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Biomaterials: From Design, Synthesis and Characterization to Application

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 May 2024) | Viewed by 9329

Special Issue Editors

Senior Lecturer in Industrial Biotechnology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: tissue engineering; biomedical engineering; biotechnology; microbiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK
Interests: ceramic; ceramic composites; bioceramic; electrolyte polymer membranes; clay/polymer nanocomposites for medical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials are substances that have been engineered to interact with biological systems for medical purposes, including therapeutic and diagnostic applications. These materials can be derived either from nature or synthesized via chemical approaches, using metallic components, polymers, ceramics or composite materials. Biomaterials science, i.e. the study of biomaterials, encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a peer-reviewed forum for the publication of original research and review papers in the field of biomaterials science. We invite authors to submit research and review articles related to the wide range of physical, biological and chemical sciences that underpin the design, synthesis and characterization of biomaterials. We are also interested in research on the assessment and evaluation of biomaterials via 2D cell cultures, 3D tissue cultures and/or in vivo testing; the applications of biomaterials in drug delivery, gene therapy, cell therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and diagnostic systems.

Dr. Tao Sun
Dr. Xujin Bao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • synthesis
  • characterization
  • therapeutics
  • diagnosis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 16379 KiB  
Article
Calcification of Various Bioprosthetic Materials in Rats: Is It Really Different?
by Irina Y. Zhuravleva, Elena V. Karpova, Anna A. Dokuchaeva, Anatoly T. Titov, Tatiana P. Timchenko and Maria B. Vasilieva
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087274 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
The causes of heart valve bioprosthetic calcification are still not clear. In this paper, we compared the calcification in the porcine aorta (Ao) and the bovine jugular vein (Ve) walls, as well as the bovine pericardium (Pe). Biomaterials were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) [...] Read more.
The causes of heart valve bioprosthetic calcification are still not clear. In this paper, we compared the calcification in the porcine aorta (Ao) and the bovine jugular vein (Ve) walls, as well as the bovine pericardium (Pe). Biomaterials were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) and diepoxide (DE), after which they were implanted subcutaneously in young rats for 10, 20, and 30 days. Collagen, elastin, and fibrillin were visualized in non-implanted samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, histological methods, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the dynamics of calcification. By the 30th day, calcium accumulated most intensively in the collagen fibers of the GA-Pe. In elastin-rich materials, calcium deposits were associated with elastin fibers and localized differences in the walls of Ao and Ve. The DE-Pe did not calcify at all for 30 days. Alkaline phosphatase does not affect calcification since it was not found in the implant tissue. Fibrillin surrounds elastin fibers in the Ao and Ve, but its involvement in calcification is questionable. In the subcutaneous space of young rats, which are used to model the implants’ calcification, the content of phosphorus was five times higher than in aging animals. We hypothesize that the centers of calcium phosphate nucleation are the positively charged nitrogen of the pyridinium rings, which is the main one in fresh elastin and appears in collagen as a result of GA preservation. Nucleation can be significantly accelerated at high concentrations of phosphorus in biological fluids. The hypothesis needs further experimental confirmation. Full article
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19 pages, 10002 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Nanorough Surface of TiO2 Thin Films on the Compatibility with Endothelial Cells
by Irina Yu. Zhuravleva, Maria A. Surovtseva, Andrey A. Vaver, Evgeny A. Suprun, Irina I. Kim, Natalia A. Bondarenko, Oleg S. Kuzmin, Alexander P. Mayorov and Olga V. Poveshchenko
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076699 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
The cytocompatibility of titanium oxides (TiO2) and oxynitrides (N-TiO2, TiOxNy) thin films depends heavily on the surface topography. Considering that the initial relief of the substrate and the coating are summed up in the final [...] Read more.
The cytocompatibility of titanium oxides (TiO2) and oxynitrides (N-TiO2, TiOxNy) thin films depends heavily on the surface topography. Considering that the initial relief of the substrate and the coating are summed up in the final topography of the surface, it can be expected that the same sputtering modes result in different surface topography if the substrate differs. Here, we investigated the problem by examining 16 groups of samples differing in surface topography; 8 of them were hand-abraded and 8 were machine-polished. Magnetron sputtering was performed in a reaction gas medium with various N2:O2 ratios and bias voltages. Abraded and polished uncoated samples served as controls. The surfaces were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytocompatibility of coatings was evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity, adhesion, viability, and NO production. It has been shown that the cytocompatibility of thin films largely depends on the surface nanostructure. Both excessively low and excessively high density of peaks, high and low kurtosis of height distribution (Sku), and low rates of mean summit curvature (Ssc) have a negative effect. Optimal cytocompatibility was demonstrated by abraded surface with a TiOxNy thin film sputtered at N2:O2 = 1:1 and Ub = 0 V. The nanopeaks of this surface had a maximum height, a density of about 0.5 per 1 µm2, Sku from 4 to 5, and an Ssc greater than 0.6. We believe that the excessive sharpness of surface nanostructures formed during magnetron sputtering of TiO2 and N-TiO2 films, especially at a high density of these structures, prevents both adhesion of endothelial cells, and their further proliferation and functioning. This effect is apparently due to damage to the cell membrane. At low height, kurtosis, and peak density, the main factor affecting the cell/surface interface is inefficient cell adhesion. Full article
