental contaminants. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles as well as review articles that will stimulate the continuing efforts to develop a detailed understanding of kinetic molecular adsorption of pollutants and its mechanisms.

Prof. Dr. Po-Hsiang Chang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • porous materials
  • nanominerals
  • adsorption mechanism
  • metal–organic framework materials
  • heavy metals
  • organic contaminants
  • pharmaceuticals
  • molecular simulation
  • morphology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Adsorption Mechanism of Novel Porous Materials in Wastewater Treatment: A New Open Special Issue in Materials Science
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314879 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 966
Abstract
The special titled Adsorption Mechanism of Novel Porous Materials in Wastewater Treatment: A New Open Special Issue in Materials aims to publish high-quality research and review articles on the basic and applied science of porous materials and make great contributions to the understanding [...] Read more.
The special titled Adsorption Mechanism of Novel Porous Materials in Wastewater Treatment: A New Open Special Issue in Materials aims to publish high-quality research and review articles on the basic and applied science of porous materials and make great contributions to the understanding of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in removing pollutants from aqueous and soil environments [...] Full article

Research

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19 pages, 2566 KiB  
Article
Extended Rate Constants Distribution (RCD) Model for Sorption in Heterogeneous Systems: 4. Kinetics of Metal Ions Sorption in the Presence of Complexing Agents—Application to Cu(II) Sorption on Polyethyleneimine Cryogel from Acetate and Tartrate Solutions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 12385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241512385 - 03 Aug 2023
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Here, we report a new version of the extended Rate Constants Distribution (RCD) model for metal ion sorption, which includes complex-formation equilibria. With the RCD-complex model, one can predict sorbent performance in the presence of complexing agents using data on metal ion sorption [...] Read more.
Here, we report a new version of the extended Rate Constants Distribution (RCD) model for metal ion sorption, which includes complex-formation equilibria. With the RCD-complex model, one can predict sorbent performance in the presence of complexing agents using data on metal ion sorption from ligand-free solutions and a set of coefficients for sorption rate constants of different ionic species. The RCD-complex model was applied to breakthrough curves of Cu(II) sorption from acetate and tartrate solutions on polyethyleneimine (PEI) monolith cryogel at different flow rates and ionic speciation. We have shown that, despite the lower stability of Cu(II)-acetate complex, at high flow rates, acetate has a more pronounced negative effect on sorption kinetics than tartrate. The RCD model was successfully used to predict the shape of the breakthrough curves at an arbitrary acetate concentration but failed to predict Cu(II) sorption from tartrate solutions in a broad range of ligand concentrations. Since a twofold increase in sorption capacity was observed at low tartrate concentrations, the latter fact was related to an alteration in the sorption mechanism of Cu(II)-ions, which depended on Cu(II) ionic speciation. The obtained results emphasize the importance of information about sorption kinetics of different ionic forms for the optimization of sorption filter performance in the presence of complexing agents. Full article
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27 pages, 5068 KiB  
Article
Chitosan–Silica Composites for Adsorption Application in the Treatment of Water and Wastewater from Anionic Dyes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(14), 11818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241411818 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
A series of new types of composites (biopolymer–silica materials) are proposed as selective and effective adsorbents. A new procedure for the synthesis of chitosan–nanosilica composites (ChNS) and chitosan–silica gel composites (ChSG) using geometrical modification of silica and mechanosorption of chitosan is applied. The [...] Read more.
A series of new types of composites (biopolymer–silica materials) are proposed as selective and effective adsorbents. A new procedure for the synthesis of chitosan–nanosilica composites (ChNS) and chitosan–silica gel composites (ChSG) using geometrical modification of silica and mechanosorption of chitosan is applied. The highest adsorption efficiency was achieved at pH = 2, hence the desirability of modifications aimed at stabilizing chitosan in such conditions. The amount of chitosan in the synthesis grew to 1.8 times the adsorption capacity for the nanosilica-supported materials and 1.6 times for the silica gel-based composites. The adsorption kinetics of anionic dyes (acid red AR88) was faster for ChNS than for ChSG, which results from a silica-type effect. The various structural, textural, and physicochemical aspects of the chitosan–silica adsorbents were analyzed via small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, low-temperature gas (nitrogen) adsorption, and potentiometric titration, as well as their adsorption effectiveness towards selected dyes. This indicates the synergistic effect of the presence of dye-binding groups of the chitosan component, and the developed interfacial surface of the silica component in composites. Full article
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23 pages, 5362 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Luffa-Leaf-Derived Hierarchical Porous Biochar for Efficient Removal of Rhodamine B and Tetracycline Hydrochloride
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415703 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Luffa leaf (LL) is an agricultural waste produced by loofah. In this work, LL was used as biomass carbon source for biochars for the first time. After carbonization, activation, and chemical co-precipitation treatments, a magnetic lignocellulose-derived hierarchical porous biochar was obtained. The specific [...] Read more.
