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Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 32496

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Centre for Textile Science and Technology, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobial agents concomitant; synergistic and additive effects surface functionalization; antimicrobial properties; biomedical therapies; bioactive molecules; green synthesis; environmentally friendly; circular economy; waste materials’ second life
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials can be used as implantable devices or drug delivery platforms with a significant influence on the patients’ quality of life. Indeed, every year a substantial number of new biomaterials and scaffolding systems are engineered and introduced in the biomedical field with an increased potential for biomedical uses. However, their long-term use can be threatened by the adhesion and proliferation of microorganisms, which can interact and form biofilms, or the formation of fibrosis with cytotoxic responses being very common. Pathogenic microorganisms may cause local infection and, consequent, implant failure, further they can hinder the delivery of therapeutic molecules by specialized delivery platforms, turning them ineffective. Many alternatives have been proposed over the years to prevent such events, including the use of antiseptics and antibiotics or the physical modification of the biomaterial surface, with the incorporation of biomolecules of interest. From specialized polymers and functional groups to silver, and more recently, antimicrobial peptides and natural extracts, different functionalization/modification techniques have been employed in this fight against pathogenic agents.

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further our understanding about the antimicrobial action of specialized biomaterials, new surface-modification strategies, chemical modifications that can be employed to improve their performance, and even original polymeric chemical structures that can be synthetic manufacture with improved properties from which infection control or eradication can be guaranteed. Submissions on the response of pathogenic microorganisms to these implantable devices and new alternatives to reduce infection transmission and biofilm formation are especially encouraged. The goal is to compile enough information so a complete overview of the current state of the art on antimicrobial biomaterials can be attained.

Dr. Helena Felgueiras
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial agents
  • chemical modification
  • polymer engineering
  • polymer synthesis
  • surface functionalization
  • antimicrobial agents immobilization
  • new drug delivery systems
  • microbiocidal
  • infection control

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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27 pages, 7810 KiB  
Article
Microwave Irradiation vs. Structural, Physicochemical, and Biological Features of Porous Environmentally Active Silver–Silica Nanocomposites
by Aleksandra Strach, Mateusz Dulski, Daniel Wasilkowski, Oliwia Metryka, Anna Nowak, Krzysztof Matus, Karolina Dudek, Patrycja Rawicka, Jerzy Kubacki, Natalia Waloszczyk, Agnieszka Mrozik and Sylwia Golba
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076632 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Heavy metals and other organic pollutants burden the environment, and their removal or neutralization is still inadequate. The great potential for development in this area includes porous, spherical silica nanostructures with a well-developed active surface and open porosity. In this context, we modified [...] Read more.
Heavy metals and other organic pollutants burden the environment, and their removal or neutralization is still inadequate. The great potential for development in this area includes porous, spherical silica nanostructures with a well-developed active surface and open porosity. In this context, we modified the surface of silica spheres using a microwave field (variable power and exposure time) to increase the metal uptake potential and build stable bioactive Ag2O/Ag2CO3 heterojunctions. The results showed that the power of the microwave field (P = 150 or 700 W) had a more negligible effect on carrier modification than time (t = 60 or 150 s). The surface-activated and silver-loaded silica carrier features like morphology, structure, and chemical composition correlate with microbial and antioxidant enzyme activity. We demonstrated that the increased sphericity of silver nanoparticles enormously increased toxicity against E. coli, B. cereus, and S. epidermidis. Furthermore, such structures negatively affected the antioxidant defense system of E. coli, B. cereus, and S. epidermidis through the induction of oxidative stress, leading to cell death. The most robust effects were found for nanocomposites in which the carrier was treated for an extended period in a microwave field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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18 pages, 4238 KiB  
Article
Chitosan as a Promising Support of a CDH Activity Preservation System for Biomedical and Industrial Applications
by Justyna Sulej, Monika Osińska-Jaroszuk, Magdalena Jaszek, Anna Olszewska, Anna Belcarz and Wiktoria Piątek-Gołda
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054535 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoprotein catalyzing the oxidation reaction of β-1,4-glycosidic-bonded sugars (lactose or cellobiose), which results in the formation of aldobionic acids and hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct. The biotechnological application of CDH requires the immobilization of the enzyme on [...] Read more.
Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoprotein catalyzing the oxidation reaction of β-1,4-glycosidic-bonded sugars (lactose or cellobiose), which results in the formation of aldobionic acids and hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct. The biotechnological application of CDH requires the immobilization of the enzyme on a suitable support. As a carrier of natural origin used for CDH immobilization, chitosan seems to increase the catalytic potential of the enzyme, especially for applications as packaging in the food industry and as a dressing material in medical applications. The present study aimed to immobilize the enzyme on chitosan beads and determine the physicochemical and biological properties of immobilized CDHs obtained from different fungal sources. The chitosan beads with immobilized CDHs were characterized in terms of their FTIR spectra or SEM microstructure. The most effective method of immobilization in the proposed modification was the covalent bonding of enzyme molecules using glutaraldehyde, resulting in efficiencies ranging from 28 to 99%. Very promising results, compared to free CDH, were obtained in the case of antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Summarizing the obtained data, chitosan seems to be a valuable material for the development of innovative and effective immobilization systems for biomedical applications or food packaging, preserving the unique properties of CDH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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13 pages, 2719 KiB  
Article
Structure and Microbiological Activity of 1H-benzo[d]imidazole Derivatives
by Andrzej Olczak, Tomasz Pawlak, Sylwia Kałużyńska, Katarzyna Gobis, Izabela Korona-Głowniak, Katarzyna Suśniak, Marcin Zaborowski and Małgorzata Szczesio
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043319 - 7 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Three new crystal structures of 1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives were determined. In the structures of these compounds, an identical system of hydrogen bonds, C(4), was observed. Solid-state NMR was applied for testing the quality of the obtained samples. All of these [...] Read more.
Three new crystal structures of 1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives were determined. In the structures of these compounds, an identical system of hydrogen bonds, C(4), was observed. Solid-state NMR was applied for testing the quality of the obtained samples. All of these compounds were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as antifungal activity, by checking their selectivity. ADME calculations indicate that the compounds can be tested as potential drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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20 pages, 9312 KiB  
Article
Design, Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of New N-(1-Hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-6-yl)(hetero)aryl-2-carboxamides as Potential Inhibitors of Mycobacterial Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase
by Petr Šlechta, Adam Anthony Needle, Ondřej Jand’ourek, Pavla Paterová, Klára Konečná, Pavel Bárta, Jiří Kuneš, Vladimír Kubíček, Martin Doležal and Marta Kučerová-Chlupáčová
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032951 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Tuberculosis remains a serious killer among infectious diseases due to its incidence, mortality, and occurrence of resistant mycobacterial strains. The challenge to discover new antimycobacterial agents forced us to prepare a series of N-(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-6-yl)(hetero)aryl-2-carboxamides 1–19 via the acylation of 6-aminobenzo[ [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis remains a serious killer among infectious diseases due to its incidence, mortality, and occurrence of resistant mycobacterial strains. The challenge to discover new antimycobacterial agents forced us to prepare a series of N-(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-6-yl)(hetero)aryl-2-carboxamides 1–19 via the acylation of 6-aminobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborol-1(3H)-ol with various activated (hetero)arylcarboxylic acids. These novel compounds have been tested in vitro against a panel of clinically important fungi and bacteria, including mycobacteria. Some of the compounds inhibited the growth of mycobacteria in the range of micromolar concentrations and retained this activity also against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. Half the maximal inhibitory concentrations against the HepG2 cell line indicated an acceptable toxicological profile. No growth inhibition of other bacteria and fungi demonstrated selectivity of the compounds against mycobacteria. The structure–activity relationships have been derived and supported with a molecular docking study, which confirmed a selectivity toward the potential target leucyl-tRNA synthetase without an impact on the human enzyme. The presented compounds can become important materials in antimycobacterial research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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17 pages, 4434 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Performance of Innovative Functionalized Surfaces Based on Enamel Coatings: The Effect of Silver-Based Additives on the Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity
by Hamza Ur Rehman, Francesca Russo, Massimo Calovi, Orietta Massidda and Stefano Rossi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032364 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Frequently touched surfaces (FTS) that are contaminated with pathogens are one of the main sources of nosocomial infections, which commonly include hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). HAIs are considered the most common adverse event that has a significant burden on the public’s health [...] Read more.
