ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Electrochemical Behavior and Application of Advanced Electrode Materials

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 19300

Special Issue Editor

College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
Interests: electrocatalysis; supercapacitor; energy storage and conversion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The excessive use of traditional fossil fuels has led to a serious energy crisis and environmental pollution, so it is urgent to develop efficient, clean and sustainable energy. Energy storage and conversion devices are considered effective approaches to solve this energy problem, including batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, electrocatalysis and so on. The development of advanced electrode materials is the key to achieving efficient energy storage and conversion, which include positive electrode materials, negative electrode materials, electrolytes, separators, etc. The rational design of electrode materials at the molecular level is helpful to improve their electrochemical performance, such as energy density, power capability, safety, durability, and catalytic efficiency. At the same time, studying the evolution behavior of electrode materials during the electrochemical process is of great significance to reveal the operational mechanism and failure mechanism of materials, thus helping to further optimize their performance.

This Special Issue on “Electrochemical Behavior and Application of Advanced Electrode Materials” seeks high-quality works on the latest advances in various electrode materials. The topic focuses on the design and electrochemical behavior of advanced electrode materials, and their application in batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, electrocatalysis, etc. We are pleased to invite you to contribute related original articles or reviews.

Dr. Jing Yu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • batteries
  • fuel cells
  • supercapacitors
  • electrocatalysis
  • energy materials
  • electrodes
  • separators
  • electrochemical behavior

