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Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 9461

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Surgical Sciences and Technologies, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Interests: biocompatibility; tissue engineering; stem cells and regenerative medicine; cell biology; advanced in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models

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Guest Editor
Complex Structure of Surgical Sciences and Technologies, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; bone regeneration; stem cells; regenerative medicine; cell culture; 2D and 3D in vitro systems; in vivo models

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A range of natural and engineered materials (metals, ceramics, composites, hydrogels, polymers) are used or synthesized today for tissues regeneration or replacement. A variety of medical applications require these materials—particularly for soft and hard tissue regeneration or replacement— to ensure effective functioning. It is essential that a material does not cause any adverse effects such as injury, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and immunogenicity in the receiving tissue, and generate the most suitable cellular or tissue response. This Special Issue aims to present the latest preclinical (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) and clinical research related to the synthesis, biocompatibility, and clinical application of materials including, but not limited to, ceramics, polymers, metals, composite materials, biomimetic materials, hybrid biomaterials and drug/device combinations, for soft and hard tissue regeneration or replacement. Submitted manuscripts may cover all aspects, ranging from investigations into material synthesis, biocompatibility, and clinical application.

We invite all colleagues to submit manuscripts (full papers, reviews, or notes) in open access to this Special Issue. We encourage to disseminate this invitation to any colleagues who may be interested.

Dr. Francesca Salamanna
Dr. Deyanira Contartese
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • tissue regeneration
  • regenerative medicine
  • synthesis
  • biocompatibility
  • in vitro testing
  • in vivo testing
  • medical applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 16573 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Hydrogel Based on Collagen and Hyaluronic Acid Enriched with Freeze-Dried Sheep Placenta for Wound Healing Support
by Julia Sadlik, Edyta Kosińska, Dagmara Słota, Karina Niziołek, Agnieszka Tomala, Marcin Włodarczyk, Paweł Piątek, Jakub Skibiński, Josef Jampilek and Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031687 - 30 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
In an increasingly aging society, there is a growing demand for the development of technology related to tissue regeneration. It involves the development of the appropriate biomaterials whose properties will allow the desired biological response to be obtained. Bioactivity is strongly affected by [...] Read more.
In an increasingly aging society, there is a growing demand for the development of technology related to tissue regeneration. It involves the development of the appropriate biomaterials whose properties will allow the desired biological response to be obtained. Bioactivity is strongly affected by the proper selection of active ingredients. The aim of this study was to produce bioactive hydrogel materials based on hyaluronic acid and collagen modified by the addition of placenta. These materials were intended for use as dressings, and their physicochemical properties were investigated under simulated biological environmental conditions. The materials were incubated in vitro in different fluids simulating the environment of the human body (e.g., simulated body fluid) and then stored at a temperature close to body temperature. Using an FT-IR spectrophotometer, the functional groups present in the composites were identified. The materials with the added placenta showed an increase in the swelling factor of more than 300%. The results obtained confirmed the potential of using this material as an absorbent dressing. This was indicated by pH and conductometric measurements, sorption, degradation, and surface analysis under an optical microscope. The results of the in vitro biological evaluation confirmed the cytosafety of the tested biomaterials. The tested composites activate monocytes, which may indicate their beneficial properties in the first phases of wound healing. The material proved to be nontoxic and has potential for medical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility)
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19 pages, 12250 KiB  
Article
Which Gelatin and Antibiotic Should Be Chosen to Seal a Woven Vascular Graft?
by Irina Yu. Zhuravleva, Aldar A. Shadanov, Maria A. Surovtseva, Andrey A. Vaver, Larisa M. Samoylova, Sergey V. Vladimirov, Tatiana P. Timchenko, Irina I. Kim and Olga V. Poveshchenko
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25020965 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Among the vascular prostheses used for aortic replacement, 95% are woven or knitted grafts from polyester fibers. Such grafts require sealing, for which gelatin (Gel) is most often used. Sometimes antibiotics are added to the sealant. We used gelatin type A (GelA) or [...] Read more.
Among the vascular prostheses used for aortic replacement, 95% are woven or knitted grafts from polyester fibers. Such grafts require sealing, for which gelatin (Gel) is most often used. Sometimes antibiotics are added to the sealant. We used gelatin type A (GelA) or type B (GelB), containing one of the three antibiotics (Rifampicin, Ceftriaxone, or Vancomycin) in the sealant films. Our goal was to study the effect of these combinations on the mechanical and antibacterial properties and the cytocompatibility of the grafts. The mechanical characteristics were evaluated using water permeability and kinking radius. Antibacterial properties were studied using the disk diffusion method. Cytocompatibility with EA.hy926 endothelial cells was assessed via indirect cytotoxicity, cell adhesion, and viability upon direct contact with the samples (3, 7, and 14 days). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to visualize the cells in the deep layers of the graft wall. “GelA + Vancomycin” and “GelB + vancomycin” grafts showed similar good mechanical characteristics (permeability~10 mL/min/cm2, kinking radius 21 mm) and antibacterial properties (inhibition zones for Staphilococcus aureus~15 mm, for Enterococcus faecalis~12 mm). The other samples did not exhibit any antibacterial properties. The cytocompatibility was good in all the tested groups, but endothelial cells exhibited the ability to self-organize capillary-like structures only when interacting with the “GelB + antibiotics” coatings. Based on the results obtained, we consider “GelB + vancomycin” sealant to be the most promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility)
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15 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
Cell Adhesion and Initial Bone Matrix Deposition on Titanium-Based Implants with Chitosan–Collagen Coatings: An In Vitro Study
by Francesca Veronesi, Silvia Brogini, Angela De Luca, Davide Bellini, Veronica Casagranda, Milena Fini and Gianluca Giavaresi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054810 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
In orthopedics, titanium (Ti)-alloy implants, are often considered as the first-choice candidates for bone tissue engineering. An appropriate implant coating enhances bone matrix ingrowth and biocompatibility, improving osseointegration. Collagen I (COLL) and chitosan (CS) are largely employed in several different medical applications, for [...] Read more.
In orthopedics, titanium (Ti)-alloy implants, are often considered as the first-choice candidates for bone tissue engineering. An appropriate implant coating enhances bone matrix ingrowth and biocompatibility, improving osseointegration. Collagen I (COLL) and chitosan (CS) are largely employed in several different medical applications, for their antibacterial and osteogenic properties. This is the first in vitro study that provides a preliminary comparison between two combinations of COLL/CS coverings for Ti-alloy implants, in terms of cell adhesion, viability, and bone matrix production for probable future use as a bone implant. Through an innovative spraying technique, COLL–CS–COLL and CS–COLL–CS coverings were applied over Ti-alloy (Ti-POR) cylinders. After cytotoxicity evaluations, human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were seeded onto specimens for 28 days. Cell viability, gene expression, histology, and scanning electron microscopy evaluations were performed. No cytotoxic effects were observed. All cylinders were biocompatible, thus permitting hBMSCs’ proliferation. Furthermore, an initial bone matrix deposition was observed, especially in the presence of the two coatings. Neither of the coatings used interferes with the osteogenic differentiation process of hBMSCs, or with an initial deposition of new bone matrix. This study sets the stage for future, more complex, ex vivo or in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility)
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17 pages, 5494 KiB  
Article
Serosal Adhesion Ex Vivo of Hydrogels Prepared from Apple Pectin Cross-Linked with Fe3+ Ions
by Sergey Popov, Nikita Paderin, Elizaveta Chistiakova and Dmitry Ptashkin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021248 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
The study aims to investigate the adhesion of a hydrogel made of cross-linked low-methyl esterified pectin to rat intestinal serosa ex vivo. The adhesivity of the FeP hydrogel, which was cross-linked by Fe3+ cations, exceeded that of hydrogels cross-linked by Ca2+ [...] Read more.
The study aims to investigate the adhesion of a hydrogel made of cross-linked low-methyl esterified pectin to rat intestinal serosa ex vivo. The adhesivity of the FeP hydrogel, which was cross-linked by Fe3+ cations, exceeded that of hydrogels cross-linked by Ca2+, Zn2+, and Al3+ cations. The concentration of the cross-linking cation failed to influence the adhesion of the pectin hydrogel to the serosa. The mechanical properties and surface microrelief of the pectin hydrogel were influenced by the type and concentration of the cross-linking cations. Fe3+ cations form a harder and more elastic gel than Ca2+ cations. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the characteristic surface pattern of FeP hydrogel and its denser internal structure compared to Ca2+ cross-linked hydrogel. The effect of the salt composition of the adhesion medium was shown since the FeP hydrogel’s adhesion to the serosa was lower in physiological solutions than in water, and adhesion in Hanks’ solution was higher than in phosphate buffered saline. Serum proteins and peritoneal leukocytes did not interfere with the serosal adhesion of the FeP hydrogel. Pre-incubation in Hanks’ solution for 24 h significantly reduced the adhesion of the FeP hydrogel to the serosa, regardless of the pH of the incubation. Thus, serosal adhesion combined with excellent stability and mechanical properties in physiological environments appeared to be advantages of the FeP hydrogel, demonstrating it to be a promising bioadhesive for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility)
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Review

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40 pages, 3318 KiB  
Review
Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Regenerative Medicine and Nanomedicine
by Hina Inam, Simone Sprio, Marta Tavoni, Zahid Abbas, Federico Pupilli and Anna Tampieri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052809 - 28 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
This review focuses on the latest advancements in magnetic hydroxyapatite (mHA) nanoparticles and their potential applications in nanomedicine and regenerative medicine. mHA nanoparticles have gained significant interest over the last few years for their great potential, offering advanced multi-therapeutic strategies because of their [...] Read more.
This review focuses on the latest advancements in magnetic hydroxyapatite (mHA) nanoparticles and their potential applications in nanomedicine and regenerative medicine. mHA nanoparticles have gained significant interest over the last few years for their great potential, offering advanced multi-therapeutic strategies because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and unique physicochemical features, enabling on-demand activation and control. The most relevant synthetic methods to obtain magnetic apatite-based materials, either in the form of iron-doped HA nanoparticles showing intrinsic magnetic properties or composite/hybrid compounds between HA and superparamagnetic metal oxide nanoparticles, are described as highlighting structure–property correlations. Following this, this review discusses the application of various magnetic hydroxyapatite nanomaterials in bone regeneration and nanomedicine. Finally, novel perspectives are investigated with respect to the ability of mHA nanoparticles to improve nanocarriers with homogeneous structures to promote multifunctional biological applications, such as cell stimulation and instruction, antimicrobial activity, and drug release with on-demand triggering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility)
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22 pages, 1146 KiB  
Review
In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Assessments of 3D-Bioprinted Scaffolds for Dental Applications
by Nurulhuda Mohd, Masfueh Razali, Mh Busra Fauzi and Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(16), 12881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241612881 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a unique combination of technological advances in 3D printing and tissue engineering. It has emerged as a promising approach to address the dilemma in current dental treatments faced by clinicians in order to repair or replace injured and diseased [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a unique combination of technological advances in 3D printing and tissue engineering. It has emerged as a promising approach to address the dilemma in current dental treatments faced by clinicians in order to repair or replace injured and diseased tissues. The exploration of 3D bioprinting technology provides high reproducibility and precise control of the bioink containing the desired cells and biomaterial over the architectural and dimensional features of the scaffolds in fabricating functional tissue constructs that are specific to the patient treatment need. In recent years, the dental applications of different 3D bioprinting techniques, types of novel bioinks, and the types of cells used have been extensively explored. Most of the findings noted significant challenges compared to the non-biological 3D printing approach in constructing the bioscaffolds that mimic native tissues. Hence, this review focuses solely on the implementation of 3D bioprinting techniques and strategies based on cell-laden bioinks. It discusses the in vitro applications of 3D-bioprinted scaffolds on cell viabilities, cell functionalities, differentiation ability, and expression of the markers as well as the in vivo evaluations of the implanted bioscaffolds on the animal models for bone, periodontal, dentin, and pulp tissue regeneration. Finally, it outlines some perspectives for future developments in dental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility)
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Other

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11 pages, 1066 KiB  
Opinion
Vertebral Bone Marrow Clot towards the Routine Clinical Scenario in Spine Surgeries: What about the Antimicrobial Properties?
by Deyanira Contartese, Maria Sartori, Giuseppe Tedesco, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Gianluca Giavaresi and Francesca Salamanna
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021744 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Exploring innovative techniques and treatments to improve spinal fusion procedures is a global challenge. Here, we provide a scientific opinion on the ability of a vertebral bone marrow (vBM) clot to provide a local combined delivery system not only of stem cells, signaling [...] Read more.
Exploring innovative techniques and treatments to improve spinal fusion procedures is a global challenge. Here, we provide a scientific opinion on the ability of a vertebral bone marrow (vBM) clot to provide a local combined delivery system not only of stem cells, signaling biomolecules and anti-inflammatory factors but also of molecules and proteins endowed with antimicrobial properties. This opinion is based on the evaluation of the intrinsic basic properties of the vBM, that contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and on the coagulation process that led to the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin fibers that enmesh cells, plasma but above all platelets, to form the clot. We emphasize that vBM clot, being a powerful source of MSCs and platelets, would allow the release of antimicrobial proteins and molecules, mainly cathelicidin LL- 37, hepcidin, kinocidins and cationic host defense peptides, that are per se gifted with direct and/or indirect antimicrobial effects. We additionally highlight that further studies are needed to deepen this knowledge and to propose vBM clot as multifunctional bioscaffold able to target all the main key challenges for spinal fusion surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials: Synthesis, Application and Biocompatibility)
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