Frequently touched surfaces (FTS) that are contaminated with pathogens are one of the main sources of nosocomial infections, which commonly include hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). HAIs are considered the most common adverse event that has a significant burden on the public’s health worldwide currently. The persistence of pathogens on contaminated surfaces and the transmission of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens by way of healthcare surfaces, which are frequently touched by healthcare workers, visitors, and patients increase the risk of acquiring infectious agents in hospital environments. Moreover, not only in hospitals but also in high-traffic public places, FTS play a major role in the spreading of pathogens. Consequently, attention has been devoted to developing novel and alternative methods to tackle this problem. This study planned to produce and characterize innovative functionalized enameled coated surfaces supplemented with 1% AgNO3 and 2% AgNO3. Thus, the antimicrobial properties of the enamels against relevant nosocomial pathogens including the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and the yeast Candida albicans were assessed using the ISO:22196:2011 norm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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19 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
Ultrasensitive Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using SuperSelective Primer-Based Real-Time PCR Assays
by Anshika Narang, Salvatore A. E. Marras, Natalia Kurepina, Varsha Chauhan, Elena Shashkina, Barry Kreiswirth, Mandira Varma-Basil, Christopher Vinnard and Selvakumar Subbian
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15752; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415752 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis is a significant global health issue. The presence of heteroresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical to developing fully drug-resistant tuberculosis cases. The currently available molecular techniques may detect one copy of mutant bacterial genomic DNA in the presence of [...] Read more.
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis is a significant global health issue. The presence of heteroresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical to developing fully drug-resistant tuberculosis cases. The currently available molecular techniques may detect one copy of mutant bacterial genomic DNA in the presence of about 1–1000 copies of wild-type M. tuberculosis DNA. To improve the limit of heteroresistance detection, we developed SuperSelective primer-based real-time PCR assays, which, by their unique assay design, enable selective and exponential amplification of selected point mutations in the presence of abundant wild-type DNA. We designed SuperSelective primers to detect genetic mutations associated with M. tuberculosis resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampin. We evaluated the efficiency of our assay in detecting heteroresistant M. tuberculosis strains using genomic DNA isolated from laboratory strains and clinical isolates from the sputum of tuberculosis patients. Results show that our assays detected heteroresistant mutations with a specificity of 100% in a background of up to 104 copies of wild-type M. tuberculosis genomic DNA, corresponding to a detection limit of 0.01%. Therefore, the SuperSelective primer-based RT-PCR assay is an ultrasensitive tool that can efficiently diagnose heteroresistant tuberculosis in clinical specimens and contributes to understanding the drug resistance mechanisms. This approach can improve the management of antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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10 pages, 935 KiB  
Article
The In Vitro Effect of Laser Irradiation (Er:YAG and CO2) and Chemical Reagents (Hydrogen Peroxide, Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine, or Sodium Fluoride) Alone or in Combination on Reducing Root Caries Bacteria
by Nitya Reddy, Janina Golob Deeb, Todd Kitten, Caroline K. Carrico and Kinga Grzech-Leśniak
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415732 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
(1) Lasers have been used for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity and bacterial reductions in periodontology. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) lasers with chlorhexidine [...] Read more.