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

13 pages, 5603 KiB  
Article
Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy-Amine Thermosets and Solvate IL: Towards New Composite Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310703 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 956
Abstract
To effectively use (Li) lithium metal anodes, it is becoming increasingly necessary to create membranes with high lithium conductivity, electrochemical and thermal stabilities, as well as adequate mechanical properties. Composite gel polymer electrolytes (CGPE) have emerged as a promising strategy, offering improved ionic [...] Read more.
To effectively use (Li) lithium metal anodes, it is becoming increasingly necessary to create membranes with high lithium conductivity, electrochemical and thermal stabilities, as well as adequate mechanical properties. Composite gel polymer electrolytes (CGPE) have emerged as a promising strategy, offering improved ionic conductivity and structural performance compared to polymer electrolytes. In this study, a simple and scalable approach was developed to fabricate a crosslinked polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based membrane, comprising two different glass fiber reinforcements, in terms of morphology and thickness. The incorporation of a solvated ionic liquid into the developed membrane enhances the ionic conductivity and reduces flammability in the resulting CGPE. Galvanostatic cycling experiments demonstrate favorable performance of the composite membrane in symmetric Li cells. Furthermore, the CGPE demonstrated electrochemical stability, enabling the cell to cycle continuously for more than 700 h at a temperature of 40 °C without short circuits. When applied in a half-cell configuration with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes, the composite membrane enabled cycling at different current densities, achieving a discharge capacity of 144 mAh·g−1. Overall, the findings obtained in this work highlight the potential of crosslinked PEO-based composite membranes for high-performance Li metal anodes, with enhanced near room temperature conductivity, electrochemical stability, and cycling capability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3037 KiB  
Article
Plasma-Induced Oxygen Vacancies in N-Doped Hollow NiCoPBA Nanocages Derived from Prussian Blue Analogue for Efficient OER in Alkaline Media
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119246 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Although water splitting is a promising method to produce clean hydrogen energy, it requires efficient and low-cost catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This study focused on plasma treatment’s significance of surface oxygen vacancies in improving OER electrocatalytic activity. For this, we [...] Read more.
Although water splitting is a promising method to produce clean hydrogen energy, it requires efficient and low-cost catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This study focused on plasma treatment’s significance of surface oxygen vacancies in improving OER electrocatalytic activity. For this, we directly grew hollow NiCoPBA nanocages using a Prussian blue analogue (PBA) on nickel foam (NF). The material was treated with N plasma, followed by a thermal reduction process for inducing oxygen vacancies and N doping on the structure of NiCoPBA. These oxygen defects were found to play an essential role as a catalyst center for the OER in enhancing the charge transfer efficiency of NiCoPBA. The N-doped hollow NiCoPBA/NF showed excellent OER performance in an alkaline medium, with a low overpotential of 289 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and a high stability for 24 h. The catalyst also outperformed a commercial RuO2 (350 mV). We believe that using plasma-induced oxygen vacancies with simultaneous N doping will provide a novel insight into the design of low-priced NiCoPBA electrocatalysts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 9757 KiB  
Article
Preparation of a Mussel-Inspired Supramolecular Polymer Coating Containing Graphene Oxide on Magnesium Alloys with Anti-Corrosion and Self-Healing Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054981 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Herein, we present a mussel-inspired supramolecular polymer coating to improve the an-ti-corrosion and self-healing properties of an AZ31B magnesium alloy. A self-assembled coating of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a supramolecular aggregate that takes advantage of the weak interaction of non-covalent [...] Read more.
Herein, we present a mussel-inspired supramolecular polymer coating to improve the an-ti-corrosion and self-healing properties of an AZ31B magnesium alloy. A self-assembled coating of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a supramolecular aggregate that takes advantage of the weak interaction of non-covalent bonds between molecules. The cerium-based conversion layers overcome the corrosion problem between the coating and the substrate. Catechol mimics mussel proteins to form adherent polymer coatings. Chains of PEI and PAA interact electrostatically at high density, forming a dynamic binding that causes strand entanglement, enabling the rapid self-healing properties of a supramolecular polymer. The addition of graphene oxide (GO) as an anti-corrosive filler gives the supramolecular polymer coating a superior barrier and impermeability properties. The results of EIS revealed that a direct coating of PEI and PAA accelerates the corrosion of magnesium alloys; the impedance modulus of a PEI and PAA coating is only 7.4 × 103 Ω·cm2, and the corrosion current of a 72 h immersion in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution is 1.401 × 10−6 Ω·cm2. The impedance modulus of the addition of a catechol and graphene oxide supramolecular polymer coating is up to 3.4 × 104 Ω·cm2, outperforming the substrate by a factor of two. After soaking in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution for 72 h, the corrosion current is 0.942 × 10−6 A/cm2, which is superior to other coatings in this work. Furthermore, it was found that 10-micron scratches were completely healed in all coatings within 20 min, in the presence of water. The supramolecular polymer offers a new technique for the prevention of metal corrosion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 7181 KiB  
Article
Thermo-Electro-Chemo-Mechanical Coupled Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with LSCF-GDC Composite Cathode
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 4137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24044137 - 18 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Intricate relationships between transport phenomena, reaction mechanisms, and mechanical aspects likely affect the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. This study presents a modeling framework that combines thermo-electro-chemo models (including the methanol conversion process and the electrochemical reactions of the carbon [...] Read more.
Intricate relationships between transport phenomena, reaction mechanisms, and mechanical aspects likely affect the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. This study presents a modeling framework that combines thermo-electro-chemo models (including the methanol conversion process and the electrochemical reactions of the carbon monoxide as well as the hydrogen) and a contact thermo-mechanical model that considers the effective mechanical properties of composite electrode material. Detailed parametric studies are performed focusing on the inlet fuel species (hydrogen, methanol syngas) and flow arrangements (co-flow, counter-flow) under typical operating conditions (operating voltage 0.7 V), and performance indicators of the cell, such as the high-temperature zone, current density, and maximum thermal stress were discussed for parameter optimization. The simulated results show that the high temperature zone of the hydrogen-fueled SOFC is located at the central part of units 5, 6, and 7, and the maximum value is about 40 K higher than that of methanol syngas-fueled SOFC. The charge transfer reactions can occur throughout the cathode layer. The counter-flow improves the trend of the current density distribution of hydrogen-fueled SOFC, while the effect on the current density distribution of methanol syngas-fueled SOFC is small. The distribution characteristics of the stress field within SOFC are extremely complex, and the inhomogeneity of the stress field distribution can be effectively improved by feeding methanol syngas. The counter-flow improves the stress distribution state of the electrolyte layer of methanol syngas-fueled SOFC, and the maximum tensile stress value is reduced by about 37.7%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 6427 KiB  
