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Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 12153

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universitat de València, c/Catedrático José Beltrán 2, Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain
Interests: coordination chemistry; molecular magnetism; crystallography; biomolecules

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our society has been fascinated by magnetism since ancient times. Thus, it has become a multidisciplinary research area of huge discoveries and developments, with an enormous increase in the number of scientists and engineers working in the field in recent years. The study of new and versatile magnetic materials, such as new magnetic alloys, magnetic nanoparticles, and molecular-based magnets, is growing very fast and is generating great knowledge, which sooner or later will be technologically applied and will benefit our society.

Special interest is being paid to the design, synthesis, and characterization of new multifunctional molecular materials which exhibit phenomena and other useful properties in addition to their magnetic ones. These materials are being considered as prototypes of qubits and quantum gates (QGs) for the physical implementation of quantum information processing (QIP) in future quantum computers. In addition, similar magnetic compounds are being used to create novel molecular spintronics devices.

Taking advantage of their versatility and magnetic properties, new magnetic materials are being proposed as antitumor agents in magnetic hyperthermia, contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic refrigerants at low temperature. These topics are of enormous interest in the research fields of nanotechnology and biomedicine.

In view of the diverse properties and applications of new magnetic materials, I cordially invite you to contribute to the publication of this Special Issue entitled “Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications”.

Dr. José Martínez-Lillo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • diagnosis
  • therapy
  • magnetic materials
  • molecular magnetism
  • nanostructures
  • nanoparticles
  • magnetic coolers
  • magnetometers
  • theoretical models and calculations

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2712 KiB  
Article
A Gadolinium(III) Complex Based on Pyridoxine Molecule with Single-Ion Magnet and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Properties
by Marta Orts-Arroyo, Amadeo Ten-Esteve, Sonia Ginés-Cárdenas, Leonor Cerdá-Alberich, Luis Martí-Bonmatí and José Martínez-Lillo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042112 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Pyridoxine (pyr) is a versatile molecule that forms part of the family of B vitamins. It is used to treat and prevent vitamin B6 deficiency and certain types of metabolic disorders. Moreover, the pyridoxine molecule has been investigated as a suitable ligand [...] Read more.
Pyridoxine (pyr) is a versatile molecule that forms part of the family of B vitamins. It is used to treat and prevent vitamin B6 deficiency and certain types of metabolic disorders. Moreover, the pyridoxine molecule has been investigated as a suitable ligand toward metal ions. Nevertheless, the study of the magnetic properties of metal complexes containing lanthanide(III) ions and this biomolecule is unexplored. We have synthesized and characterized a novel pyridoxine-based GdIII complex of formula [GdIII(pyr)2(H2O)4]Cl3 · 2 H2O (1) [pyr = pyridoxine]. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system and space group Pī. In its crystal packing, cationic [Gd(pyr)2(H2O)4]3+ entities are connected through H-bonding interactions involving non-coordinating water molecules and chloride anions. In addition, Hirshfeld surfaces of 1 were calculated to further investigate their intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice. Our investigation of the magnetic properties of 1, through ac magnetic susceptibility measurements, reveals the occurrence of a slow relaxation in magnetization in this mononuclear GdIII complex, indicating an unusual single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior for this pseudo-isotropic metal ion at very low temperatures. We also studied the relaxometric properties of 1, as a potential contrast agent for high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), from solutions of 1 prepared in physiological serum (0.0–3.2 mM range) and measured at 3 T on a clinical MRI scanner. The values of relaxivity obtained for 1 are larger than those of some commercial MRI contrast agents based on mononuclear GdIII systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications)
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16 pages, 7918 KiB  
Article
Versatile and Accessible Magnetic Diagnosis Platform with Different Types of Magnetic Particles for Liquid and Solid Biopsies
by Ju-Fang Liu, Jean-Hong Chen, Shu-Hsien Liao, Kuen-Lin Chen, Wen-Chun Wei, Ting-Yuan Chen, Jen-Jie Chieh and Kai-Wen Huang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 10363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241210363 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
The diagnosis of liquid and solid biopsies by different instruments makes the clinic loading difficult in many aspects. Given the compositions of magnetic particles (MPs) with diverse characterizations and the innovative acoustic type of vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), the versatile, accessible magnetic diagnosis [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of liquid and solid biopsies by different instruments makes the clinic loading difficult in many aspects. Given the compositions of magnetic particles (MPs) with diverse characterizations and the innovative acoustic type of vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), the versatile, accessible magnetic diagnosis platform was proposed to meet clinical demands, such as low loading for multiple biopsies. In liquid biopsies of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) standard solutions and subject serums, molecular concentration was analyzed from saturation magnetization by the soft type of Fe3O4 MPs with AFP bioprobe coating. In the phantom mixture simulated as bounded MPs in tissue, the bounded MPs was evaluated from the area of the hysteresis loop by hard type of cobalt MPs without bio-probes coating. Not only a calibration curve was founded for many hepatic cell carcinoma stages, but also microscale images verified the Ms increase due to magnetic protein clusters, etc. Hence, its wide populations in clinics could be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications)
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16 pages, 4962 KiB  
Article
Dy4, Dy5, and Ho2 Complexes of an N3O2 Aminophenol Donor: A Dy53-Peroxide Single Molecule Magnet
by Julio Corredoira-Vázquez, Paula Oreiro-Martínez, Daniel Nieto-Pastoriza, Ana M. García-Deibe, Jesús Sanmartín-Matalobos and Matilde Fondo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 9061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24109061 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The reactivity of the new flexible potentially pentadentate N3O2 aminophenol ligand H4Lr (2,2′-((pyridine-2,6-diylbis(methylene))bis(azanediyl))diphenol) towards different dysprosium salts and holmium(III) nitrate was investigated. Accordingly, this reactivity seems to greatly depend on the metal ion and salt employed. In [...] Read more.
The reactivity of the new flexible potentially pentadentate N3O2 aminophenol ligand H4Lr (2,2′-((pyridine-2,6-diylbis(methylene))bis(azanediyl))diphenol) towards different dysprosium salts and holmium(III) nitrate was investigated. Accordingly, this reactivity seems to greatly depend on the metal ion and salt employed. In this way, the reaction of H4Lr with dysprosium(III) chloride in air leads to the oxo-bridged tetranuclear complex [Dy4(H2Lr)3(Cl)43-O)(EtOH)2(H2O)2]·2EtOH·H2O (1·2EtOH·H2O), while the same reaction just changing the chloride salt by the nitrate one renders the peroxo-bridged pentanuclear compound [Dy5(H2Lr)2(H2.5Lr)2(NO3)43-O2)2]·2H2O (2·2H2O), where both peroxo ligands seem to come from the fixation and reduction of atmospheric oxygen. However, if holmium(III) nitrate is used instead of dysprosium(III) nitrate, no evidence of a peroxide ligand is observed, and the dinuclear complex {[Ho2(H2Lr)(H3Lr)(NO3)2(H2O)2](NO3)} 2.5H2O (3·2.5H2O) is isolated. The three complexes were unequivocally characterized by X-ray diffraction techniques, and their magnetic properties were analyzed. Thus, while the Dy4 and Ho2 complexes do not show magnet-like behavior even in the presence of an external magnetic field, 2·2H2O is a single molecule magnet, with an Ueff barrier of 61.2 K (43.2 cm−1). This is the first homonuclear lanthanoid peroxide SMM, which also shows the highest barrier among the reported 4f/3d peroxide zero field SMMs to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications)
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12 pages, 2561 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of the Magnetic Properties of a New Manganese (II) Complex: A Potential MRI Contrast Agent
by Giovanni Reale, Francesca Calderoni, Teresa Ghirardi, Francesca Porto, Federica Illuminati, Lorenza Marvelli, Petra Martini, Licia Uccelli, Eugenia Tonini, Lucia Del Bianco, Federico Spizzo, Martina Capozza, Emiliano Cazzola, Aldo Carnevale, Melchiore Giganti, Alessandro Turra, Juan Esposito and Alessandra Boschi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043461 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive powerful modern clinical technique that is extensively used for the high-resolution imaging of soft tissues. To obtain high-definition pictures of tissues or of the whole organism this technique is enhanced by the use of contrast agents. [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive powerful modern clinical technique that is extensively used for the high-resolution imaging of soft tissues. To obtain high-definition pictures of tissues or of the whole organism this technique is enhanced by the use of contrast agents. Gadolinium-based contrast agents have an excellent safety profile. However, over the last two decades, some specific concerns have surfaced. Mn(II) has different favorable physicochemical characteristics and a good toxicity profile, which makes it a good alternative to the Gd(III)-based MRI contrast agents currently used in clinics. Mn(II)-disubstituted symmetrical complexes containing dithiocarbamates ligands were prepared under a nitrogen atmosphere. The magnetic measurements on Mn complexes were carried out with MRI phantom measurements at 1.5 T with a clinical magnetic resonance. Relaxivity values, contrast, and stability were evaluated by appropriate sequences. Studies conducted to evaluate the properties of paramagnetic imaging in water using a clinical magnetic resonance showed that the contrast, produced by the complex [Mn(II)(L’)2] × 2H2O (L’ = 1.4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane-8-carbodithioate), is comparable to that produced by gadolinium complexes currently used in medicine as a paramagnetic contrast agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications)
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17 pages, 4042 KiB  
Article
Competing Easy-Axis Anisotropies Impacting Magnetic Tunnel Junction-Based Molecular Spintronics Devices (MTJMSDs)
by Bishnu R. Dahal, Andrew Grizzle, Christopher D’Angelo, Vincent Lamberti and Pawan Tyagi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214476 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) attempt to harness molecules’ quantum state, size, and configurable attributes for application in computer devices—a quest that began more than 70 years ago. In the vast number of theoretical studies and limited experimental attempts, MSDs have been found to [...] Read more.
Molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) attempt to harness molecules’ quantum state, size, and configurable attributes for application in computer devices—a quest that began more than 70 years ago. In the vast number of theoretical studies and limited experimental attempts, MSDs have been found to be suitable for application in memory devices and futuristic quantum computers. MSDs have recently also exhibited intriguing spin photovoltaic-like phenomena, signaling their potential application in cost-effective and novel solar cell technologies. The molecular spintronics field’s major challenge is the lack of mass-fabrication methods producing robust magnetic molecule connections with magnetic electrodes of different anisotropies. Another main challenge is the limitations of conventional theoretical methods for understanding experimental results and designing new devices. Magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices (MTJMSDs) are designed by covalently connecting paramagnetic molecules across an insulating tunneling barrier. The insulating tunneling barrier serves as a mechanical spacer between two ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes of tailorable magnetic anisotropies to allow molecules to undergo many intriguing phenomena. Our experimental studies showed that the paramagnetic molecules could produce strong antiferromagnetic coupling between two FM electrodes, leading to a dramatic large-scale impact on the magnetic electrode itself. Recently, we showed that the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was effective in providing plausible insights into the observation of unusual magnetic domains based on the role of single easy-axis magnetic anisotropy. Here, we experimentally show that the response of a paramagnetic molecule is dramatically different when connected to FM electrodes of different easy-axis anisotropies. Motivated by our experimental studies, here, we report on an MCS study investigating the impact of the simultaneous presence of two easy-axis anisotropies on MTJMSD equilibrium properties. In-plane easy-axis anisotropy produced multiple magnetic phases of opposite spins. The multiple magnetic phases vanished at higher thermal energy, but the MTJMSD still maintained a higher magnetic moment because of anisotropy. The out-of-plane easy-axis anisotropy caused a dominant magnetic phase in the FM electrode rather than multiple magnetic phases. The simultaneous application of equal-magnitude in-plane and out-of-plane easy-axis anisotropies on the same electrode negated the anisotropy effect. Our experimental and MCS study provides insights for designing and understanding new spintronics-based devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications)
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Review

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46 pages, 8785 KiB  
Review
A Review of Biomimetic and Biodegradable Magnetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering and Oncology
by Gheorghe Paltanea, Veronica Manescu (Paltanea), Iulian Antoniac, Aurora Antoniac, Iosif Vasile Nemoianu, Alina Robu and Horatiu Dura
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054312 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4608
Abstract
Bone defects characterized by limited regenerative properties are considered a priority in surgical practice, as they are associated with reduced quality of life and high costs. In bone tissue engineering, different types of scaffolds are used. These implants represent structures with well-established properties [...] Read more.
Bone defects characterized by limited regenerative properties are considered a priority in surgical practice, as they are associated with reduced quality of life and high costs. In bone tissue engineering, different types of scaffolds are used. These implants represent structures with well-established properties that play an important role as delivery vectors or cellular systems for cells, growth factors, bioactive molecules, chemical compounds, and drugs. The scaffold must provide a microenvironment with increased regenerative potential at the damage site. Magnetic nanoparticles are linked to an intrinsic magnetic field, and when they are incorporated into biomimetic scaffold structures, they can sustain osteoconduction, osteoinduction, and angiogenesis. Some studies have shown that combining ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic nanoparticles and external stimuli such as an electromagnetic field or laser light can enhance osteogenesis and angiogenesis and even lead to cancer cell death. These therapies are based on in vitro and in vivo studies and could be included in clinical trials for large bone defect regeneration and cancer treatments in the near future. We highlight the scaffolds’ main attributes and focus on natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials combined with magnetic nanoparticles and their production methods. Then, we underline the structural and morphological aspects of the magnetic scaffolds and their mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. Great attention is devoted to the magnetic field effects on bone cells, biocompatibility, and osteogenic impact of the polymeric scaffolds reinforced with magnetic nanoparticles. We explain the biological processes activated due to magnetic particles’ presence and underline their possible toxic effects. We present some studies regarding animal tests and potential clinical applications of magnetic polymeric scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Their Various Applications)
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