(1) Lasers have been used for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity and bacterial reductions in periodontology. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) lasers with chlorhexidine (CHX), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or sodium fluoride (NaF) on the viability of oral bacteria associated with root caries. (2) Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis were grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth, diluted to an OD660 of 0.5, and treated with antiseptics with or without simultaneous irradiation with the Er:YAG and CO2 lasers for 30 s repeated three times. The treatment groups consisted of 1: no treatment, 2: 0.5% H2O2 alone, 3: 0.5% NaOCl alone, 4: 0.12% CHX alone, 5: 2% NaF alone, 6: laser alone, 7: laser with 0.5% H2O2, 8: laser with 0.5% NaOCl, 9: laser with 0.12% CHX, and 10: laser with 2% NaF for both lasers. The microbial viability was determined through plating and viable colonies were counted, converted into CFU/mL, and transformed into log form. The statistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed paired t-test. (3) The use of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers alone failed to show statistically significant antibacterial activity against any of the bacteria. The only effective monotreatment was CHX for S. mutans. The combined treatment of 0.5% NaOCl with Er:YAG produced the greatest reduction in overall viability. (4) The combination of the Er:YAG laser with 0.5% NaOCl resulted in the largest reduction in bacterial survival when compared to monotherapies with antimicrobial solutions or lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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18 pages, 3807 KiB  
Article
A Novel Ag@AgCl Nanoparticle Synthesized by Arctic Marine Bacterium: Characterization, Activity and Mechanism
by Shuang Li, Hui Zhang, Bailin Cong, Peiqing He, Wenqi Liu and Shenghao Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415558 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
An additive- and pollution-free method for the preparation of biogenic silver and silver chloride nanoparticles (Ag@AgCl NPs) was developed from the bacteria Shewanella sp. Arc9-LZ, which was isolated from the deep sea of the Arctic Ocean. The optimal synthesizing conditions were explored, including [...] Read more.
An additive- and pollution-free method for the preparation of biogenic silver and silver chloride nanoparticles (Ag@AgCl NPs) was developed from the bacteria Shewanella sp. Arc9-LZ, which was isolated from the deep sea of the Arctic Ocean. The optimal synthesizing conditions were explored, including light, pH, Ag+ concentration and time. The nanoparticles were studied by means of ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the nanoparticles were spherical and well dispersed, with particle sizes less than 20.00 nm. With Ag@AgCl nanoparticles, the kinetic rate constants for congo red (CR) and rhodamine B (RhB) dye degradation were 2.74 × 10−1 min−1 and 7.78 × 10−1 min−1, respectively. The maximum decolourization efficiencies of CR and RhB were 93.36% and 99.52%, respectively. Ag@AgCl nanoparticles also showed high antibacterial activities against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum indicated that the O-H, N-H and -COO- groups in the supernatant of Arc9-LZ might participate in the reduction, stabilization and capping of nanoparticles. We mapped the schematic diagram on possible mechanisms for synthesizing Ag@AgCl NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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14 pages, 2526 KiB  
Article
Preharvest Application of Commercial Products Based on Chitosan, Phosphoric Acid Plus Micronutrients, and Orange Essential Oil on Postharvest Quality and Gray Mold Infections of Strawberry
by Razieh Rajestary, Panayiota Xylia, Antonios Chrysargyris, Gianfranco Romanazzi and Nikolaos Tzortzakis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415472 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Strawberry is a perishable fruit with a limited shelf life after harvest due to deterioration of quality and the development of gray mold, Rhizopus rot and other minor diseases. In this study, the effectiveness of commercial compounds based on chitosan, phosphoric acid plus [...] Read more.
Strawberry is a perishable fruit with a limited shelf life after harvest due to deterioration of quality and the development of gray mold, Rhizopus rot and other minor diseases. In this study, the effectiveness of commercial compounds based on chitosan, phosphoric acid plus micronutrients, and sweet orange essential oil (EO) in reducing decay and optimizing the quality of strawberries was analyzed. The plant canopy of a greenhouse crop was sprayed once and strawberry fruit were harvested three days later. Gray mold infections were evaluated after chilled storage for seven days at 4 ± 0.5 °C followed by five days shelf life. The qualitative parameters were recorded at harvest (initial day) and after three days of storage at room temperature (RT, 20 °C) or after cold storage and shelf life (CS, 4 °C). The application of sweet orange EO increased the antioxidant and flavonoid content at harvest, while a decrease was reported following three days of storage at RT. At the same time, increased ethylene production and weight loss were observed during CS three days after harvesting. Chitosan treatment maintained the harvest fruit quality and was effective in the control of postharvest decay. Our results suggest that the investigated natural compounds could improve strawberry quality after harvest. Since chitosan performed best in terms of maintaining quality and reducing postharvest decay, it could be considered as a good substitute for chemical-synthetic fungicides for the preservation of strawberry postharvest gray mold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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13 pages, 2272 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Biocompatibility and Biological Potential of a Chitosan Nanoencapsulated Textile Dye
by Eduardo M. Costa, Sara Silva, Freni K. Tavaria and Manuela Pintado
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214234 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Traditionally synthetic textile dyes are hazardous and toxic compounds devoid of any biological activity. As nanoencapsulation of yellow everzol textile dye with chitosan has been shown to produce biocompatible nanoparticles which were still capable of dyeing textiles, this work aims to further characterize [...] Read more.
Traditionally synthetic textile dyes are hazardous and toxic compounds devoid of any biological activity. As nanoencapsulation of yellow everzol textile dye with chitosan has been shown to produce biocompatible nanoparticles which were still capable of dyeing textiles, this work aims to further characterize the biocompatibility of yellow everzol nanoparticles (NPs) and to ascertain if the produced nanoencapsulated dyes possess any biological activity against various skin pathogens in vitro assays and in a cell infection model. The results showed that the NPs had no deleterious effects on the HaCat cells’ metabolism and cell wall, contrary to the high toxicity of the dye. The biological activity evaluation showed that NPs had a significant antimicrobial activity, with low MICs (0.5–2 mg/mL) and MBCs (1–3 mg/mL) being registered. Additionally, NPs inhibited biofilm formation of all tested microorganisms (inhibitions between 30 and 87%) and biofilm quorum sensing. Lastly, the dye NPs were effective in managing MRSA infection of HaCat cells as they significantly reduced intracellular and extracellular bacterial counts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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14 pages, 5098 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Soy Protein Isolate Prepared by Quaternization
by Qi Dong, Jingwen Lei, Hanjian Wang, Meifang Ke, Xiao Liang, Xindi Yang, Hui Liang, Céline Huselstein, Zan Tong and Yun Chen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 9110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169110 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Soy protein isolate (SPI) is green, high-yield natural plant protein, which is widely applied in industry (packing material and adhesives) and tissue engineering. It is meaningful to improve the antibacterial property of soy protein isolate to fabricate versatile safe products to meet people’s [...] Read more.
Soy protein isolate (SPI) is green, high-yield natural plant protein, which is widely applied in industry (packing material and adhesives) and tissue engineering. It is meaningful to improve the antibacterial property of soy protein isolate to fabricate versatile safe products to meet people’s requirements. In this study, quaternized soy protein isolate (QSPI) was synthesized by the reaction between 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EPTMAC) and SPI. The positive charged (17.8 ± 0.23 mV) quaternary ammonium groups endow the QSPI with superior antibacterial properties against multiple bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Notably, QSPI maintains its good biocompatibility and promotes bacterial-infected wound healing in rat models. Furthermore, QSPI possesses superior water solubility in a broad pH range than raw SPI. Altogether, this soy protein isolate derivative with antibacterial property and superior water solubility may extend the application of SPI in industry and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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Review

Jump to: Research

22 pages, 1636 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Peptide Hydrogels
by Aryanna Copling, Maxwell Akantibila, Raaha Kumaresan, Gilbert Fleischer, Dennise Cortes, Rahul S. Tripathi, Valerie J. Carabetta and Sebastián L. Vega
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087563 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3684
Abstract
Advances in the number and type of available biomaterials have improved medical devices such as catheters, stents, pacemakers, prosthetic joints, and orthopedic devices. The introduction of a foreign material into the body comes with a risk of microbial colonization and subsequent infection. Infections [...] Read more.
Advances in the number and type of available biomaterials have improved medical devices such as catheters, stents, pacemakers, prosthetic joints, and orthopedic devices. The introduction of a foreign material into the body comes with a risk of microbial colonization and subsequent infection. Infections of surgically implanted devices often lead to device failure, which leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality. The overuse and improper use of antimicrobials has led to an alarming rise and spread of drug-resistant infections. To overcome the problem of drug-resistant infections, novel antimicrobial biomaterials are increasingly being researched and developed. Hydrogels are a class of 3D biomaterials consisting of a hydrated polymer network with tunable functionality. As hydrogels are customizable, many different antimicrobial agents, such as inorganic molecules, metals, and antibiotics have been incorporated or tethered to them. Due to the increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are being increasingly explored as alternative agents. AMP-tethered hydrogels are being increasingly examined for antimicrobial properties and practical applications, such as wound-healing. Here, we provide a recent update, from the last 5 years of innovations and discoveries made in the development of photopolymerizable, self-assembling, and AMP-releasing hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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12 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
Prevention of Ventriculostomy Related Infection: Effectiveness of Impregnated Biomaterial
by Sylvain Diop, Ariane Roujansky, Hatem Kallel and Roman Mounier
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054819 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
External ventricular drain(EVD) exposes the patient to infectious complications which are associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. Biomaterials impregnated with various antimicrobial agents have been developed to decrease the rate of bacterial colonization and subsequent infection. While promising, antibiotics and silver-impregnated EVD [...] Read more.
External ventricular drain(EVD) exposes the patient to infectious complications which are associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. Biomaterials impregnated with various antimicrobial agents have been developed to decrease the rate of bacterial colonization and subsequent infection. While promising, antibiotics and silver-impregnated EVD showed conflicting clinical results. The aim of the present review is to discuss the challenges associated with the development of antimicrobial EVD catheters and their effectiveness from the bench to the bedside. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
21 pages, 2917 KiB  
Review
The Potential of Antibiotics and Nanomaterial Combinations as Therapeutic Strategies in the Management of Multidrug-Resistant Infections: A Review
by Oluwaseun Ola Adeniji, Nolonwabo Nontongana, Janet Chiyem Okoh and Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315038 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3531
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health concern around the world. This is exacerbated by the non-discovery of novel drugs, the development of resistance mechanisms in most of the clinical isolates of bacteria, as well as recurring infections, hindering disease treatment efficacy. [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health concern around the world. This is exacerbated by the non-discovery of novel drugs, the development of resistance mechanisms in most of the clinical isolates of bacteria, as well as recurring infections, hindering disease treatment efficacy. In vitro data has shown that antibiotic combinations can be effective when microorganisms are resistant to individual drugs. Recently, advances in the direction of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections have embraced antibiotic combinations and the use of nanoparticles conjugated with antibiotics. Nanoparticles (NPs) can penetrate the cellular membrane of disease-causing organisms and obstruct essential molecular pathways, showing unique antibacterial mechanisms. Combined with the optimal drugs, NPs have established synergy and may assist in regulating the general threat of emergent bacterial resistance. This review comprises a general overview of antibiotic combinations strategies for the treatment of microbial infections. The potential of antibiotic combinations with NPs as new entrants in the antimicrobial therapy domain is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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23 pages, 5094 KiB  
Review
Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Agents Delivery—An Up-to-Date Review
by Doina-Antonia Mercan, Adelina-Gabriela Niculescu and Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 13862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232213862 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Infectious diseases constitute an increasing threat to public health and medical systems worldwide. Particularly, the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has left the pharmaceutical arsenal unarmed to fight against such severe microbial infections. Thus, the context has called for a paradigm shift in managing [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases constitute an increasing threat to public health and medical systems worldwide. Particularly, the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has left the pharmaceutical arsenal unarmed to fight against such severe microbial infections. Thus, the context has called for a paradigm shift in managing bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections, leading to the collision of medicine with nanotechnology. As a result, renewed research interest has been noted in utilizing various nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles, aiming to overcome the limitations of current treatment options. In more detail, numerous studies have loaded natural and synthetic antimicrobial agents into different inorganic, lipid, and polymeric-based nanomaterials and tested them against clinically relevant pathogens. In this respect, this paper reviews the most recently reported successfully fabricated nanoformulations that demonstrated a great potential against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites of interest for human medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Biomaterials: Recent Progress)
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