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Special Issue "Glutamine: An Essential Non-essential Amino Acid 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2023) | Viewed by 1329

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that is derived from glutamate via the action of the enzyme glutamine synthetase in most cells and is the most common amino acid found in the blood. However, it is essential that this amino acid is present in rapidly dividing cells such as cells of the immune system and tumor cells, as the ability of these cells to synthesize glutamine is limited, and it effectively becomes an essential amino acid.

Glutamine can donate its carbon and nitrogen to ensure nucleotide, amino acid, and other macromolecule biosyntheses occur in the cell. It can also be used as a source of cellular energy. Glutamine is a gluconeogenic substrate in the kidney and can act as a non-toxic carrier of ammonia in body fluids.

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, “Glutamine: The Essential Non-Essential Amino Acid”, will focus on the role glutamine plays in normal and transformed cells, be it catabolized to supply cellular energy or anabolized for the creation of key biomolecules in the cell. Of interest is the role that glutamine plays in the regulation of gene transcription and the changes that occur in the cell when they start to rely on this amino acid to supply many of their needs. The results from these studies will help us to better understand the central role that this amino acid plays in cell and organ metabolism, and how disrupting its role in tumor cell biology may give rise to new therapeutic agents.

Dr. Terrence Piva
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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  • glutamine
  • amino acids
  • mitochondria and TCA cycle
  • enzymes
  • nucleotide synthesis
  • cell and body metabolism
  • gene regulation
  • cellular transport
  • immune cell function
  • cell proliferation
  • transformed cells
  • enzyme inhibition

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Effects of Glutamine, Curcumin and Fish Bioactive Peptides Alone or in Combination on Intestinal Permeability in a Chronic-Restraint Stress Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087220 - 13 Apr 2023
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a multifactorial intestinal disorder, is often associated with a disruption in intestinal permeability as well as an increased expression of pro-inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to first test the impact of treatment with glutamine (Gln), a [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a multifactorial intestinal disorder, is often associated with a disruption in intestinal permeability as well as an increased expression of pro-inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to first test the impact of treatment with glutamine (Gln), a food supplement containing natural curcumin extracts and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (Cur); bioactive peptides from a fish protein hydrolysate (Ga); and a probiotic mixture containing Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus helveticus. These compounds were tested alone on a stress-based IBS model, the chronic-restraint stress model (CRS). The combination of Gln, Cur and Ga (GCG) was also tested. Eight-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were exposed to restraint stress for two hours every day for four days and received different compounds every day one week before and during the CRS procedure. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured as a marker of stress, and colonic permeability was evaluated ex vivo in Ussing chambers. Changes in the gene expression of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1 and ZO 1) and inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNFα, CXCL1 and IL10) were assessed using RT-qPCR. The CRS model led to an increase in plasma corticosterone and an increase in colonic permeability compared with unstressed animals. No change in plasma corticosterone concentrations was observed in response to CRS with the different treatments (Gln, Cur, Ga or GCG). Stressed animals treated with Gln, Cur and Ga alone and in combination showed a decrease in colonic permeability when compared to the CRS group, while the probiotic mixture resulted in an opposite response. The Ga treatment induced an increase in the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and the GCG treatment was able to decrease the expression of CXCL1, suggesting the synergistic effect of the combined mixture. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a combined administration of glutamine, a food supplement containing curcumin and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, and bioactive peptides from a fish hydrolysate was able to reduce colonic hyperpermeability and reduce the inflammatory marker CXCL1 in a stress-based model of IBS and could be of interest to patients suffering from IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutamine: An Essential Non-essential Amino Acid 2.0)
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