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Oxidative Stress in Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases: Basic and Translational Aspects 3.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 17279

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Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia Traslazionale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy
Interests: adult growth hormone deficiency; oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome; pituitary disorders; male hypogonadism and infertility; policystic ovary syndrome
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze biotecnologiche di base, cliniche intensivologiche e perioperatorie, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy
Interests: biochemistry; oxidative stress; antioxidants; anthracycline
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oxidative stress, as a mechanism underlying many clinical conditions, is well known and extensively reported in the literature. However, the complex inter-relationships between hormones, oxidative status, and inflammation are still far from being completely understood, since reciprocal and opposite influences can be exerted between these pathogenic factors in endocrine disease. Moreover, biochemical/biological data and application in clinical trials are still distant, requiring a more translational approach. The concept of what constitutes a hormone itself is changing, including virtually all organs and systems. Therefore, we aim to publish a Special Issue which can cover a wide spectrum, from biological to translational studies, in the field of endocrine and metabolic disorders.

This Special Issue seeks regular papers, reviews, and opinions, on topics including but not limited to:

  • Oxidative stress and endocrine disorders;
  • Oxidative stress and hormone metabolism;
  • Biomarkers and diagnostic methods in oxidative stress;
  • Antioxidant therapeutics;
  • Oxidative biomarkers.

All papers related to any aspect of oxidative stress physiology, biochemistry, and physiopathological bases in endocrine disease will be considered for this Special Issue.

Due to your extensive competence in the field, it would be an honor to receive a contribution to give greater value to the present project.

Dr. Antonio Mancini
Dr. Andrea Silvestrini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • radical species
  • nutraceutics
  • metabolic syndrome
  • endocrine glands
  • hormone metabolism
  • inflammation in endocrine disorders

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1743 KiB  
Article
Effect of Repeated Bolus and Continuous Glucose Infusion on DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Healthy Male Volunteers
by Laura Bragagna, Christina Polak, Lisa Schütz, Lina Maqboul, Carmen Klammer, Roland Feldbauer, Agnes Draxler, Martin Clodi and Karl-Heinz Wagner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713608 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Glucose variability (GV), which describes fluctuations in blood glucose levels within the day, is a phenomenon that is increasingly becoming the target of scientific attention when it comes to increased risk of coronary heart disease. Effects of GV may contribute to the development [...] Read more.
Glucose variability (GV), which describes fluctuations in blood glucose levels within the day, is a phenomenon that is increasingly becoming the target of scientific attention when it comes to increased risk of coronary heart disease. Effects of GV may contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia can lead to oxidative stress resulting in molecular damage due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To discover more about the immediate effects of GV, continuous vs. bolus intravenous glucose administration was applied to 10 healthy men aged 21–30 years over a time frame of 48 h. Whole blood and plasma were analyzed for DNA damage using a comet assay with 3 different treatments (lysis buffer, H2O2, and the lesion-specific enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)) as well as for the oxidative stress markers protein carbonyls (PC), unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A significant time effect was found in the three DNA damage treatments as well as in PC and UCB possibly due to circadian changes on oxidative stress, but no intervention group effect was observed for any of the markers. In conclusion, bolus vs. continuous glucose administration had no significant acute effect on DNA damage and markers of oxidative stress in healthy men. Full article
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Review

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12 pages, 791 KiB  
Review
Total Antioxidant Capacity: Biochemical Aspects and Clinical Significance
by Andrea Silvestrini, Elisabetta Meucci, Bianca Maria Ricerca and Antonio Mancini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310978 - 1 Jul 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3869
Abstract
Despite the physiological role of oxidant molecules, oxidative stress (OS) could underlie several human diseases. When the levels of antioxidants are too low or too high, OS occurs, leading to damage at the molecular, tissue and cellular levels. Therefore, antioxidant compounds could represent [...] Read more.
Despite the physiological role of oxidant molecules, oxidative stress (OS) could underlie several human diseases. When the levels of antioxidants are too low or too high, OS occurs, leading to damage at the molecular, tissue and cellular levels. Therefore, antioxidant compounds could represent a way to modulate OS and/or to maintain proper redox balance. This review provides an overview of the methods available to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in biological systems to elucidate the correct terminology and the pathophysiological roles. The clinical context is fundamental to obtain a correct interpretation of TAC. Hence, we discuss metabolic syndrome and infertility, two clinical conditions that involve OS, including the potential prognostic role of TAC evaluation in monitoring antioxidant supplementation. This approach would provide more personalised and precise therapy. Full article
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35 pages, 3855 KiB  
Review
Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress: An Integral, Updated and Critical Overview of Their Metabolic Interconnections
by Patricia González, Pedro Lozano, Gaspar Ros and Francisco Solano
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119352 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4423
Abstract
This review focuses on the multiple and reciprocal relationships that exist between oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Human metabolism uses most of the consumed glucose under aerobic conditions. Oxygen is needed in the mitochondria to obtain energy, as well [...] Read more.
This review focuses on the multiple and reciprocal relationships that exist between oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Human metabolism uses most of the consumed glucose under aerobic conditions. Oxygen is needed in the mitochondria to obtain energy, as well as for the action of microsomal oxidases and cytosolic pro-oxidant enzymes. This relentlessly generates a certain amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although ROS are intracellular signals necessary for some physiological processes, their accumulation leads to oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and progressive resistance to insulin. A cellular pro-oxidant versus an antioxidant equilibrium would regulate ROS levels, but oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and pro-inflammatory conditions feed back to each other and the relevance of the interconnections tends to increase those conditions. Hyperglycemia promotes collateral glucose metabolism through protein kinase C, polyols and hexosamine routes. In addition, it also facilitates spontaneous glucose auto-oxidation and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which in turn interact with their receptors (RAGE). The mentioned processes undermine cellular structures, finally giving place to a progressively greater degree of oxidative stress with further hyperglycemia, metabolic alterations, and diabetes complications. NFκB is the major transcription factor involved in the expression of most of the pro-oxidant mediators, while Nrf2 is the major transcription factor regulating the antioxidant response. FoxO is also involved in the equilibrium, but its role is controversial. This review summarizes the key factors linking the diverse glucose metabolic routes enhanced in hyperglycemia with ROS formation and vice versa, emphasizing the role of the major transcription factors involved in the desirable balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant proteins. Full article
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28 pages, 2762 KiB  
Review
Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome
by Sepiso K. Masenga, Lombe S. Kabwe, Martin Chakulya and Annet Kirabo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(9), 7898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24097898 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 6928
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions associated with the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Metabolic syndrome is closely related to obesity. Increased adiposity promotes inflammation and oxidative stress, which are precursors of various complications involving metabolic syndrome [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions associated with the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Metabolic syndrome is closely related to obesity. Increased adiposity promotes inflammation and oxidative stress, which are precursors of various complications involving metabolic syndrome components, namely insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. An increasing number of studies confirm the importance of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in the etiology of metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have reviewed the mechanisms underlying the role of oxidative stress in contributing to metabolic syndrome. In this review, we highlight mechanisms by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase mitochondrial dysfunction, protein damage, lipid peroxidation, and impair antioxidant function in metabolic syndrome. Biomarkers of oxidative stress can be used in disease diagnosis and evaluation of severity. Full article
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