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16 pages, 3162 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Polymeric Particles for Modular Tissue Cultures in Developmental Engineering
by Yu Xiang, Jiongyi Yan, Xujin Bao, Andrew Gleadall, Paul Roach and Tao Sun
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065234 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Developmental engineering (DE) aims to culture mammalian cells on corresponding modular scaffolds (scale: micron to millimeter), then assemble these into functional tissues imitating natural developmental biology processes. This research intended to investigate the influences of polymeric particles on modular tissue cultures. When poly(methyl [...] Read more.
Developmental engineering (DE) aims to culture mammalian cells on corresponding modular scaffolds (scale: micron to millimeter), then assemble these into functional tissues imitating natural developmental biology processes. This research intended to investigate the influences of polymeric particles on modular tissue cultures. When poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) particles (diameter: 5–100 µm) were fabricated and submerged in culture medium in tissue culture plastics (TCPs) for modular tissue cultures, the majority of adjacent PMMA, some PLA but no PS particles aggregated. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) could be directly seeded onto large (diameter: 30–100 µm) PMMA particles, but not small (diameter: 5–20 µm) PMMA, nor all the PLA and PS particles. During tissue cultures, HDFs migrated from the TCPs surfaces onto all the particles, while the clustered PMMA or PLA particles were colonized by HDFs into modular tissues with varying sizes. Further comparisons revealed that HDFs utilized the same cell bridging and stacking strategies to colonize single or clustered polymeric particles, and the finely controlled open pores, corners and gaps on 3D-printed PLA discs. These observed cell–scaffold interactions, which were then used to evaluate the adaptation of microcarrier-based cell expansion technologies for modular tissue manufacturing in DE. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 2391 KiB  
Review
The Utilisation of Hydrogels for iPSC-Cardiomyocyte Research
by Leena Patel, Joshua C. Worch, Andrew P. Dove and Katja Gehmlich
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 9995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24129995 - 10 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Cardiac fibroblasts’ (FBs) and cardiomyocytes’ (CMs) behaviour and morphology are influenced by their environment such as remodelling of the myocardium, thus highlighting the importance of biomaterial substrates in cell culture. Biomaterials have emerged as important tools for the development of physiological models, due [...] Read more.
Cardiac fibroblasts’ (FBs) and cardiomyocytes’ (CMs) behaviour and morphology are influenced by their environment such as remodelling of the myocardium, thus highlighting the importance of biomaterial substrates in cell culture. Biomaterials have emerged as important tools for the development of physiological models, due to the range of adaptable properties of these materials, such as degradability and biocompatibility. Biomaterial hydrogels can act as alternative substrates for cellular studies, which have been particularly key to the progression of the cardiovascular field. This review will focus on the role of hydrogels in cardiac research, specifically the use of natural and synthetic biomaterials such as hyaluronic acid, polydimethylsiloxane and polyethylene glycol for culturing induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). The ability to fine-tune mechanical properties such as stiffness and the versatility of biomaterials is assessed, alongside applications of hydrogels with iPSC-CMs. Natural hydrogels often display higher biocompatibility with iPSC-CMs but often degrade quicker, whereas synthetic hydrogels can be modified to facilitate cell attachment and decrease degradation rates. iPSC-CM structure and electrophysiology can be assessed on natural and synthetic hydrogels, often resolving issues such as immaturity of iPSC-CMs. Biomaterial hydrogels can thus provide a more physiological model of the cardiac extracellular matrix compared to traditional 2D models, with the cardiac field expansively utilising hydrogels to recapitulate disease conditions such as stiffness, encourage alignment of iPSC-CMs and facilitate further model development such as engineered heart tissues (EHTs). Full article
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19 pages, 7914 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Vegetable Oil-Based Biomaterials: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications
by Chiara Nurchi, Silvia Buonvino, Ilaria Arciero and Sonia Melino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032153 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
One of the main criteria for ecological sustainability is that the materials produced for common use are green. This can include the use of biomaterials and materials that are environmentally friendly, biodegradable and produced at low cost. The exploration of natural resources as [...] Read more.
One of the main criteria for ecological sustainability is that the materials produced for common use are green. This can include the use of biomaterials and materials that are environmentally friendly, biodegradable and produced at low cost. The exploration of natural resources as sustainable precursors leads to the production of biopolymers that are useful for 3D printing technology. Recently, waste vegetable oils have been found to be a good alternative source for the production of biopolymers in various applications from the engineering to the biomedicine. In this review, the processes for the synthesis of vegetable oil-based biomaterials are described in detail. Moreover, the functionalization strategies to improve the mechanical properties of these materials and the cell-material interaction for their potential use as micro-structured scaffolds in regenerative medicine are discussed. Full article
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