Article
Design Hybrid Porous Organic/Inorganic Polymers Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane/Pyrene/Anthracene Moieties as a High-Performance Electrode for Supercapacitor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032501 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
We synthesized two hybrid organic–inorganic porous polymers (HPP) through the Heck reaction of 9,10 dibromoanthracene (A-Br2) or 1,3,6,8-tetrabromopyrene (P-Br4)/A-Br2 as co-monomers with octavinylsilsesquioxane (OVS), in order to afford OVS-A HPP and OVS-P-A HPP, respectively. The chemical structures of [...] Read more.
We synthesized two hybrid organic–inorganic porous polymers (HPP) through the Heck reaction of 9,10 dibromoanthracene (A-Br2) or 1,3,6,8-tetrabromopyrene (P-Br4)/A-Br2 as co-monomers with octavinylsilsesquioxane (OVS), in order to afford OVS-A HPP and OVS-P-A HPP, respectively. The chemical structures of these two hybrid porous polymers were validated through FTIR and solid-state 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability and porosity of these materials were measured by TGA and N2 adsorption/desorption analyses, demonstrating that OVS-A HPP has higher thermal stability (Td10: 579 °C) and surface area (433 m2 g−1) than OVS-P-A HPP (Td10: 377 °C and 98 m2 g−1) due to its higher cross-linking density. Furthermore, the electrochemical analysis showed that OVS-P-A HPP has a higher specific capacitance (177 F g −1 at 0.5 A F g−1) when compared to OVS-A HPP (120 F g −1 at 0.5 A F g−1). The electron-rich phenyl rings and Faradaic reaction between the π-conjugated network and anthracene moiety may be attributed to their excellent electrochemical performance of OVS-P-A HPP. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3133 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Activated Carbon Decorated with ZnO Nanorod-Based Electrodes for Desalination of Brackish Water Using Capacitive Deionization Technology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021409 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising and cost-effective technology that is currently being widely explored for removing dissolved ions from saline water. This research developed materials based on activated carbon (AC) materials modified with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and used them as high-performance [...] Read more.
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising and cost-effective technology that is currently being widely explored for removing dissolved ions from saline water. This research developed materials based on activated carbon (AC) materials modified with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and used them as high-performance CDI electrodes for water desalination. The as-prepared electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and their physical properties were studied through SEM and XRD. ZnO-coated AC electrodes revealed a better specific absorption capacity (SAC) and an average salt adsorption rate (ASAR) compared to pristine AC, specifically with values of 123.66 mg/g and 5.06 mg/g/min, respectively. The desalination process was conducted using a 0.4 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with flow rates from 45 mL/min to 105 mL/min under an applied potential of 1.2 V. Furthermore, the energy efficiency of the desalination process, the specific energy consumption (SEC), and the maximum and minimum of the effluent solution concentration were quantified using thermodynamic energy efficiency (TEE). Finally, this work suggested that AC/ZnO material has the potential to be utilized as a CDI electrode for the desalination of saline water. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5413 KiB  
Article
DFT Simulation-Based Design of 1T-MoS2 Cathode Hosts for Li-S Batteries and Experimental Evaluation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415608 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
The main challenge in lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries is the shuttling of lithium polysulphides (LiPSs) caused by the rapid LiPSs migration to the anode and the slow reaction kinetics in the chain of LiPSs conversion. In this study, we explore 1T-MoS2 as [...] Read more.
The main challenge in lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries is the shuttling of lithium polysulphides (LiPSs) caused by the rapid LiPSs migration to the anode and the slow reaction kinetics in the chain of LiPSs conversion. In this study, we explore 1T-MoS2 as a cathode host for Li-S batteries by examining the affinity of 1T-MoS2 substrates (pristine 1T-MoS2, defected 1T-MoS2 with one and two S vacancies) toward LiPSs and their electrocatalytic effects. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations are used to determine the adsorption energy of LiPSs to these substrates, the Gibbs free energy profiles for the reaction chain, and the preferred pathways and activation energies for the slow reaction stage from Li2S4 to Li2S. The obtained information highlights the potential benefit of a combination of 1T-MoS2 regions, without or with one and two sulphur vacancies, for an improved Li-S battery performance. The recommendation is implemented in a Li-S battery with areas of pristine 1T-MoS2 and some proportion of one and two S vacancies, exhibiting a capacity of 1190 mAh/g at 0.1C, with 97% capacity retention after 60 cycles in a schedule of different C-rates from 0.1C to 2C and back to 0.1C. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3658 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Active Sites of Heteroatom Graphene as a Conductive Membrane for the Electrochemical Filtration of Organic Contaminants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14967; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314967 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
The dopants of sulfur, nitrogen, or both, serving as the active sites, into the graphitic framework of graphene is an efficient strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of electrochemical membrane filtration. However, the covalent bonds between the doped atoms and the substrate that [...] Read more.
The dopants of sulfur, nitrogen, or both, serving as the active sites, into the graphitic framework of graphene is an efficient strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of electrochemical membrane filtration. However, the covalent bonds between the doped atoms and the substrate that form different functional groups have a significant role in the specific activity for pollutant degradation. Herein, we found that the singly doped heteroatom graphene (NG and SG) achieved superior removal efficiency of pollutants as compared with that of the double doped heteroatom graphene (SNG). Mechanism studies showed that the doped N of NG presented as graphitic N and substantially increased electron transfer, whereas the doped S of SG posed as -C-SOx-C- provided more adsorption sites to improve electrochemical performance. However, in the case of SNG, the co-doped S and N cannot form the efficient graphitic N and -C-SOx-C- for electrochemical degradation, resulting in a low degradation efficiency. Through the fundamental insights into the bonding of the doped heteroatom on graphene, this work furnishes further directives for the design of desirable heteroatom graphene for membrane filtration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2066 KiB  
Communication
Insights of Fe2O3 and MoO3 Electrodes for Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction in Aprotic Media
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113367 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Transition metal oxides (TMO) have been successfully used as electrocatalytically active materials for CO2 reduction in some studies. Because of the lack of understanding of the catalytic behavior of TMOs, electrochemical methods are used to investigate the CO2 reduction in thin-film [...] Read more.
Transition metal oxides (TMO) have been successfully used as electrocatalytically active materials for CO2 reduction in some studies. Because of the lack of understanding of the catalytic behavior of TMOs, electrochemical methods are used to investigate the CO2 reduction in thin-film nanostructured electrodes. In this context, nanostructured thin films of Fe2O3 and MoO3 in an aprotic medium of acetonitrile have been used to study the CO2 reduction reaction. In addition, a synergistic effect between CO2 and the TMO surface is observed. Faradic cathodic processes not only start at lower potentials than those reported with metal electrodes, but also an increase in capacitive currents is observed, which is directly related to an increase in oxygen vacancies. Finally, the results obtained show CO as a product of the reduction. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

