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Regulatory Mechanisms of Auxin in Plant Growth and Development

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 11225

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
Interests: auxin; ROS; root stem cell; root development; hormone crosstalk; abiotic stress

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As one of the first identified phytohormones, auxin is a key regulator of almost every aspect of plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Since the discovery of auxin receptors in 2005, studies have progressed rapidly to dissect auxin signal transduction, from receptors to transcription factors. Significant progress has recently been achieved in elucidating the auxin-induced apoplastic acidification via increased PM-localized H+-ATPase activity. Moreover, non-canonical auxin signaling was reported to be involved in lateral root development, root stem cell maintenance, and the formation and maintenance of the apical hook. However, it is unclear how canonical and non-canonical auxin signaling coordinate plant growth and development. In addition, the identification of new regulators of auxin signaling which may be at epigenetic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels will uncover how auxin signals are interpreted at the cellular level to regulate plant growth and development.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews providing new regulatory mechanisms of auxin signaling during plant growth and development. Studies focused on the early evolution of the auxin signaling pathway, especially in basal land plants, are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Xiangpei Kong
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • auxin
  • signaling pathway
  • IAA biosynthesis
  • root development
  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • hormone crosstalk
  • crop
  • evolution

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2889 KiB  
Article
The MdAux/IAA2 Transcription Repressor Regulates Cell and Fruit Size in Apple Fruit
by Haidong Bu, Xiaohuan Sun, Pengtao Yue, Junling Qiao, Jiamao Sun, Aide Wang, Hui Yuan and Wenquan Yu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 9454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169454 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant development, and Auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) is a type of auxin-responsive gene and plays an important role in auxin signaling; to date, although 29 Aux/IAA proteins have been reported in Abrabidopsis thaliana, [...] Read more.
Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant development, and Auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) is a type of auxin-responsive gene and plays an important role in auxin signaling; to date, although 29 Aux/IAA proteins have been reported in Abrabidopsis thaliana, only parts of the Aux/IAA family gene functions have been identified. We previously reported that a bud sport of ‘Longfeng’ (LF) apple (Malus domestica), named ‘Grand longfeng’ (GLF), which showed a larger fruit size than LF, has lower expression of MdAux/IAA2. In this study, we identified the function of the MdAux/IAA2 gene in apple fruit size difference using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Overexpression of MdAux/IAA2 decreased the apple flesh callus increment and caused a smaller globular cell size. In addition, overexpression of MdAux/IAA2 in GLF fruit resulted in the reduction of apple fruit size, weight, and cell size, while silencing MdAux/IAA2 in LF apple fruit resulted in an increase in apple fruit weight and cell size. We suggest that the high auxin content depressed the expression of MdAux/IAA2, and that the downregulated expression of MdAux/IAA2 led to the formation of GLF. Our study suggests a mechanism for fruit size regulation in plants and we will explore the transcription factors functioning in this process in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Mechanisms of Auxin in Plant Growth and Development)
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17 pages, 4316 KiB  
Article
Mutation of OsPIN1b by CRISPR/Cas9 Reveals a Role for Auxin Transport in Modulating Rice Architecture and Root Gravitropism
by Huihui Wang, Qiqi Ouyang, Chong Yang, Zhuoyan Zhang, Dianyun Hou, Hao Liu and Huawei Xu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 8965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23168965 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
The distribution and content of auxin within plant tissues affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes. Polar auxin transport (PAT), mainly mediated by auxin influx and efflux transporters, plays a vital role in determining auxin maxima and gradients in plants. The [...] Read more.
The distribution and content of auxin within plant tissues affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes. Polar auxin transport (PAT), mainly mediated by auxin influx and efflux transporters, plays a vital role in determining auxin maxima and gradients in plants. The auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) family is one of the major protein families involved in PAT. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome possesses 12 OsPIN genes. However, the detailed functions of OsPIN genes involved in regulating the rice architecture and gravity response are less well understood. In the present study, OsPIN1b was disrupted by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and its roles in modulating rice architecture and root gravitropism were investigated. Tissue-specific analysis showed that OsPIN1b was mainly expressed in roots, stems and sheaths at the seedling stage, and the transcript abundance was progressively decreased during the seedling stages. Expression of OsPIN1b could be quickly and greatly induced by NAA, indicating that OsPIN1b played a vital role in PAT. IAA homeostasis was disturbed in ospin1b mutants, as evidenced by the changed sensitivity of shoot and root to NAA and NPA treatment, respectively. Mutation of OsPIN1b resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including decreased growth of shoots and primary roots, reduced adventitious root number in rice seedlings, as well as shorter and narrower leaves, increased leaf angle, more tiller number and decreased plant height and panicle length at the late developmental stage. Moreover, ospin1b mutants displayed a curly root phenotype cultured with tap water regardless of lighting conditions, while nutrient solution culture could partially rescue the curly root phenotype in light and almost completely abolish this phenotype in darkness, indicating the involvement of the integration of light and nutrient signals in root gravitropism regulation. Additionally, amyloplast sedimentation was impaired in the peripheral tiers of the ospin1b root cap columella cell, while it was not the main contributor to the abnormal root gravitropism. These data suggest that OsPIN1b not only plays a vital role in regulating rice architecture but also functions in regulating root gravitropism by the integration of light and nutrient signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Mechanisms of Auxin in Plant Growth and Development)
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Review