Luffa leaf (LL) is an agricultural waste produced by loofah. In this work, LL was used as biomass carbon source for biochars for the first time. After carbonization, activation, and chemical co-precipitation treatments, a magnetic lignocellulose-derived hierarchical porous biochar was obtained. The specific surface area and total pore volume were 2565.4 m2/g and 1.4643 cm3/g, and the surface was rich in carbon and oxygen functional groups. The synthetic dye rhodamine B (RhB) and the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) were selected as organic pollutant models to explore the ability to remove organic pollutants, and the results showed good adsorption performances. The maximum adsorption capacities were 1701.7 mg/g for RhB and 1755.9 mg/g for TH, which were higher than most carbon-based adsorbents. After 10 cycles of use, the removal efficiencies were still maintained at more than 70%, showing good stability. This work not only verified the feasibility of lignocellulose LL as a carbon source to prepare biochar but also prepared a magnetic hierarchical porous adsorbent with good performances that can better treat RhB and TH, which provided a new idea and direction for the efficient removal of organic pollutants in water. Full article
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20 pages, 7078 KiB  
Article
Influence of Microbial Treatment on the Preparation of Porous Biochar with Stepped-Up Performance and Its Application in Organic Pollutants Control
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214082 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 809
Abstract
In this study, Irisensata Thunb grass (ITG) was used as a biomass carbon resource to prepare biochars for the first time. After microbial treatment, the obtained microbial-treated ITG (MITG) was activated by using a mixed base as an activator for preparation of biochar [...] Read more.
In this study, Irisensata Thunb grass (ITG) was used as a biomass carbon resource to prepare biochars for the first time. After microbial treatment, the obtained microbial-treated ITG (MITG) was activated by using a mixed base as an activator for preparation of biochar (MITGB). The specific surface area and total pore volume of MITGB were 3036.4 m2/g and 1.5252 cm3/g, which were higher than those of biochar prepared without microbial treatment (ITGB, 2930.0 m2/g and 1.5062 cm3/g). Besides, the physicochemical properties of MITGB and ITGB were also quite different including micro morphology, surface chemistry, functional groups, etc. In the experiment of removing organic pollutants with synthetic dye RhB and antibiotic TH as the models, MITGB showed excellent treatment ability. The maximum adsorption capacities of MITGB for RhB and TH were 1354.2 and 1462.6 mg/g, which were higher than most of the biochars. In addition, after five cycles of recycling, the adsorption capacities of the organic pollutant models can still be maintained at more than 80%, which showed high stability. This work verified the feasibility of microbial treatment to further improve the performance of biochar and provided a new idea and direction for exploring other biochars. Full article
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16 pages, 4273 KiB  
Article
Selective Recovery of Palladium (II) from Metallurgical Wastewater Using Thiadiazole-Based Chloromethyl Polystyrene-Modified Adsorbent
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(20), 12158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232012158 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Selective adsorption of palladium from metallurgical wastewater containing Pt (IV), Rh (III), Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Pb2+, V3+, and Ti4+ has tremendous economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
Selective adsorption of palladium from metallurgical wastewater containing Pt (IV), Rh (III), Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Pb2+, V3+, and Ti4+ has tremendous economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, a novel thiadiazole-based chloromethyl polystyrene-modified adsorbent, viz. 2, 5-bis-polystyrene-1,3,4-thiadiazole (PS-DMTD), was synthesized using chloromethyl polystyrene as the backbone. The experimental results show that PS-DMTD can selectively separate Pd (II) from metallurgical wastewater in a one-step adsorption process. The calculated saturation adsorption capacity of PS-DMTD for Pd (II) was 176.3 mg/g at 25 °C. The separation factors of βPd (II)/Mn+ (Mn+: Pt (IV), Rh (III), Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Pb2+, V3+, and Ti4+) were all higher than 1 × 104. FT-IR, XPS, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that the adsorption of Pd (II) to PS-DMTD was primarily through a coordination mechanism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the other base metal ions could not coordinate with the PS-DMTD. Pt (IV) could not be adsorbed to PS-DMTD due to its strong chlorophilicity. Furthermore, Rh (III) existed as a polyhydrate, which inhibited Rh (III) diffusion toward the positively charged absorption sites on the PS-DMTD. These results highlight that PS-DMTD has broad application prospects in the recovery of Pd (II) from metallurgical wastewater. Full article
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20 pages, 3695 KiB  
Article
Linear and Nonlinear Regression Analysis for the Adsorption of Remazol Dye by Romanian Brewery Waste By-Product, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911827 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Earth’s water balance and economy are becoming increasingly fragile due to overpopulation, global warming, severe environmental pollution and both surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, it is essential to find solutions to the problems of water scarcity and water pollution. In this research, an [...] Read more.
