Geovisualization and Map Design

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 51438

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Geoinformatics, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: cartography; geovisualization; atlases; spatial synthesis; systematic visualization; multimedia cartography; thematic maps

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Guest Editor
Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Interests: theoretical cartography; location-based services; web mapping; semiology; service oriented cartography; semantic cartography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
GIS Professional Programs, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, WI, USA
Interests: web maps; persuasive maps; story maps; play maps

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geovisualization (Geographic Visualization) deals solely with displaying information that has a geospatial component. Geovisualization requires converting and positioning thematic information into a visual form. Map design is the process of effectively and efficiently visualizing geospatial information. Spatial information in a well-designed map is quickly retrievable, clearly communicated, and unmistakable, easy to evoke, and encourages confidence in both the geovisualization output and activity that results from the map's use. This Special Issue focuses on new processes or frameworks for effective map designs, explores scientific research on cartographic communication through map design, and brings together a wide variety of experts from different disciplines to help shape geovisualization and map design going forward.

Contributions can address the following topics:

  • development of geovisualization tools
  • visual and content analysis in geovisualization
  • contemporary map design
  • current map design research
  • tools for designing specific cartographic products

Prof. Dr. Vit Vozenilek
Prof. Dr. Georg Gartner
Dr. Ian Muehlenhaus
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • development of geovisualization tools
  • visual and content analysis in geovisualization
  • contemporary map design
  • current map design research
  • tools for designing specific cartographic products

