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Ovarian Dysfunction, Infertility and Its Treatment

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2024) | Viewed by 3663

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Unit of Gynecology, Sant’Andrea Hospital of Rome, University Sapienza of Rome, Via Grottarossa 1039, 00189 Rome, Italy
Interests: reproductive surgery; infertility; PCOS; ovulation induction
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In humans, ovulation is a highly sophisticated mechanism consisting in the release of competent oocytes from the ovaries. This event occurs when the ovarian follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells. After ovulation, during the luteal phase, the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm. Ovulation occurs about midway through the menstrual cycle, after the follicular phase. If ovulatory dysfunction occurs, it is easy to cause infertility.

Recently, a new classification of the ovulatory disorders has been published. This Special Issue is dedicated to new advances in the molecular diagnosis and treatment of ovulatory dysfunctions, including all main endocrinopathies affecting the normal menstrual cycle and fertility. Specific emphasis will be given to experimental, translational, and clinical studies aiming to clarify the safety and efficacy of new drugs and intervention for improving ovulation.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Palomba
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ovulatory disorders
  • menstrual disorders
  • infertility
  • new drugs

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1656 KiB  
Article
The Impacts of Periconceptional Alcohol on Neonatal Ovaries and Subsequent Adult Fertility in the Rat
by Sarah E. Steane, Danielle J. Burgess, Karen M. Moritz and Lisa K. Akison
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052471 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Maternal exposures during pregnancy can impact the establishment of the ovarian reserve in offspring, the lifetime supply of germ cells that determine a woman’s reproductive lifespan. However, despite alcohol consumption being common in women of reproductive age, the impact of prenatal alcohol on [...] Read more.
Maternal exposures during pregnancy can impact the establishment of the ovarian reserve in offspring, the lifetime supply of germ cells that determine a woman’s reproductive lifespan. However, despite alcohol consumption being common in women of reproductive age, the impact of prenatal alcohol on ovarian development is rarely investigated. This study used an established rat model of periconceptional ethanol exposure (PCEtOH; 12.5% v/v ethanol) for 4 days prior to 4 days post-conception. Ovaries were collected from neonates (day 3 and day 10), and genes with protein products involved in regulating the ovarian reserve analyzed by qPCR. Adult offspring had estrous cycles monitored and breeding performance assessed. PCEtOH resulted in subtle changes in expression of genes regulating apoptosis at postnatal day (PN) 3, whilst those involved in regulating growth and recruitment of primordial follicles were dysregulated at PN10 in neonatal ovaries. Despite these gene expression changes, there were no significant impacts on breeding performance in adulthood, nor on F2-generation growth or survival. This contributes additional evidence to suggest that a moderate level of alcohol consumption exclusively around conception, when a woman is often unaware of her pregnancy, does not substantially impact the fertility of her female offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Dysfunction, Infertility and Its Treatment)
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12 pages, 1438 KiB  
Article
Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response Gene Clpp Is Required for Oocyte Function and Female Fertility
by Yagmur Ergun, Aysegul Gizem Imamoglu, Mauro Cozzolino, Cem Demirkiran, Murat Basar, Akanksha Garg, Raziye Melike Yildirim and Emre Seli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031866 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Mitochondrial unfolded protein stress response (mtUPR) plays a critical role in regulating cellular and metabolic stress response and helps maintain protein homeostasis. Caseinolytic peptidase P (CLPP) is one of the key regulators of mtUPR and promotes unfolded protein degradation. Previous studies demonstrated that [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial unfolded protein stress response (mtUPR) plays a critical role in regulating cellular and metabolic stress response and helps maintain protein homeostasis. Caseinolytic peptidase P (CLPP) is one of the key regulators of mtUPR and promotes unfolded protein degradation. Previous studies demonstrated that global deletion of Clpp resulted in female infertility, whereas no impairment was found in the mouse model with targeted deletion of Clpp in cumulus/granulosa cells. These results suggest the need to delineate the function of Clpp in oocytes. In this study, we aimed to further explore the role of mtUPR in female reproductive competence and senescence using a mouse model. Oocyte-specific targeted deletion of Clpp in mice resulted in female subfertility associated with metabolic and functional abnormalities in oocytes, thus highlighting the importance of CLPP-mediated protein homeostasis in oocyte competence and reproductive function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Dysfunction, Infertility and Its Treatment)
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Review

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25 pages, 1005 KiB  
Review
Beyond the Umbrella: A Systematic Review of the Interventions for the Prevention of and Reduction in the Incidence and Severity of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in Patients Who Undergo In Vitro Fertilization Treatments
by Stefano Palomba, Flavia Costanzi, Scott M. Nelson, Aris Besharat, Donatella Caserta and Peter Humaidan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(18), 14185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241814185 - 16 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the main severe complication of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The aim of the current study was to identify the interventions for the prevention of and reduction in the incidence and severity of OHSS in [...] Read more.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the main severe complication of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The aim of the current study was to identify the interventions for the prevention of and reduction in the incidence and severity of OHSS in patients who undergo IVF not included in systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and assess and grade their efficacy and evidence base. The best available evidence for each specific intervention was identified, analyzed in terms of safety/efficacy ratio and risk of bias, and graded using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) hierarchy of evidence. A total of 15 interventions to prevent OHSS were included in the final analysis. In the IVF population not at a high risk for OHSS, follitropin delta for ovarian stimulation may reduce the incidence of early OHSS and/or preventive interventions for early OHSS. In high-risk patients, inositol pretreatment, ovulation triggering with low doses of urinary hCG, and the luteal phase administration of a GnRH antagonist may reduce OHSS risk. In conclusion, even if not supported by systematic reviews with homogeneity of the RCTs, several treatments/strategies to reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS have been shown to be promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Dysfunction, Infertility and Its Treatment)
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