ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Advances in the Physiology of Primary and Secondary Plant Metabolism under Abiotic and Biotic Stress

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 11629

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail
Guest Editor
Plant Phenolic Metabolism Group, K.A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Botanicheskaya Street, 35, 127276 Moscow, Russia
Interests: biotic and abiotic stress; plants; in vitro cultures; sustainability; biological responses; bioactive compounds; antioxidants; phenolics; nutraceuticals; plant biochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The vital activity and productivity of plants are the determining factors in the preservation of the ecology and biological diversity of our planet. A variety of nutrients are the basis of nutrition and human health. Plants make significant contributions to the preservation of a comfortable atmosphere for various organisms, able to smooth out sharp fluctuations in humidity, temperature and gas composition that would be hazardous to life. They are also sources of valuable metabolites for nutritional and therapeutic use. In connection with the currently observed changes in climatic conditions on Earth, plants are increasingly exposed to the damaging effects of both ordinary and climate-dependent biotic and abiotic environmental factors (temperature fluctuations and long periods of drought, heat, changes in the intensity and duration of light exposure, UV radiation, increase in ozone concentration, acid rain, salinization, pathogens, etc.). Equally important are the damaging effects of stresses associated with environmental pollution by heavy metals, herbicides, agricultural and industrial effluents causing secondary pollution, secondary salinization and other modifications of the habitat and cultivation of various species. This leads to a change in metabolic processes, modification of the accumulation of primary (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, etc.) and secondary (polyphenols, terpenoids and alkaloids) metabolites, and, as a result, a decrease in productivity and/or a change in the composition and beneficial properties of cultivated plants, which is especially important for agricultural crops. Such changes can not only inhibit the growth of plants, but also make them unsuitable for creating food products or using them in normal technological schemes due to an irreversible change in quality, composition and properties.

The study of the mechanisms of adaptation of plants to a stress factor in changing environmental conditions is, in this regard, an urgent and important goal. To a large extent, it is due to the need to obtain from plants and parts of plant bioantioxidants as effective nutraceuticals to preserve and maintain human viability worldwide. It is equally important to take into account new challenges and requirements when creating new varieties and breeding lines, in biodiversity conservation work. In this Special Issue, "Advances in the Physiology of Primary and Secondary Plant Metabolism Under Abiotic and Biotic Stress", we invite you to highlight new advances in plant physiology regarding the effects of various stress factors on primary and secondary metabolism using various experimental approaches (physiology and biochemistry plants, molecular biology, genetics, biotechnology, ecology, breeding, agrochemistry and cytology). Authors are invited to submit related original research articles, reviews, and communications.

Prof. Dr. Natalia V. Zagoskina
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • in vitro plant cultures
  • plants
  • abiotic stress (drought, heat, salinity, cold, flooding)
  • biotic stress (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, insects, weeds)
  • physiological/biochemical stress responses
  • oxidative stress
  • genes and proteins
  • breeding and agronomy
  • primary components (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins)
  • secondary components (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids)
  • metabolome
  • proteome

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

11 pages, 3131 KiB  
Article
Aluminum Supplementation Mediates the Changes in Tea Plant Growth and Metabolism in Response to Calcium Stress
by Hua Zhang, Yakang Song, Zhenglei Fan, Jianyun Ruan, Jianhui Hu and Qunfeng Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010530 - 30 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Tea plants are more sensitive to variations in calcium concentration compared to other plants, whereas a moderate aluminum concentration facilitates the growth and development of tea plants. Aluminum and calcium show a competitive interaction with respect to the uptake of elements, consequently exerting [...] Read more.
Tea plants are more sensitive to variations in calcium concentration compared to other plants, whereas a moderate aluminum concentration facilitates the growth and development of tea plants. Aluminum and calcium show a competitive interaction with respect to the uptake of elements, consequently exerting physiological effects on plants. To further explore these interactions, in this study, we used the solution culture method to treat tea plants with two calcium concentrations (0.8 mM and 5.6 mM) and three aluminum concentrations (0 mM, 0.4 mM, and 1 mM). We then determined the influence of the combined treatments on root growth and quality compound accumulation in the tissues by a combination of phenotype, gene expression, and metabolite analyses. Moderate aluminum supplementation (0.4 mM) alleviated the inhibition of root growth caused by high calcium stress. High calcium stress significantly inhibited the accumulation of most amino acids (e.g., Glutamic acid, Citulline, and Arginine) and organic acids (e.g., a-ketoglutaric acid) in the roots, stems, and leaves, whereas aluminum deficiency significantly increased most amino acids in the roots and leaves (except Serine, Alanine, and Phenylalanine in the roots and Ser in the leaves), with a more than two-fold increase in Arg and Lysine. High calcium stress also induced the accumulation of secondary metabolites such as epigallocatechin gallate and procyanidin in the roots, whereas aluminum supplementation significantly reduced the contents of flavonol glycosides such as quercetin, rutin, myricitrin, and kaempferitrin, as well as caffeine, regardless of calcium concentration. Aluminum supplementation reversed some of the changes in the contents of leaf metabolites induced by calcium stress (e.g., 4-dihydroquercetin, apigenin C-pentoside, phenethylamine, and caffeine). Overall, calcium stress caused severe growth inhibition and metabolic disorders in tea plants, which could be reversed by aluminum supplementation, particularly in maintaining the root tips and the accumulation of secondary metabolites. These results provide a theoretical basis for improving calcium-aluminum nutrient management to promote tea plant growth and quality. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1767 KiB  
Article
Metabolic and Transcriptomic Approaches of Chitosan and Water Stress on Polyphenolic and Terpenoid Components and Gene Expression in Salvia abrotanoides (Karl.) and S. yangii
by Farzaneh Khodadadi, Farajollah Shahriai Ahmadi, Majid Talebi, Adam Matkowski, Antoni Szumny, Mahvash Afshari and Mehdi Rahimmalek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(20), 15426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242015426 - 21 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
In this research, a HPLC analysis, along with transcriptomics tools, was applied to evaluate chitosan and water stress for the prediction of phenolic flavonoids patterns and terpenoid components accumulation in Salvia abrotanoides Karel and S. yangii. The results indicated that the tanshinone [...] Read more.
In this research, a HPLC analysis, along with transcriptomics tools, was applied to evaluate chitosan and water stress for the prediction of phenolic flavonoids patterns and terpenoid components accumulation in Salvia abrotanoides Karel and S. yangii. The results indicated that the tanshinone contents under drought stress conditions increased 4.2-fold with increasing drought stress intensity in both species. The rosmarinic acid content in the leaves varied from 0.038 to 11.43 mg/g DW. In addition, the flavonoid content was increased (1.8 and 1.4-fold) under mild water deficit conditions with a moderate concentration of chitosan (100 mg L−1). The application of foliar chitosan at 100 and 200 mg L−1 under well-watered and mild stress conditions led to increases in hydroxyl cryptotanshinone (OH-CT) and cryptotanshinone (CT) contents as the major terpenoid components in both species. The expressions of the studied genes (DXS2, HMGR, KSL, 4CL, and TAT) were also noticeably induced by water deficit and variably modulated by the treatment with chitosan. According to our findings, both the drought stress and the application of foliar chitosan altered the expression levels of certain genes. Specifically, we observed changes in the expression levels of DXS and HMGR, which are upstream genes in the MEP and MVA pathways, respectively. Additionally, the expression level of KSL, a downstream gene involved in diterpenoid synthesis, was also affected. Finally, the present investigation confirmed that chitosan treatments and water stress were affected in both the methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP) and mevalonate (MVA) pathways, but their commitment to the production of other isoprenoids has to be considered and discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4317 KiB  
Article
Morphometric Characteristics and Genetic Issr Marker Variability in Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) in Different Ecological and Geographic Conditions in the Altai Republic
by Olga V. Dorogina, Irina N. Kuban, Altynai A. Achimova, Natasha Williams, Nicolay N. Lashchinskiy and Elena V. Zhmud
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(20), 15224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242015224 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Rhodiola rosea L. is a vulnerable species in the Altai Republic (AR) and Russia in general. For the first time on the territory of AR, studies of the adaptive capabilities of the species and genetic differentiation using ISSR markers were carried out in [...] Read more.
Rhodiola rosea L. is a vulnerable species in the Altai Republic (AR) and Russia in general. For the first time on the territory of AR, studies of the adaptive capabilities of the species and genetic differentiation using ISSR markers were carried out in seven cenopopulations (CP) of R. rosea in 2018 and 2020. The research was founded on the notion of conducting a comparative analysis of the morphogenetic structure of Rhodiola rosea populations in various ecological and geographical conditions of AR. The aim of this work is to evaluate the variability of morphometric traits of sexually mature living female R. rosea plants and to conduct a comparative analysis of genetic variability in cenopopulations (CP) both under undisturbed conditions and under stressful conditions of anthropogenic impact (grazing). Of the 8 primers used, HB12 turned out to be the most informative. The percentage of polymorphic loci in the populations between 0 and 88%. Two populations, located in favorable conditions at relatively low absolute altitudes (2000 m above sea level) (masl) in the undisturbed habitats of the Katun and Altai reserves of AR, were characterized by higher polymorphism. The share of polymorphic loci reached 80%. According to the analysis of statistical data, the highest values of morphometric parameters of the aerial parts of R. rosea plants and the highest potential seed productivity were also recorded in these habitats. Representatives of two high-mountain CPs (2400–2500 masl) in the Sailyugemsky National Park (SNP) were characterized by the lowest genetic polymorphism. Their genetic structure is the most homogeneous, since we have not found polymorphic loci. Due to spatial isolation, these individuals are reliably genetically differentiated. In addition, individuals of one type were subjected to stressful anthropogenic impact (grazing). Therefore, the smallest sizes and lowest potential seed productivity were recorded. Our research shows that alpine populations of R. rosea in AR, under conditions of anthropogenic stress, need protection for their gene pool. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 28386 KiB  
Article
The Accumulation of Volatile Compounds and the Change in the Morphology of the Leaf Wax Cover Accompanied the “Anti-Aging” Effect in Anethum graveolens L. Plants Sprayed with 6-Benzylaminopurine
by Anna V. Shirokova, Lev B. Dmitriev, Sergey L. Belopukhov, Valeria L. Dmitrieva, Irina L. Danilova, Viktor A. Kharchenko, Olga A. Pekhova, Elena F. Myagkih, Andrey N. Tsitsilin, Alexander A. Gulevich, Ekaterina V. Zhuravleva, Yulia N. Kostanchuk and Ekaterina N. Baranova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(20), 15137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242015137 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are of commercial importance for medicine, food, cosmetics, the perfume industry, and agriculture. In plants, EOs, like the wax cover, serve as protection against abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures and water deficiency. The use of spraying with exogenous hormones [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are of commercial importance for medicine, food, cosmetics, the perfume industry, and agriculture. In plants, EOs, like the wax cover, serve as protection against abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures and water deficiency. The use of spraying with exogenous hormones of aromatic plants affects the accumulation and composition of volatile compounds, as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. As a result of cytokinin treatment with 6-BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) (200 mg L−l) of Anetum graveolens L. “Uzory” and “Rusich” varieties, several responses to its action were revealed: a change in the division of leaf blades, inhibition of flowering, an increase in the content of EO and its main components α-phellandrene and p-cymene in leaves, and limonene in umbels and fruits. It was revealed that the increased accumulation of EO in dill leaves was longer with sufficient moisture. In contrast, under conditions of heat and water deficiency, the effect of 6-BAP treatment on accumulations of the EO in leaves was short-lived and did not appear on umbels and fruits. The study of the cytokinin effect on a fine structure of a wax cover on the adaxial side of leaves by scanning electron microscopy revealed a change in its elements (from amorphous layers with scales to thin tubules), which probably increased the sensitivity of leaves to water deficiency and, consequently, led to a decrease in the biosynthetic activity of leaf tissue. Thus, 6-BAP had an impact on the adaptive properties of dill plants, prolonging the “youth” of vegetative organs and the ability to EO biosynthesis under conditions of sufficient moisture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3199 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Responses to the Long-Term Impact of Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) in Tobacco Plants
by Anastasia S. Tugbaeva, Alexander A. Ermoshin and Irina S. Kiseleva
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(20), 15129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242015129 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Metabolic changes under stress are often studied in short-term experiments, revealing rapid responses in gene expression, enzyme activity, and the amount of antioxidants. In a long-term experiment, it is possible to identify adaptive changes in both primary and secondary metabolism. In this study, [...] Read more.
Metabolic changes under stress are often studied in short-term experiments, revealing rapid responses in gene expression, enzyme activity, and the amount of antioxidants. In a long-term experiment, it is possible to identify adaptive changes in both primary and secondary metabolism. In this study, we characterized the physiological state of tobacco plants and assessed the amount and spectrum of phenolic compounds and the lignification of axial organs under excess copper stress in a long-term experiment (40 days). Plants were treated with 100 and 300 μM CuSO4, as well as a control (Knop solution). Copper accumulation, the size and anatomical structure of organs, stress markers, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were studied. Lignin content was determined with the cysteine-assisted sulfuric method (CASA), and the metabolite profile and phenolic spectrum were determined with UHPLC-MS and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Cu2+ mainly accumulated in the roots and, to a lesser extent, in the shoots. Copper sulfate (100 μM) slightly stimulated stem and leaf growth. A higher concentration (300 μM) caused oxidative stress; H2O2 content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) activity increased in roots, and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in all organs. The deposition of lignin increased in the roots and stems compared with the control. The content of free phenolics, which could be used as substrates for lignification, declined. The proportions of ferulic, cinnamic, and p-coumaric acids in the hydrolysate of bound phenolics were higher, and they tended toward additional lignification. The metabolic profile changed in both roots and stems at both concentrations, and changed in leaves only at a concentration of 300 μM. Thus, changes in the phenolic spectrum and the enhanced lignification of cell walls in the metaxylem of axial (root and stem) organs in tobacco can be considered important metabolic responses to stress caused by excess CuSO4. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2893 KiB  
Article
The Temporal and Geographical Dynamics of Potato Virus Y Diversity in Russia
by Viktoriya O. Samarskaya, Eugene V. Ryabov, Nikita Gryzunov, Nadezhda Spechenkova, Maria Kuznetsova, Irina Ilina, Tatiana Suprunova, Michael E. Taliansky, Peter A. Ivanov and Natalia O. Kalinina
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(19), 14833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241914833 - 02 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Potato virus Y, an important viral pathogen of potato, has several genetic variants and geographic distributions which could be affected by environmental factors, aphid vectors, and reservoir plants. PVY is transmitted to virus-free potato plants by aphids and passed on to the next [...] Read more.
Potato virus Y, an important viral pathogen of potato, has several genetic variants and geographic distributions which could be affected by environmental factors, aphid vectors, and reservoir plants. PVY is transmitted to virus-free potato plants by aphids and passed on to the next vegetative generations through tubers, but the effects of tuber transmission in PVY is largely unknown. By using high-throughput sequencing, we investigated PVY populations transmitted to potato plants by aphids in different climate zones of Russia, namely the Moscow and Astrakhan regions. We analyzed sprouts from the tubers produced by field-infected plants to investigate the impact of tuber transmission on PVY genetics. We found a significantly higher diversity of PVY isolates in the Astrakhan region, where winters are shorter and milder and summers are warmer compared to the Moscow region. While five PVY types, NTNa, NTNb, N:O, N-Wi, and SYR-I, were present in both regions, SYRI-II, SYRI-III, and 261-4 were only found in the Astrakhan region. All these recombinants were composed of the genome sections derived from PVY types O and N, but no full-length sequences of such types were present. The composition of the PVY variants in the tuber sprouts was not always the same as in their parental plants, suggesting that tuber transmission impacts PVY genetics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 19995 KiB  
Article
Heterologous codA Gene Expression Leads to Mitigation of Salt Stress Effects and Modulates Developmental Processes
by Galina N. Raldugina, Lilia R. Bogoutdinova, Olga V. Shelepova, Vera V. Kondrateva, Ekaterina V. Platonova, Tatiana L. Nechaeva, Varvara V. Kazantseva, Pyotr V. Lapshin, Helen I. Rostovtseva, Tatiana S. Aniskina, Pyotr N. Kharchenko, Natalia V. Zagoskina, Alexander A. Gulevich and Ekaterina N. Baranova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(18), 13998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241813998 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the choline oxidase gene from A. globiformis showed an increase in resistance at the level of primary and secondary biosynthesis of metabolites, removing the damage characteristic of salinity and stabilizing the condition of plants. We used 200 mM NaCl, [...] Read more.
Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the choline oxidase gene from A. globiformis showed an increase in resistance at the level of primary and secondary biosynthesis of metabolites, removing the damage characteristic of salinity and stabilizing the condition of plants. We used 200 mM NaCl, which inhibits the growth of tobacco plants at all stages of development. Leaves of transgenic and wild-type (WT) plants Nicotiána tabácum were used for biochemical, cytological and molecular biological analysis. However, for transgenic lines cultivated under normal conditions (without salinity), we noted juvenile characteristics, delay in flowering, and slowing down of development, including the photosynthetic apparatus. This caused changes in the amount of chlorophyll, a delay in the plastid grana development with the preservation of prolamellar bodies. It also caused changes in the amount of sugars and indirectly downstream processes. A significant change in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and a change in metabolism is probably compensated by the regulation of a number of genes, the expression level of which was also changed. Thus, the tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants to salinity, which manifested itself as a result of the constitutive expression of codA, demonstrates an advantage over WT plants, but in the absence of salinity, transgenic plants did not have such advantages due to juvenilization. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

28 pages, 2286 KiB  
Review
Plant Life with and without Oxygen: A Metabolomics Approach
by Vladislav V. Yemelyanov, Roman K. Puzanskiy and Maria F. Shishova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216222 - 12 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Oxygen deficiency is an environmental challenge which affects plant growth, the development and distribution in land and aquatic ecosystems, as well as crop yield losses worldwide. The capacity to exist in the conditions of deficiency or the complete lack of oxygen depends on [...] Read more.
Oxygen deficiency is an environmental challenge which affects plant growth, the development and distribution in land and aquatic ecosystems, as well as crop yield losses worldwide. The capacity to exist in the conditions of deficiency or the complete lack of oxygen depends on a number of anatomic, developmental and molecular adaptations. The lack of molecular oxygen leads to an inhibition of aerobic respiration, which causes energy starvation and the acceleration of glycolysis passing into fermentations. We focus on systemic metabolic alterations revealed with the different approaches of metabolomics. Oxygen deprivation stimulates the accumulation of glucose, pyruvate and lactate, indicating the acceleration of the sugar metabolism, glycolysis and lactic fermentation, respectively. Among the Krebs-cycle metabolites, only the succinate level increases. Amino acids related to glycolysis, including the phosphoglycerate family (Ser and Gly), shikimate family (Phe, Tyr and Trp) and pyruvate family (Ala, Leu and Val), are greatly elevated. Members of the Asp family (Asn, Lys, Met, Thr and Ile), as well as the Glu family (Glu, Pro, Arg and GABA), accumulate as well. These metabolites are important members of the metabolic signature of oxygen deficiency in plants, linking glycolysis with an altered Krebs cycle and allowing alternative pathways of NAD(P)H reoxidation to avoid the excessive accumulation of toxic fermentation products (lactate, acetaldehyde, ethanol). Reoxygenation induces the downregulation of the levels of major anaerobically induced metabolites, including lactate, succinate and amino acids, especially members of the pyruvate family (Ala, Leu and Val), Tyr and Glu family (GABA and Glu) and Asp family (Asn, Met, Thr and Ile). The metabolic profiles during native and environmental hypoxia are rather similar, consisting in the accumulation of fermentation products, succinate, fumarate and amino acids, particularly Ala, Gly and GABA. The most intriguing fact is that metabolic alterations during oxidative stress are very much similar, with plant response to oxygen deprivation but not to reoxygenation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 4318 KiB  
Review
Polyphenols in Plants: Structure, Biosynthesis, Abiotic Stress Regulation, and Practical Applications (Review)
by Natalia V. Zagoskina, Maria Y. Zubova, Tatiana L. Nechaeva, Varvara V. Kazantseva, Evgenia A. Goncharuk, Vera M. Katanskaya, Ekaterina N. Baranova and Maria A. Aksenova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(18), 13874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241813874 - 09 Sep 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
Phenolic compounds or polyphenols are among the most common compounds of secondary metabolism in plants. Their biosynthesis is characteristic of all plant cells and is carried out with the participation of the shikimate and acetate-malonate pathways. In this case, polyphenols of various structures [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds or polyphenols are among the most common compounds of secondary metabolism in plants. Their biosynthesis is characteristic of all plant cells and is carried out with the participation of the shikimate and acetate-malonate pathways. In this case, polyphenols of various structures are formed, such as phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and various oligomeric and polymeric compounds of phenolic nature. Their number already exceeds 10,000. The diversity of phenolics affects their biological activity and functional role. Most of their representatives are characterized by interaction with reactive oxygen species, which manifests itself not only in plants but also in the human body, where they enter through food chains. Having a high biological activity, phenolic compounds are successfully used as medicines and nutritional supplements for the health of the population. The accumulation and biosynthesis of polyphenols in plants depend on many factors, including physiological–biochemical, molecular–genetic, and environmental factors. In the review, we present the latest literature data on the structure of various classes of phenolic compounds, their antioxidant activity, and their biosynthesis, including their molecular genetic aspects (genes and transfactors). Since plants grow with significant environmental changes on the planet, their response to the action of abiotic factors (light, UV radiation, temperature, and heavy metals) at the level of accumulation and composition of these secondary metabolites, as well as their metabolic regulation, is considered. Information is given about plant polyphenols as important and necessary components of functional nutrition and pharmaceutically valuable substances for the health of the population. Proposals on promising areas of research and development in the field of plant polyphenols are presented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop