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Recent Advances in Thyroid Cancer 2.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Oncology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 6002

Special Issue Editor

1. Institute of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 4, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
2. Department of Microgravity and Translational Regenerative Medicine, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Pfälzerplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
Interests: breast cancer; thyroid cancer; prostate cancer; cell biology; gravitational biology; space medicine; tissue engineering; pharmacology; apoptosis; SOX transcription factors
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thyroid cancer (TC) comprises malignant tumours of the thyroid gland. TC is classified into several categories: first, differentiated tumors covering papillary, follicular and Hürthle cell cancer; second, medullary; and third, anaplastic TC. The American Cancer Society’s most recent estimates for TC in the US for 2021 are: 1. About 44,280 new cases (12,150 in men and 32,130 in women) and 2. about 22,200 deaths (1,050 men and 1,150 women). The most common type is the papillary thyroid carcinoma, with a share of 80–90% in all TC.

In recent years, studies in the field of TC have been performed in order to identify and verify thyroid specific biomarkers, as well as cancer-specific changes in gene expression patterns and alterations of the protein content. Furthermore, new drugs, small molecules and antibodies were developed and tested in vitro and in vivo. Trials investigated the ratio between therapeutic and adverse effects. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have become a new therapeutic option for both differentiated and medullary TC. In the last few years, new substances for targeted systemic therapy have been approved after their efficacy was demonstrated in phase III trials. Most of them produced a moderate response. However, adverse effects are common. TKI are used in patients with advanced metastatic, radioiodine (RAI)-refractory TC.

In this Special Issue, studies using animal or cell culture models to investigate molecular mechanisms of TC will be published. This Special Issue will also cover reports on patients, providing novel mechanistic insights into the underlying pathogenesis or new aspects that may impact clinical therapy.

Dr. Daniela Grimm
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • thyroid cancer
  • cell biology
  • omics investigations
  • cell signaling
  • biomarker
  • tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • molecular biology
  • in vitro studies
  • animal studies
  • drug testing

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 8652 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Roles of miR-204-5p and HMGA2 in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Tumorigenesis
by Cindy Van Branteghem, Alice Augenlicht, Pieter Demetter, Ligia Craciun and Carine Maenhaut
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310764 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant tumor with an increasing incidence rate. Although differentiated types of thyroid cancer generally present good clinical outcomes, some dedifferentiate into aggressive and lethal forms. However, the molecular mechanisms governing aggressiveness and dedifferentiation are still poorly [...] Read more.
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant tumor with an increasing incidence rate. Although differentiated types of thyroid cancer generally present good clinical outcomes, some dedifferentiate into aggressive and lethal forms. However, the molecular mechanisms governing aggressiveness and dedifferentiation are still poorly understood. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is often correlated to tumor development, and miR-204-5p has previously been identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma as downregulated and associated with aggressiveness. This study aimed to explore its role in thyroid tumorigenesis. To address this, gain-of-function experiments were performed by transiently transfecting miR-204-5p in thyroid cancer cell lines. Then, the clinical relevance of our data was evaluated in vivo. We prove that this miRNA inhibits cell invasion by regulating several targets associated with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, such as SNAI2, TGFBR2, SOX4 and HMGA2. HMGA2 expression is regulated by the MAPK pathway but not by the PI3K, IGF1R or TGFβ pathways, and the inhibition of cell invasion by miR-204-5p involves direct binding and repression of HMGA2. Finally, we confirmed in vivo the relationship between miR-204-5p and HMGA2 in human PTC and a corresponding mouse model. Our data suggest that HMGA2 inhibition offers promising perspectives for thyroid cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Thyroid Cancer 2.0)
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Review

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17 pages, 2025 KiB  
Review
Cabozantinib, Vandetanib, Pralsetinib and Selpercatinib as Treatment for Progressed Medullary Thyroid Cancer with a Main Focus on Hypertension as Adverse Effect
by Linnea Højer Wang, Markus Wehland, Petra M. Wise, Manfred Infanger, Daniela Grimm and Michael C. Kreissl
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032312 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3578
Abstract
This manuscript investigates cabozantinib, vandetanib, pralsetinib, and selpercatinib, four tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which are used to treat advanced and/or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Data on efficacy and safety are presented with the main focus on treatment-related hypertension, a well-known adverse effect [...] Read more.
This manuscript investigates cabozantinib, vandetanib, pralsetinib, and selpercatinib, four tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which are used to treat advanced and/or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Data on efficacy and safety are presented with the main focus on treatment-related hypertension, a well-known adverse effect (AE) of these TKIs. Taken together, TKI-induced hypertension is rarely a dose-limiting side effect. However, with increasing survival times of patients under treatment, hypertension-associated complications can be expected to be on the rise without proper medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Thyroid Cancer 2.0)
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