Earth’s water balance and economy are becoming increasingly fragile due to overpopulation, global warming, severe environmental pollution and both surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, it is essential to find solutions to the problems of water scarcity and water pollution. In this research, an experiment was designed to optimize the technique for the adsorption of Remazol Red F3B (RR) dye by lyophilized brewery yeast waste from the fermentation process. Moreover, we proved that brewery yeast is a great adsorbent. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for optimization of different initial parameters, such as initial dye concentration (5–1000 mg/L), amount of yeast (0.5–2.5 g), pH (3–11) and temperature (20 to 40 °C). Furthermore, the structure and elemental composition of the adsorbent were analyzed with SEM, EDS and FTIR before and after biosorption. The best fits for the mathematical isotherm models in the case of the linear form were the Langmuir I and Freundlich models (R2 = 0.923 and R2 = 0.921) and, for the nonlinear form, the Khan model (R2 = 0.9996) was the best fit. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed the best fit for both linear (plotting t/qt vs. t) and nonlinear forms, are the calculated qe values were similar to the experimental data. Full article
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23 pages, 5247 KiB  
Article
Cow Dung-Based Biochar Materials Prepared via Mixed Base and Its Application in the Removal of Organic Pollutants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 10094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231710094 - 03 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Cow dung (CD) is a waste product of livestock production. Improper disposal of a large amount of CD will cause environmental pollution. In this work, three biochar materials based on CD (BMCD) were prepared by using three types of base, including KOH, NaOH, [...] Read more.
Cow dung (CD) is a waste product of livestock production. Improper disposal of a large amount of CD will cause environmental pollution. In this work, three biochar materials based on CD (BMCD) were prepared by using three types of base, including KOH, NaOH, and mixed base (MB, a mixture of equal mass NaOH and KOH) as activators to investigate the different physicochemical properties of BMCDs (BMCD-K, BMCD-Na, and BMCD-MB). The objective was to verify the effectiveness of MB activation in the preparation of biochar materials. The results show that MB has an effect on the structural characteristics of BMCDs. In particular, the surface area and total pore volume, the specific surface area, and the total pore volume of BMCD-MB (4081.1 m2 g−1 and 3.0118 cm3 g−1) are significantly larger than those of BMCD-K (1784.6 m2 g−1 and 1.1142 cm3 g−1) and BMCD-Na (1446.1 m2 g−1 and 1.0788 cm3 g−1). While synthetic dye rhodamine B (RhB) and antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) were selected as organic pollutant models to explore the adsorption performances, the maximum adsorption capacities of BMCD-K, BMCD-NA and BMCD-MB were 951, 770, and 1241 mg g−1 for RhB, 975, 1051, and 1105 mg g−1 for TH, respectively, which were higher than those of most adsorbents. This study demonstrated that MB can be used as an effective activator for the preparation of biochar materials with enhanced performance. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 391 KiB  
Review
Solid–Water Interface Interaction of Selenium with Fe(II)-Bearing Minerals and Aqueous Fe(II) and S(-II) Ions in the Near-Field of the Radioactive Waste Disposal System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010315 - 24 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Selenium can be highly toxic in excess for both animals and humans. However, since its mobile forms can be easily adsorbed with ferric minerals, its mobility in the natural oxic environment is generally not an issue. Still, the removal and immobilization of the [...] Read more.
Selenium can be highly toxic in excess for both animals and humans. However, since its mobile forms can be easily adsorbed with ferric minerals, its mobility in the natural oxic environment is generally not an issue. Still, the removal and immobilization of the long-lived radioactive isotope 79Se from the contaminated anoxic waters is currently a significant concern. 79Se can be accessible in the case of radionuclidesˈ leaching from radioactive waste disposals, where anoxic conditions prevail and where ferrous ions and Fe(II)-bearing minerals predominate after corrosion processes (e.g., magnetite). Therefore, reductive and adsorptive immobilizations by Fe(II)-bearing minerals are the primary mechanisms for removing redox-sensitive selenium. Even though the information on the sorptive interactions of selenium and Fe(II)-bearing minerals seems to be well documented, this review focuses specifically on the state of the available information on the effects of the redox properties of Fe(II)-bearing solid phases (e.g., ferrous oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and carbonates) on selenium speciation via redox transformation and co-occurring coprecipitation. Full article
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