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Advances in the Renin-Angiotensin System

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 2623

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Chemisry, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2950, Chile
Interests: renal system; renal injury; arterial hypertension; renal dysfunction; renin–angiotensin system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure, sodium handling, volume balance and in organ damage during its inappropriate activation. RAS overactivation directly contributes to the establishment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, recent evidence demonstrates an important role of RAS in metabolic disorders, diabetic disease, compensatory alterations in pregnancy, neurodegenerative disorders, among others. The study of the physiology and pathophysiology of RAS could bring new insights that enable a better comprehension of the mechanisms responsible for its regulation and interactions with signaling pathways, all of which may allow the development of new pharmacological targets.

Dr. Alexis A. Gonzalez
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • renin–angiotensin system (RAS)
  • renin
  • angiotensin
  • angiotensin receptor
  • new therapeutic target
  • RAS and hypertension
  • RAS and cardiovascular diseases

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
Urinary Angiotensinogen Displays Sexual Dimorphism in Non-Diabetic Humans and Mice with Overweight
by Alexis A. Gonzalez, Bruna Visniauskas, Virginia Reverte, Ventaka N. Sure, Zoe Vallotton, Bryan S. Torres, Marco A. Acosta, Mahlet Zemedkun, Prasad V. Katakam and Minolfa C. Prieto
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010635 - 4 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Increased body weight (BW) induces inappropriate renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. The activation of the intrarenal RAS is associated with increased urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT), blood pressure (BP), and kidney damage. Here, we examined uAGT excretion levels in young non-diabetic human subjects with overweight (OW) [...] Read more.
Increased body weight (BW) induces inappropriate renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. The activation of the intrarenal RAS is associated with increased urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT), blood pressure (BP), and kidney damage. Here, we examined uAGT excretion levels in young non-diabetic human subjects with overweight (OW) and non-diabetic mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced OW. Human subjects (women and men; 20–28 years old) included two groups: (a) overweight (OW, n = 17, BMI ≥ 25); and (b) controls (normal weight (NW; n = 26, BMI ≤ 25). In these subjects, we measured BP, albuminuria, and protein levels of uAGT by ELISA adjusted by urinary creatinine (expressed by uAGT/uCrea). Mice (female and male C57BL/6J mice, 8 ± 2 weeks of age) also included two groups: HFD or normal fat diet (NFD) fed for 8 weeks. We measured BW, fasting blood glucose (FBG), BP by telemetry, albuminuria, and uAGT by ELISA. In humans: (i) no significant changes were observed in BP, albuminuria, and FBG when comparing NW and OW subjects; (ii) multivariate logistic regression analysis of independent predictors related to uAGT/uCrea levels demonstrated a strong association between uAGT and overweight; (iii) urinary reactive oxygen species (ROS) were augmented in men and women with OW; (iv) the uAGT/uCrea ratio was higher in men with OW. However, the uAGT/uCrea values were lower in women even with OW. In mice: (i) males fed an HFD for 8 weeks became OW while females did not; (ii) no changes were observed either in FBG, BP, or albuminuria; (iii) kidney ROS were augmented in OW male mice after 28 weeks but not in females; (iv) OW male mice showed augmented excretion of uAGT but this was undetectable in females fed either NFD or HFD. In humans and mice who are OW, the urinary excretion of AGT differs between males and females and overcomes overt albuminuria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Renin-Angiotensin System)
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18 pages, 12102 KiB  
Article
Myocardial Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Protein Expression in Ischemic Heart Failure
by Vitalija Siratavičiūtė, Dalia Pangonytė, Lina Utkienė, Lina Jusienė, Jolanta Marcinkevičienė, Zita Stanionienė and Reda Radikė
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(24), 17145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242417145 - 5 Dec 2023
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Abstract
The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis plays a significant role in regulating myocardial remodeling and the development of heart failure (HF), with ACE2 being the primary focus. However, contemporary understanding of the membrane-bound form of the human ACE2 protein remains insufficient. The [...] Read more.
The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis plays a significant role in regulating myocardial remodeling and the development of heart failure (HF), with ACE2 being the primary focus. However, contemporary understanding of the membrane-bound form of the human ACE2 protein remains insufficient. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of ACE2 protein in different cells of the left ventricular myocardium in non-diseased hearts and at various stages of ischemic HF. A total of 103 myocardial tissue samples from the left ventricle underwent quantitative and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. Upon assessing ACE2 immunostaining in all myocardial cells through unselective digital image analysis, there was no change in the stage A HF group. Nevertheless, the expression of ACE2 membrane protein in cardiomyocytes showed a tendency to increase, while non-cardiomyocyte ACE2 expression decreased significantly (p < 0.001). In the stage B HF group, the intensity of ACE2 immunostaining continued to increase with rising cardiomyocyte ACE2 expression (p < 0.001). Non-cardiomyocyte expression, in contrast, remained similar to that observed in the stage A HF group. In the stages C/D HF group, ACE2 expression reached its highest level in cardiomyocytes (p < 0.001), while ACE2 expression in non-cardiomyocytes was the lowest (p < 0.001). These changes in ACE2 protein levels are associated with left ventricular remodeling in ischemic HF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Renin-Angiotensin System)
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9 pages, 1344 KiB  
Communication
Acute In Vivo Administration of Compound 21 Stimulates Akt and ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Mouse Heart and Adipose Tissue
by Diego T. Quiroga, Jorge A. Narvaéz Pardo, María G. Zubiría, Benjamín Barrales, Marina C. Muñoz, Andrés Giovambattista and Fernando P. Dominici
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316839 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 686
Abstract
The angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor has a role in promoting insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanisms underlying the AT2 receptor-induced facilitation of insulin are still not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute in vivo administration of AT2 [...] Read more.
The angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor has a role in promoting insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanisms underlying the AT2 receptor-induced facilitation of insulin are still not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute in vivo administration of AT2 receptor agonist compound 21 (C21) could activate insulin signaling molecules in insulin-target tissues. We report that, in male C57BL/6 mice, an acute (5 min, 0.25 mg/kg; i.v.) injection of C21 induces the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 at activating residues (Ser473 and Thr202/Tyr204, respectively) in both epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and heart tissue. In WAT, the extent of phosphorylation (p) of Akt and ERK1/2 induced by C21 was approximately 65% of the level detected after a bolus injection of a dose of insulin known to induce maximal activation of the insulin receptor (IR). In the heart, C21 stimulated p-Akt to a lesser extent than in WAT and stimulated p-ERK1/2 to similar levels to those attained by insulin administration. C21 did not modify p-IR levels in either tissue. We conclude that in vivo injection of the AT2 receptor agonist C21 activates Akt and ERK1/2 through a mechanism that does not involve the IR, indicating the participation of these enzymes in AT2R-mediated signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Renin-Angiotensin System)
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