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Medical Polymers for Tissue Repair and Regeneration

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecules".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 5509

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Guest Editor
Department of Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Republic of Korea
Interests: biomaterials; nanofibrous membranes; bioceramics; synthesis of nanoparticles; composite materials; photodynamic therapy; cancer-targeting drugs; 3D printing; tissue regeneration
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The repair of damaged tissue is defined as the restoration of tissue architecture and function after an injury. In addition, regeneration refers to a type of healing in which new growth completely restores portions of damaged tissue to their normal state. Tissue repair may restore some of the original structures of the damaged tissue but may also result in structural abnormalities that impair organ function. The repair of tissue defects is a complex biological process that requires biocompatible materials, cells, and growth factors. Therefore, functionalized extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics using polymer materials are currently recognized as an ideal substitute for autologous grafts because of their biocompatibility and their similarity with the physical and chemical properties of ECM. Various methods can allow the successful fabrication of ECM mimics using biomaterials including polymers and their composites. The aim of this Special Issue is to fabricate and characterize functionalized ECM mimics for tissue repair and regeneration. Topics include various fabrication methods, unique characterization, polymer and composite materials, biomedical applications such as tissue regeneration, drug delivery for tissue defect healing, etc.

Prof. Dr. Young-Jin Kim
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • polymer materials
  • composite materials
  • biomedical application
  • tissue repair
  • tissue regeneration
  • extracellular matrix mimics
  • functionalization
  • fabrication

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 4621 KiB  
Article
Highly Concentrated Stabilized Hybrid Complexes of Hyaluronic Acid: Rheological and Biological Assessment of Compatibility with Adipose Tissue and Derived Stromal Cells towards Regenerative Medicine
by Valentina Vassallo, Celeste Di Meo, Nicola Alessio, Annalisa La Gatta, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti and Chiara Schiraldi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042019 - 07 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
Cells and extracts derived from adipose tissue are gaining increasing attention not only in plastic surgery and for aesthetic purposes but also in regenerative medicine. The ability of hyaluronan (HA) to support human adipose stromal cell (hASC) viability and differentiation has been investigated. [...] Read more.
Cells and extracts derived from adipose tissue are gaining increasing attention not only in plastic surgery and for aesthetic purposes but also in regenerative medicine. The ability of hyaluronan (HA) to support human adipose stromal cell (hASC) viability and differentiation has been investigated. However, the compatibility of adipose tissue with HA-based formulation in terms of biophysical and rheological properties has not been fully addressed, although it is a key feature for tissue integration and in vivo performance. In this study, the biophysical and biochemical properties of highly concentrated (45 mg/mL) high/low-molecular-weight HA hybrid cooperative complex were assessed with a further focus on the potential application in adipose tissue augmentation/regeneration. Specifically, HA hybrid complex rheological behavior was observed in combination with different adipose tissue ratios, and hyaluronidase-catalyzed degradation was compared to that of a high-molecular-weight HA (HHA). Moreover, the HA hybrid complex’s ability to induce in vitro hASCs differentiation towards adipose phenotype was evaluated in comparison to HHA, performing Oil Red O staining and analyzing gene/protein expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, and leptin. Both treatments supported hASCs differentiation, with the HA hybrid complex showing better results. These outcomes may open new frontiers in regenerative medicine, supporting the injection of highly concentrated hybrid formulations in fat compartments, eventually enhancing residing staminal cell differentiation and improving cell/growth factor persistence towards tissue regeneration districts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Polymers for Tissue Repair and Regeneration)
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21 pages, 5434 KiB  
Article
Electrophoretically Co-Deposited Collagen–Lactoferrin Membranes with Enhanced Pro-Regenerative Properties for Oral Soft Tissue Regeneration
by Artem Antoshin, Mikhail Gostev, Yana Khristidis, Aliia Giliazova, Sergei Voloshin, Nataliia Blagushina, Olga Smirnova, Ekaterina Diachkova, Elena Istranova, Anna Usanova, Nikolai Solodov, Alexey Fayzullin, Elena Ivanova, Elena Sadchikova, Milena Noelia Vergara Bashkatova, Olga Drakina, Svetlana Tarasenko and Peter Timashev
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(24), 17330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242417330 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 881
Abstract
The quality of soft tissue defect regeneration after dental surgeries largely determines their final success. Collagen membranes have been proposed for the healing of such defects, but in some cases, they do not guarantee a sufficient volume of the regenerated tissue and vascularization. [...] Read more.
The quality of soft tissue defect regeneration after dental surgeries largely determines their final success. Collagen membranes have been proposed for the healing of such defects, but in some cases, they do not guarantee a sufficient volume of the regenerated tissue and vascularization. For this purpose, lactoferrin, a protein with natural pro-regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic activity, can be added to collagen. In this article, we used a semipermeable barrier-assisted electrophoretic deposition (SBA-EPD) method for the production of collagen–lactoferrin membranes. The membrane structure was studied by SEM, and its mechanical properties were shown. The lactoferrin release kinetics were shown by ELISA within 75 h. When tested in vitro, we demonstrated that the collagen–lactoferrin membranes significantly increased the proliferation of keratinocytes (HaCaT) and fibroblasts (977hTERT) compared to blank collagen membranes. In vivo, on the vestibuloplasty and free gingival graft harvesting models, we showed that collagen–lactoferrin membranes decreased the wound inflammation and increased the healing rates and regeneration quality. In some parameters, collagen–lactoferrin membranes outperformed not only blank collagen membranes, but also the commercial membrane Mucograft®. Thus, we proved that collagen–lactoferrin membranes produced by the SBA-EPD method may be a valuable alternative to commercially used membranes for soft tissue regeneration in the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Polymers for Tissue Repair and Regeneration)
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21 pages, 10464 KiB  
Article
Berberine-Encapsulated Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)–Hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) Microspheres Synergistically Promote Bone Regeneration with DOPA-IGF-1 via the IGF-1R/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway
by Li Chen, Meng Tian, Jing Yang and Zhenxu Wu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(20), 15403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242015403 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Polymer microspheres have recently shown outstanding potential for bone tissue engineering due to their large specific surface area, good porosity, injectable property, good biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Their good load-release function and surface modifiability make them useful as a carrier of drugs or growth [...] Read more.
Polymer microspheres have recently shown outstanding potential for bone tissue engineering due to their large specific surface area, good porosity, injectable property, good biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Their good load-release function and surface modifiability make them useful as a carrier of drugs or growth factors for the repair of bone defects in irregularly injured or complex microenvironments, such as skull defects. In this study, berberine (BBR)-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres were fabricated using electrified liquid jets and a phase-separation technique, followed by modification with the 3,4-hydroxyphenalyalanine-containing recombinant insulin-like growth–factor-1 (DOPA-IGF-1). Both the BBR and the IGF-1 exhibited sustained release from the IGF-1@PLGA/HA-BBR microspheres, and the composite microspheres exhibited good biocompatibility. The results of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays showed that the BBR and IGF-1 in the composite microspheres synergistically promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, it was confirmed that immobilized IGF-1 enhances the mRNA expression of an osteogenic-related extracellular matrix and that BBR accelerates the mRNA expression of IGF-1-mediated osteogenic differentiation and cell mineralization. Further cellular studies demonstrate that IGF-1 could further synergistically activate the IGF-1R/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway using BBR, thereby enhancing IGF-1-mediated osteogenesis. Rat calvarial defect repair experiments show that IGF-1@PLGA/HA-BBR microspheres can effectively promote the complete bony connection required to cover the defect site and enhance bone defect repair. These findings suggest that IGF-1@PLGA/HA-BBR composite microspheres show a great potential for bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Polymers for Tissue Repair and Regeneration)
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25 pages, 23253 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Biomaterial Surface Properties on Engineering Neural Tissue for Spinal Cord Regeneration
by Victor A. da Silva, Bianca C. Bobotis, Felipe F. Correia, Théo H. Lima-Vasconcellos, Gabrielly M. D. Chiarantin, Laura De La Vega, Christiane B. Lombello, Stephanie M. Willerth, Sônia M. Malmonge, Vera Paschon and Alexandre H. Kihara
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713642 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Tissue engineering for spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a complex and challenging task. Biomaterial scaffolds have been suggested as a potential solution for supporting cell survival and differentiation at the injury site. However, different biomaterials display multiple properties that significantly impact neural tissue [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering for spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a complex and challenging task. Biomaterial scaffolds have been suggested as a potential solution for supporting cell survival and differentiation at the injury site. However, different biomaterials display multiple properties that significantly impact neural tissue at a cellular level. Here, we evaluated the behavior of different cell lines seeded on chitosan (CHI), poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds. We demonstrated that the surface properties of a material play a crucial role in cell morphology and differentiation. While the direct contact of a polymer with the cells did not cause cytotoxicity or inhibit the spread of neural progenitor cells derived from neurospheres (NPCdn), neonatal rat spinal cord cells (SCC) and NPCdn only attached and matured on PCL and PLLA surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy and computational analysis suggested that cells attached to the material’s surface emerged into distinct morphological populations. Flow cytometry revealed a higher differentiation of neural progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-NPC) into glial cells on all biomaterials. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that PCL and PLLA guided neuronal differentiation and network development in SCC. Our data emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate biomaterials for tissue engineering in SCI treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Polymers for Tissue Repair and Regeneration)
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Review

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18 pages, 1759 KiB  
Review
Nature-Derived Polysaccharide-Based Composite Hydrogels for Promoting Wound Healing
by Hyerin Lee, Yerim Jung, Nayeon Lee, Inhye Lee and Jin Hyun Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316714 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Numerous innovative advancements in dressing technology for wound healing have emerged. Among the various types of wound dressings available, hydrogel dressings, structured with a three-dimensional network and composed of predominantly hydrophilic components, are widely used for wound care due to their remarkable capacity [...] Read more.
Numerous innovative advancements in dressing technology for wound healing have emerged. Among the various types of wound dressings available, hydrogel dressings, structured with a three-dimensional network and composed of predominantly hydrophilic components, are widely used for wound care due to their remarkable capacity to absorb abundant wound exudate, maintain a moisture environment, provide soothing and cooling effects, and mimic the extracellular matrix. Composite hydrogel dressings, one of the evolved dressings, address the limitations of traditional hydrogel dressings by incorporating additional components, including particles, fibers, fabrics, or foams, within the hydrogels, effectively promoting wound treatment and healing. The added elements enhance the features or add specific functionalities of the dressings, such as sensitivity to external factors, adhesiveness, mechanical strength, control over the release of therapeutic agents, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and tissue regeneration behavior. They can be categorized as natural or synthetic based on the origin of the main components of the hydrogel network. This review focuses on recent research on developing natural polysaccharide-based composite hydrogel wound dressings. It explores their preparation and composition, the reinforcement materials integrated into hydrogels, and therapeutic agents. Furthermore, it discusses their features and the specific types of wounds where applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Polymers for Tissue Repair and Regeneration)
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