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Adipose Tissue Diseases: Physiopathology, Molecular Mechanism, Diagnosis and Treatment

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 4730

Special Issue Editors

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy;Research Division, Dynamical Business and Science Society–DBSS International SAS, Bogotá, Colombia
Interests: Nutrition, diet, ketogenic diet, lipedema, biochemistry of nutrition, nutraceuticals, polyphenols, microRNA, epigenetics, sport nutrition, strength training, nutritional supplementation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Sandro Michelini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Diagnostic and Vascular Rehabilitation Unit, Marino Hospital ADL Roma 6, Rome, Italy
Interests: lymphedema

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adipose tissue is, to all intents and purposes, an organ. Therefore, its specific physiology with endocrine action must be considered. Adipose networks with the other organs through receptors; like other organs, it is subject to specific pathologies.

This Special Issue will discuss the pathologies that directly affect adipose tissue, such as obesity, lipedema, Dercum and Madelung syndromes, multiple lipomatosis and lipodystrophy. It will also explore the etiopathology, diagnostic tools, and treatment or management methods, with particular focus on dietary modifications, food supplements and physical exercise. Finally, it will clarify the biochemical mechanisms involved in the occurrence of these conditions, such as genetics and epigenetics.

Dr. Roberto Cannataro
Dr. Sandro Michelini
Dr. Erika Cione
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • lipedema
  • inflammation
  • body fat
  • adipose tissue
  • Dercum disease
  • lipomatosis
  • lipodystrophy
  • adipocyte

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

31 pages, 2416 KiB  
Article
Observational Study on a Large Italian Population with Lipedema: Biochemical and Hormonal Profile, Anatomical and Clinical Evaluation, Self-Reported History
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031599 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2516
Abstract
We analyzed the medical condition of 360 women affected by lipedema of the lower limbs in stages 1, 2, and 3. The data were assessed for the whole population and compared between different clinical stages, distinguishing between obese and non-obese patients. The most [...] Read more.
We analyzed the medical condition of 360 women affected by lipedema of the lower limbs in stages 1, 2, and 3. The data were assessed for the whole population and compared between different clinical stages, distinguishing between obese and non-obese patients. The most frequent clinical signs were pain when pinching the skin, subcutaneous nodules, and patellar fat pads. The most frequently painful site of the lower limbs was the medial lower third of the thigh. The pain score obtained on lower limb points increased progressively with the clinical stage. In all points evaluated, the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue increased with the clinical stage. Analyzing the data on the lower medial third of the leg and considering only patients with type 3 lipedema, the difference between stages was statistically significant after correction for age and BMI. We found higher levels of C-reactive protein at more severe clinical stages, and the difference was significant after correction for age and BMI between the stages. Overall, the prevalence of alterations of glucose metabolism was 34%, with a progressive increase in prevalence with the clinical stage. The most frequent comorbidities were vitamin D insufficiency, chronic venous disease, allergies, dyslipidemia, headache, and depression of mood. Interestingly, in comparison with the general population, we found higher prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Finally, the clinical stage and the involvement of the upper limbs or obesity suggest a worse clinical, anthropometric, and endocrine–metabolic profile. Full article
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13 pages, 6056 KiB  
Article
Serum Metabolomic Profiling of Patients with Lipedema
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(24), 17437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242417437 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Lipedema is a chronic condition characterized by disproportionate and symmetrical enlargement of adipose tissue, predominantly affecting the lower limbs of women. This study investigated the use of metabolomics in lipedema research, with the objective of identifying complex metabolic disturbances and potential biomarkers for [...] Read more.
Lipedema is a chronic condition characterized by disproportionate and symmetrical enlargement of adipose tissue, predominantly affecting the lower limbs of women. This study investigated the use of metabolomics in lipedema research, with the objective of identifying complex metabolic disturbances and potential biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and treatment strategies. The study group (n = 25) comprised women diagnosed with lipedema. The controls were 25 lean women and 25 obese females, both matched for age. In the patients with lipedema, there were notable changes in the metabolite parameters. Specifically, lower levels of histidine and phenylalanine were observed, whereas pyruvic acid was elevated compared with the weight controls. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the diagnostic accuracy of histidine, phenylalanine, and pyruvic acid concentrations in distinguishing between patients with lipedema and those with obesity but without lipedema revealed good diagnostic ability for all parameters, with pyruvic acid being the most promising (area under the curve (AUC): 0.9992). Subgroup analysis within matched body mass index (BMI) ranges (30.0 to 39.9 kg/m2) further revealed that differences in pyruvic acid, phenylalanine, and histidine levels are likely linked to lipedema pathology rather than BMI variations. Changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-6 TG levels and significant reductions in various LDL-2-carried lipids of patients with lipedema, compared with the lean controls, were observed. However, these lipids were similar between the lipedema patients and the obese controls, suggesting that these alterations are related to adiposity. Metabolomics is a valuable tool for investigating lipedema, offering a comprehensive view of metabolic changes and insights into lipedema’s underlying mechanisms. Full article
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12 pages, 4048 KiB  
Article
STAT3 Signalling Drives LDH Up-Regulation and Adiponectin Down-Regulation in Cachectic Adipocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216343 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Cachexia is a devastating pathology that worsens the quality of life and antineoplastic treatment outcomes of oncologic patients. Herein, we report that the secretome from murine colon carcinoma CT26 induces cachectic features in both murine and human adipocytes that are associated with metabolic [...] Read more.
Cachexia is a devastating pathology that worsens the quality of life and antineoplastic treatment outcomes of oncologic patients. Herein, we report that the secretome from murine colon carcinoma CT26 induces cachectic features in both murine and human adipocytes that are associated with metabolic alterations such as enhanced lactate production and decreased oxygen consumption. The use of oxamate, which inhibits lactate dehydrogenase activity, hinders the effects induced by CT26 secretome. Interestingly, the CT26 secretome elicits an increased level of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased expression of adiponectin. These modifications are driven by the STAT3 signalling cascade since the inhibition of STAT3 with WP1066 impedes the formation of the cachectic condition and the alteration of lactate dehydrogenase and adiponectin levels. Collectively, these findings show that STAT3 is responsible for the altered lactate dehydrogenase and adiponectin levels that, in turn, could participate in the worsening of this pathology and highlight a step forward in the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the onset of the cachectic condition in adipocytes. Full article
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