19 pages, 5011 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Manganese-Based Materials for Electrolytic Water Splitting
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076861 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Developing earth-abundant and highly effective electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic water splitting is a prerequisite for the upcoming hydrogen energy society. Recently, manganese-based materials have been one of the most promising candidates to replace noble metal catalysts due to their natural abundance, low cost, adjustable [...] Read more.
Developing earth-abundant and highly effective electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic water splitting is a prerequisite for the upcoming hydrogen energy society. Recently, manganese-based materials have been one of the most promising candidates to replace noble metal catalysts due to their natural abundance, low cost, adjustable electronic properties, and excellent chemical stability. Although some achievements have been made in the past decades, their performance is still far lower than that of Pt. Therefore, further research is needed to improve the performance of manganese-based catalytic materials. In this review, we summarize the research progress on the application of manganese-based materials as catalysts for electrolytic water splitting. We first introduce the mechanism of electrocatalytic water decomposition using a manganese-based electrocatalyst. We then thoroughly discuss the optimization strategy used to enhance the catalytic activity of manganese-based electrocatalysts, including doping and defect engineering, interface engineering, and phase engineering. Finally, we present several future design opportunities for highly efficient manganese-based electrocatalysts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6494 KiB  
Review
Metal-Organic Framework-Based Materials in Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076041 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) are promising for large-scale energy storage systems due to their high safety, large capacity, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness. However, their commercialization is currently hindered by several challenging issues, including cathode degradation and zinc dendrite growth. Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [...] Read more.
Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) are promising for large-scale energy storage systems due to their high safety, large capacity, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness. However, their commercialization is currently hindered by several challenging issues, including cathode degradation and zinc dendrite growth. Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their derivatives have gained significant attention and are widely used in AZIBs due to their highly porous structures, large specific surface area, and ability to design frameworks for Zn2+ shuttle. Based on preceding contributions, this review aims to generalize two design principles for MOF-based materials in AZIBs: cathode preparation and anode protection. For cathode preparation, we mainly introduce novel MOF-based electrode materials such as pure MOFs, porous carbon materials, metal oxides, and their compounds, focusing on the analysis of the specific capacity of AZIBs. For anode protection, we systematically analyze MOF-based materials used as 3D Zn architecture, solid electrolyte interfaces, novel separators, and solid-state electrolytes, highlighting the improvement in the cyclic stability of Zn anodes. Finally, we propose the future development of MOF-based materials in AZIBs. Our work can give some clues for raising the practical application level of aqueous ZIBs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop