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Epigenetic Modifiers (miRNA, lncRNA and Methylation) in Cancers

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2024 | Viewed by 4490

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Science of Life, Institute of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
Interests: transcriptional regulation; epigenetic mechanisms involved in rare diseases and in cancer; cell proliferation and differentiation; non-coding RNAs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extensive alterations of the epigenetic landscape are considered a hallmark of cancer, and the field of epigenetics in cancer has rapidly evolved, showing large-scale reprogramming of the epigenetic machinery function in cancer cells, involving DNA methylation, histone modifications, dynamic assembly of chromatin remodeling complexes, nucleosome positioning, and non-coding RNAs expression. In recent years, the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has enabled researchers to identify the epigenetic asset of cancer cells in association with mutations in genes controlling the epigenome, revealing new pathways relevant to cancer phenotype. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic aberrations, treatments targeting epigenetics have become an attractive strategy in cancer therapy. Different epigenetic modifiers are currently used as anticancer drugs, and recently, microRNAs and noncoding RNAs have attained significant importance in carcinogenesis as promising therapeutic targets and/or putative biomarkers.

The aim of this Special Issue is to assemble the most relevant works aimed at deciphering the molecular basis of cancer epigenetics, focusing on the role of epigenetic modifiers in the context of cancer development and progression, cancer therapy, cancer epigenome and epitranscriptome.

Original research articles or reviews will represent an important contribution to improve the present knowledge in the field.

Dr. Valentina Salsi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • epigenetic regulation of gene transcription
  • cancer epigenetics
  • histone modifications
  • chromatin modifying enzymes
  • chromatin signature
  • non-coding RNAs
  • epigenetic modifiers
  • chromatin remodeling
  • epigenetic therapy
  • epigenomics
  • epitranscriptomics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3177 KiB  
Article
Knockdown of Simulated-Solar-Radiation-Sensitive miR-205-5p Does Not Induce Progression of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vitro
by Marc Bender, I-Peng Chen, Stefan Henning, Sarah Degenhardt, Mouna Mhamdi-Ghodbani, Christin Starzonek, Beate Volkmer and Rüdiger Greinert
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216428 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Solar radiation is the main risk factor for cSCC development, yet it is unclear whether the progression of cSCC is promoted by solar radiation in the same way as initial tumorigenesis. Additionally, the role of miRNAs, which exert crucial functions in various tumors, [...] Read more.
Solar radiation is the main risk factor for cSCC development, yet it is unclear whether the progression of cSCC is promoted by solar radiation in the same way as initial tumorigenesis. Additionally, the role of miRNAs, which exert crucial functions in various tumors, needs to be further elucidated in the context of cSCC progression and connection to solar radiation. Thus, we chronically irradiated five cSCC cell lines (Met-1, Met-4, SCC-12, SCC-13, SCL-II) with a custom-built irradiation device mimicking the solar spectrum (UVB, UVA, visible light (VIS), and near-infrared (IRA)). Subsequently, miRNA expression of 51 cancer-associated miRNAs was scrutinized using a flow cytometric multiplex quantification assay (FirePlex®, Abcam). In total, nine miRNAs were differentially expressed in cell-type-specific as well as universal manners. miR-205-5p was the only miRNA downregulated after SSR-irradiation in agreement with previously gathered data in tissue samples. However, inhibition of miR-205-5p with an antagomir did not affect cell cycle, cell growth, apoptosis, or migration in vitro despite transient upregulation of oncogenic target genes after miR-205-5p knockdown. These results render miR-205-5p an unlikely intracellular effector in cSCC progression. Thus, effects on intercellular communication in cSCC or the simultaneous examination of complementary miRNA sets should be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Modifiers (miRNA, lncRNA and Methylation) in Cancers)
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Review

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18 pages, 7999 KiB  
Review
Experimental Insights into the Interplay between Histone Modifiers and p53 in Regulating Gene Expression
by Hyun-Min Kim, Xiaoyu Zheng and Ethan Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 11032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241311032 - 03 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Chromatin structure plays a fundamental role in regulating gene expression, with histone modifiers shaping the structure of chromatin by adding or removing chemical changes to histone proteins. The p53 transcription factor controls gene expression, binds target genes, and regulates their activity. While p53 [...] Read more.
Chromatin structure plays a fundamental role in regulating gene expression, with histone modifiers shaping the structure of chromatin by adding or removing chemical changes to histone proteins. The p53 transcription factor controls gene expression, binds target genes, and regulates their activity. While p53 has been extensively studied in cancer research, specifically in relation to fundamental cellular processes, including gene transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression, its association with histone modifiers has received limited attention. This review explores the interplay between histone modifiers and p53 in regulating gene expression. We discuss how histone modifications can influence how p53 binds to target genes and how this interplay can be disrupted in cancer cells. This review provides insights into the complex mechanisms underlying gene regulation and their implications for potential cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Modifiers (miRNA, lncRNA and Methylation) in Cancers)
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16 pages, 1396 KiB  
Review
Epigenetic Alterations in DCIS Progression: What Can lncRNAs Teach Us?
by Igor Petrone, Everton Cruz dos Santos, Renata Binato and Eliana Abdelhay
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108733 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Some transcripts that are not translated into proteins can be encoded by the mammalian genome. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that can function as decoys, scaffolds, and enhancer RNAs and can regulate other molecules, including microRNAs. Therefore, it is essential that [...] Read more.
Some transcripts that are not translated into proteins can be encoded by the mammalian genome. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that can function as decoys, scaffolds, and enhancer RNAs and can regulate other molecules, including microRNAs. Therefore, it is essential that we obtain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs. In cancer, lncRNAs function through several mechanisms, including important biological pathways, and the abnormal expression of lncRNAs contributes to breast cancer (BC) initiation and progression. BC is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide and has a high mortality rate. Genetic and epigenetic alterations that can be regulated by lncRNAs may be related to early events of BC progression. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive BC that is considered an important preinvasive BC early event because it can progress to invasive BC. Therefore, the identification of predictive biomarkers of DCIS-invasive BC progression has become increasingly important in an attempt to optimize the treatment and quality of life of patients. In this context, this review will address the current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in DCIS and their potential contribution to the progression of DCIS to invasive BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Modifiers (miRNA, lncRNA and Methylation) in Cancers)
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