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New Perspectives of Colloids for Biological Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 6137

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Guest Editor
Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
Interests: physico-chemical properties of dispersed systems and their stability; the structure and wettability of the polymer (biopolymer layers); interfacial phenomena, the electrokinetic properties of solid-liquid interface
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences is dedicated to recent advances in the research of colloids and colloid-based systems, focused on highlighting recent, interesting investigations and new perspectives conducted in leading laboratories around the world. Our journal is an attractive, open access publishing platform that publishes research on molecular chemistry research data. The field of colloid systems is still a developing scientific area, but a very promising one for many practical applications, especially those that are biological-related. This Special Issue will focus on all aspects of production, modification, investigation and the application of colloids and colloid-based systems, as well as the use of highly specialized methods in order to develop science and, above all, to improve health and quality of life.

Dr. Agnieszka Ewa Wia̧cek
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • colloids
  • emulsions
  • dispersions, stability
  • size distribution
  • zeta potential
  • optical/rheological properties
  • medicine
  • pharmaceuticals
  • cosmetics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2841 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Pectin Films Containing Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Buccal Delivery of Fluconazole
by Namon Hirun, Jongjan Mahadlek, Sontaya Limmatvapirat, Pornsak Sriamornsak, Etsuo Yonemochi, Takayuki Furuishi and Pakorn Kraisit
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(10), 5413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105413 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Fluconazole (FZ) is a potential antifungal compound for treating superficial and systemic candidiasis. However, the use of conventional oral drug products has some limitations. The development of buccal film may be a potential alternative to oral formulations for FZ delivery. The present study [...] Read more.
Fluconazole (FZ) is a potential antifungal compound for treating superficial and systemic candidiasis. However, the use of conventional oral drug products has some limitations. The development of buccal film may be a potential alternative to oral formulations for FZ delivery. The present study involved the development of novel FZ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (FZ-SLNs) in pectin solutions and the investigation of their particle characteristics. The particle sizes of the obtained FZ-SLNs were in the nanoscale range. To produce pectin films with FZ-SLNs, four formulations were selected based on the small particle size of FZ-SLNs and their suitable polydispersity index. The mean particle sizes of all chosen FZ-SLNs formulations did not exceed 131.7 nm, and the mean polydispersity index of each formulation was less than 0.5. The properties of films containing FZ-SLNs were then assessed. The preparation of all FZ-SLN-loaded pectin films provided the mucoadhesive matrices. The evaluation of mechanical properties unveiled the influence of particle size variation in FZ-SLNs on the integrity of the film. The Fourier-transform infrared spectra indicated that hydrogen bonds could potentially form between the pectin-based matrix and the constituents of FZ-SLNs. The differential scanning calorimetry thermogram of each pectin film with FZ-SLNs revealed that the formulation was thermally stable and behaved in a solid state at 37 °C. According to a drug release study, a sustained drug release pattern with a burst in the initial stage for all films may be advantageous for reducing the lag period of drug release. All prepared films with FZ-SLNs provided a sustained release of FZ over 6 h. The films containing FZ-SLNs with a small particle size provided good permeability across the porcine mucosa. All film samples demonstrated antifungal properties. These results suggest the potential utility of pectin films incorporating FZ-SLNs for buccal administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Colloids for Biological Applications)
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26 pages, 8162 KiB  
Article
Starch-Based Polysaccharide Systems with Bioactive Substances: Physicochemical and Wettability Characteristics
by Agnieszka Ewa Wiącek and Anna Furmaniuk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(9), 4590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25094590 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Polysaccharide-based systems have very good emulsifying and stabilizing properties, and starch plays a leading role. Their modifications should add new quality features to the product to such an extent that preserves the structure-forming properties of native starch. The aim of this manuscript was [...] Read more.
Polysaccharide-based systems have very good emulsifying and stabilizing properties, and starch plays a leading role. Their modifications should add new quality features to the product to such an extent that preserves the structure-forming properties of native starch. The aim of this manuscript was to examine the physicochemical characteristics of the combinations of starch with phospholipids or lysozymes and determine the effect of starch modification (surface hydrophobization or biological additives) and preparation temperature (before and after gelatinization). Changes in electrokinetic potential (zeta), effective diameter, and size distribution as a function of time were analyzed using the dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoresis techniques. The wettability of starch-coated glass plates before and after modification was checked by the advancing and receding contact angle measurements, as well as the angle hysteresis, using the settle drop method as a complement to profilometry and FTIR. It can be generalized that starch dispersions are more stable than analogous n-alkane/starch emulsions at room and physiological temperatures. On the other hand, the contact angle hysteresis values usually decrease with temperature increase, pointing to a more homogeneous surface, and the hydrophobization effect decreases vs. the thickness of the substrate. Surface hydrophobization of starch carried out using an n-alkane film does not change its bulk properties and leads to improvement of its mechanical and functional properties. The obtained specific starch-based hybrid systems, characterized in detail by switchable wettability, give the possibility to determine the energetic state of the starch surface and understand the strength and specificity of interactions with substances of different polarities in biological processes and their applicability for multidirectional use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Colloids for Biological Applications)
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14 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Characteristics of Porous Starch Obtained by Combined Physical and Enzymatic Methods, Part 1: Structure, Adsorption, and Functional Properties
by Monika Sujka and Agnieszka Ewa Wiącek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031662 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Porous starch can be applied as an adsorbent and encapsulant for bioactive substances in the food and pharmaceutical industries. By using appropriate modification methods (chemical, physical, enzymatic, or mixed), it is possible to create pores on the surface of the starch granules without [...] Read more.
Porous starch can be applied as an adsorbent and encapsulant for bioactive substances in the food and pharmaceutical industries. By using appropriate modification methods (chemical, physical, enzymatic, or mixed), it is possible to create pores on the surface of the starch granules without disturbing their integrity. This paper aimed to analyze the possibility of obtaining a porous structure for native corn, potato, and pea starches using a combination of ultrasound, enzymatic digestion, and freeze-drying methods. The starch suspensions (30%, w/w) were treated with ultrasound (20 kHz, 30 min, 20 °C), then dried and hydrolyzed with amyloglucosidase (1000 U/g starch, 50 °C, 24 h, 2% starch suspension). After enzyme digestion, the granules were freeze-dried for 72 h. The structure of the native and modified starches were examined using VIS spectroscopy, SEM, ATR-FTIR, and LTNA (low-temperature nitrogen adsorption). Based on the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the starch granules using a laser Doppler velocimeter, zeta potentials were calculated to determine the surface charge level. Additionally, the selected properties such as the water and oil holding capacities, least gelling concentration (LGC), and paste clarity were determined. The results showed that the corn starch was the most susceptible to the combined modification methods and was therefore best suited for the production of porous starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Colloids for Biological Applications)
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21 pages, 10332 KiB  
Article
A Comparative and Critical Analysis for In Vitro Cytotoxic Evaluation of Magneto-Crystalline Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles Using MTT, Crystal Violet, LDH, and Apoptosis Assay
by Juan Luis de la Fuente-Jiménez, César Iván Rodríguez-Rivas, Irma Beatriz Mitre-Aguilar, Andrea Torres-Copado, Eric Alejandro García-López, José Herrera-Celis, María Goretti Arvizu-Espinosa, Marco Antonio Garza-Navarro, Luis Gerardo Arriaga, Janet Ledesma García, Domingo Ixcóatl García-Gutiérrez, Alejandro Zentella Dehesa, Ashutosh Sharma and Goldie Oza
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(16), 12860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241612860 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZFO NPs) are a promising magneto-crystalline platform for nanomedicine-based cancer theranostics. ZFO NPs synthesized using co-precipitation method are characterized using different techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy exhibits absorption peaks specific for ZFO. Raman spectroscopy identifies Raman active, infrared active, and silent vibrational [...] Read more.
Zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZFO NPs) are a promising magneto-crystalline platform for nanomedicine-based cancer theranostics. ZFO NPs synthesized using co-precipitation method are characterized using different techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy exhibits absorption peaks specific for ZFO. Raman spectroscopy identifies Raman active, infrared active, and silent vibrational modes while Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) spectra display IR active modes that confirm the presence of ZFO. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) exhibits the crystalline planes of single-phase ZFO with a face-centered cubic structure that coincides with the selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED). The average particle size according to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is 5.6 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) signals confirm the chemical states of Fe, Zn, and O. A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) displays the magnetic response of ZFO NPs, showing a magnetic moment of 45.5 emu/gm at 70 kOe. These ZFO NPs were then employed for comparative cytotoxicity evaluation using MTT, crystal violet, and LDH assays on breast adenocarcinoma epithelial cell (MCF-7), triple-negative breast cancer lines (MDA-MB 231), and human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK-293). Flow cytometric analysis of all the three cell lines were performed in various concentrations of ZFO NPs for automated cell counting and sorting based on live cells, cells entering in early or late apoptotic phase, as well as in the necrotic phase. This analysis confirmed that ZFO NPs are more cytotoxic towards triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) as compared to breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (HEK-293), thus corroborating that ZFO can be exploited for cancer therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Colloids for Biological Applications)
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22 pages, 8026 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Mechanism of Interactions between the LL-37 Peptide and Model Membranes of Legionella gormanii Bacteria
by Katarzyna Pastuszak, Bozena Kowalczyk, Jacek Tarasiuk, Rafal Luchowski, Wieslaw I. Gruszecki, Małgorzata Jurak and Marta Palusinska-Szysz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 12039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241512039 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Legionella gormanii is a fastidious, Gram-negative bacterium known to be the etiological agent of atypical community-acquired pneumonia. The human cathelicidin LL-37 exhibits a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on L. gormanii. The LL-37 peptide at the concentration of 10 µM causes the bacteria to [...] Read more.
Legionella gormanii is a fastidious, Gram-negative bacterium known to be the etiological agent of atypical community-acquired pneumonia. The human cathelicidin LL-37 exhibits a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on L. gormanii. The LL-37 peptide at the concentration of 10 µM causes the bacteria to become viable but not cultured. The antibacterial activity of the peptide is attributed to its effective binding to the bacterial membrane, as demonstrated by the fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. In this study, to mimic the L. gormanii membranes and their response to the antimicrobial peptide, Langmuir monolayers were used with the addition of the LL-37 peptide to the subphase of the Langmuir trough to represent the extracellular fluid. The properties of the model membranes (Langmuir monolayers) formed by phospholipids (PL) isolated from the L. gormanii bacteria cultured on the non-supplemented (PL−choline) and choline-supplemented (PL+choline) medium were determined, along with the effect of the LL-37 peptide on the intermolecular interactions, packing, and ordering under the monolayer compression. Penetration tests at the constant surface pressure were carried out to investigate the mechanism of the LL-37 peptide action on the model membranes. The peptide binds to the anionic bacterial membranes preferentially, due to its positive charge. Upon binding, the LL-37 peptide can penetrate into the hydrophobic tails of phospholipids, destabilizing membrane integrity. The above process can entail membrane disruption and ultimately cell death. The ability to evoke such a great membrane destabilization is dependent on the share of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and Lifshitz–van der Waals LL-37−PL interactions. Thus, the LL-37 peptide action depends on the changes in the lipid membrane composition caused by the utilization of exogenous choline by the L. gormanii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Colloids for Biological Applications)
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21 pages, 3927 KiB  
Article
QbD-Optimized, Phospholipid-Based Elastic Nanovesicles for the Effective Delivery of 6-Gingerol: A Promising Topical Option for Pain-Related Disorders
by Mohammed Ghazwani, Mohammed H. Alqarni, Umme Hani and Aftab Alam
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 9983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24129983 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
In this study, elastic nanovesicles, constructed of phospholipids optimized by Quality by Design (QbD), release 6-gingerol (6-G), a natural chemical that may alleviate osteoporosis and musculoskeletal-related pain. A 6-gingerol-loaded transfersome (6-GTF) formulation was developed using a thin film and sonication approach. 6-GTFs were [...] Read more.
In this study, elastic nanovesicles, constructed of phospholipids optimized by Quality by Design (QbD), release 6-gingerol (6-G), a natural chemical that may alleviate osteoporosis and musculoskeletal-related pain. A 6-gingerol-loaded transfersome (6-GTF) formulation was developed using a thin film and sonication approach. 6-GTFs were optimized using BBD. Vesicle size, PDI, zeta potential, TEM, in vitro drug release, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for the 6-GTF formulation. The optimized 6-GTF formulation had a 160.42 nm vesicle size, a 0.259 PDI, and a −32.12 mV zeta potential. TEM showed sphericity. The 6-GTF formulation’s in vitro drug release was 69.21%, compared to 47.71% for the pure drug suspension. The Higuchi model best described 6-G release from transfersomes, while the Korsmeyer–Peppas model supported non-Fickian diffusion. 6-GTF had more antioxidant activity than the pure 6-G suspension. The optimized transfersome formulation was converted into a gel to improve skin retention and efficacy. The optimized gel had a spreadability of 13.46 ± 4.42 g·cm/s and an extrudability of 15.19 ± 2.01 g/cm2. The suspension gel had a 1.5 μg/cm2/h ex vivo skin penetration flux, while the 6-GTF gel had 2.71 μg/cm2/h. Rhodamine B-loaded TF gel reached deeper skin layers (25 μm) compared to the control solution in the CLSM study. The gel formulation’s pH, drug concentration, and texture were assessed. This study developed QbD-optimized 6-gingerol-loaded transfersomes. 6-GTF gel improved skin absorption, drug release, and antioxidant activity. These results show that the 6-GTF gel formulation has the ability to treat pain-related illnesses effectively. Hence, this study offers a possible topical treatment for conditions connected to pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Colloids for Biological Applications)
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