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24 pages, 3603 KiB  
Review
Identification of the Karyopherin Superfamily in Maize and Its Functional Cues in Plant Development
by Lu Jin, Guobin Zhang, Guixiao Yang and Jiaqiang Dong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214103 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Appropriate nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning of proteins is a vital regulatory mechanism in phytohormone signaling and plant development. However, how this is achieved remains incompletely understood. The Karyopherin (KAP) superfamily is critical for separating the biological processes in the nucleus from those in the cytoplasm. [...] Read more.
Appropriate nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning of proteins is a vital regulatory mechanism in phytohormone signaling and plant development. However, how this is achieved remains incompletely understood. The Karyopherin (KAP) superfamily is critical for separating the biological processes in the nucleus from those in the cytoplasm. The KAP superfamily is divided into Importin α (IMPα) and Importin β (IMPβ) families and includes the core components in mediating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Recent reports suggest the KAPs play crucial regulatory roles in Arabidopsis development and stress response by regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of members in hormone signaling. However, the KAP members and their associated molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood in maize. Therefore, we first identified seven IMPα and twenty-seven IMPβ genes in the maize genome and described their evolution traits and the recognition rules for substrates with nuclear localization signals (NLSs) or nuclear export signals (NESs) in plants. Next, we searched for the protein interaction partners of the ZmKAPs and selected the ones with Arabidopsis orthologs functioning in auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling to predict their potential function. Finally, we found that several ZmKAPs share similar expression patterns with their interacting proteins, implying their function in root development. Overall, this article focuses on the Karyopherin superfamily in maize and starts with this entry point by systematically comprehending the KAP-mediated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport process in plants, and then predicts the function of the ZmKAPs during maize development, with a perspective on a closely associated regulatory mechanism between the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and the phytohormone network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Mechanisms of Auxin in Plant Growth and Development)
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18 pages, 1176 KiB  
Review
Plants in Microgravity: Molecular and Technological Perspectives
by Abu Imran Baba, Mohd Yaqub Mir, Riyazuddin Riyazuddin, Ágnes Cséplő, Gábor Rigó and Attila Fehér
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(18), 10548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231810548 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4108
Abstract
Plants are vital components of our ecosystem for a balanced life here on Earth, as a source of both food and oxygen for survival. Recent space exploration has extended the field of plant biology, allowing for future studies on life support farming on [...] Read more.
Plants are vital components of our ecosystem for a balanced life here on Earth, as a source of both food and oxygen for survival. Recent space exploration has extended the field of plant biology, allowing for future studies on life support farming on distant planets. This exploration will utilize life support technologies for long-term human space flights and settlements. Such longer space missions will depend on the supply of clean air, food, and proper waste management. The ubiquitous force of gravity is known to impact plant growth and development. Despite this, we still have limited knowledge about how plants can sense and adapt to microgravity in space. Thus, the ability of plants to survive in microgravity in space settings becomes an intriguing topic to be investigated in detail. The new knowledge could be applied to provide food for astronaut missions to space and could also teach us more about how plants can adapt to unique environments. Here, we briefly review and discuss the current knowledge about plant gravity-sensing mechanisms and the experimental possibilities to research microgravity-effects on plants either on the Earth or in orbit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Mechanisms of Auxin in Plant Growth and Development)
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