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 14216 KiB  
Article
Terrain Segmentation Using a U-Net for Improved Relief Shading
by Marianna Farmakis-Serebryakova, Magnus Heitzler and Lorenz Hurni
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(7), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11070395 - 12 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Since landforms composing land surface vary in their properties and appearance, their shaded reliefs also present different visual impression of the terrain. In this work, we adapt a U-Net so that it can recognize a selection of landforms and can segment terrain. We [...] Read more.
Since landforms composing land surface vary in their properties and appearance, their shaded reliefs also present different visual impression of the terrain. In this work, we adapt a U-Net so that it can recognize a selection of landforms and can segment terrain. We test the efficiency of 10 separate models and apply an ensemble approach, where all the models are combined to potentially outperform single models. Our algorithm works particularly well for block mountains, Prealps, valleys, and hills, delivering average precision and f1 values above 60%. Segmenting plateaus and folded mountains is more challenging, and their precision values are rather scattered due to smaller areas available for training. Mountains formed by erosion processes are the least recognized landform of all because of their similarities with other landforms. The highest accuracy of one of the 10 models is 65%, while the accuracy of the ensemble is 61%. We apply relief shading techniques that were found to be efficient regarding specific landforms within corresponding segmented areas and blend them together. Finally, we test the trained model with the best accuracy on other mountainous areas around the world, and it proves to work in other regions beyond the training area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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25 pages, 78589 KiB  
Article
An Accurate and Efficient Quaternion-Based Visualization Approach to 2D/3D Vector Data for the Mobile Augmented Reality Map
by Chenliang Wang, Kejia Huang and Wenjiao Shi
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(7), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11070383 - 10 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Increasingly complex vector map applications and growing multi-source spatial data pose a serious challenge to the accuracy and efficiency of vector map visualization. It is true especially for real-time and dynamic scene visualization in mobile augmented reality, with the dramatic development of spatial [...] Read more.
Increasingly complex vector map applications and growing multi-source spatial data pose a serious challenge to the accuracy and efficiency of vector map visualization. It is true especially for real-time and dynamic scene visualization in mobile augmented reality, with the dramatic development of spatial data sensing and the emergence of AR-GIS. Such issues can be decomposed into three issues: accurate pose representation, fast and precise topological relationships computation and high-performance acceleration methods. To solve these issues, a novel quaternion-based real-time vector map visualization approach is proposed in this paper. It focuses on precise position and orientation representation, accurate and efficient spatial relationships calculation and acceleration parallel rendering in mobile AR. First, a quaternion-based pose processing method for multi-source spatial data is developed. Then, the complex processing of spatial relationships is mapped into simple and efficient quaternion-based operations. With these mapping methods, spatial relationship operations with large computational volumes can be converted into efficient quaternion calculations, and then the results are returned to respond to the interaction. Finally, an asynchronous rendering acceleration mechanism is also presented in this paper. Experiments demonstrated that the method proposed in this paper can significantly improve vector visualization of the AR map. The new approach, when compared to conventional visualization methods, provides more stable and accurate rendering results, especially when the AR map has strenuous movements and high frequency variations. The smoothness of the user interaction experience is also significantly improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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16 pages, 9896 KiB  
Article
Generation Method for Shaded Relief Based on Conditional Generative Adversarial Nets
by Shaomei Li, Guangzhi Yin, Jingzhen Ma, Bowei Wen and Zhao Zhou
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(7), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11070374 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
Relief shading is the primary method for effectively representing three-dimensional terrain on a two-dimensional plane. Despite its expressiveness, manual relief shading is difficult and time-consuming. In contrast, although analytical relief shading is fast and efficient, the visual effect is quite different from that [...] Read more.
Relief shading is the primary method for effectively representing three-dimensional terrain on a two-dimensional plane. Despite its expressiveness, manual relief shading is difficult and time-consuming. In contrast, although analytical relief shading is fast and efficient, the visual effect is quite different from that of manual relief shading due to the low degree of terrain generalisation, inability to adjust local illumination, and difficulty in exaggerating and selective representation. We introduce deep learning technology to propose a generation method for shaded relief based on conditional generative adversarial nets. This method takes the set of manual relief shading-digital elevation model (DEM) slices as a priori knowledge, optimises network parameters through a continuous game of “generation-discrimination”, and produces a shaded relief map of any region based on the DEM. Test results indicate that the proposed method retains the advantages of manual relief shading and can quickly generate shaded relief with quality and artistic style similar to those of manual shading. Compared with other networks, the shaded relief generated by the proposed method not only depicts the terrain clearly but also achieves a good generalisation effect. Moreover, through the use of an adversarial structure, the network demonstrates stronger cross-scale generation ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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15 pages, 18469 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Impacts of Bus Route Map Design and Dynamic Real-Time Information Presentation on Bus Route Map Search Efficiency and Cognitive Load
by Chih-Fu Wu, Chenhui Gao, Kai-Chieh Lin and Yi-Hsin Chang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060338 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 3047
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of different design methods of bus route maps and dynamic real-time information on the bus route map search efficiency and cognitive load. A total of 32 participants were tested through an experiment of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of different design methods of bus route maps and dynamic real-time information on the bus route map search efficiency and cognitive load. A total of 32 participants were tested through an experiment of destination bus route searching, and the NASA-TLX scale was used to measure their cognitive load. Two route map schemes were designed according to the research purposes and application status. One was a collinear bus route map with geographic location information based on a realistic map, the other was a highly symmetric straight-line collinear bus route map without map information, and two different types of dynamic real-time information reminder methods were designed (the dynamic flashing of the number of the bus entering the stop, and the dynamic animated flash of the route of the bus entering the stop). Then, four different combinations of the bus route maps were used for testing through the search task of bus routes available for bus destinations. The results indicated no significant difference in the search efficiency between the map-based bus route map and the linear bus route map, but the cognitive load of the map-based bus route map was higher than that of the linear route map. In the presentation of dynamic real-time information, neither the search performance nor the cognitive load of the dynamic flashing of the route of the bus entering the stop was as good as those of the flashing of the number only of the bus entering the stop. In addition, it was found that, compared with men, the cognitive load for women was more affected by geographic information. The optimization strategies of the bus route map information design were proposed by the comprehensive consideration of the feedback of route maps and real-time information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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19 pages, 5643 KiB  
Article
Visual Analysis of Vessel Behaviour Based on Trajectory Data: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Estuary
by Ye Li and Hongxiang Ren
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11040244 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
The widespread of shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment will continue to produce a large amount of spatiotemporal trajectory data. In order to explore and understand the hidden behaviour patterns in the data, an interactive visual analysis method combining multiple views is proposed. [...] Read more.
The widespread of shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment will continue to produce a large amount of spatiotemporal trajectory data. In order to explore and understand the hidden behaviour patterns in the data, an interactive visual analysis method combining multiple views is proposed. The method mainly includes four parts: using a trajectory compression algorithm that takes into account the vessel motion characteristics to preprocess the vessel trajectory data; displaying and replaying vessel trajectories based on Electronic Chart System (ECS), and proposing a detection algorithm for vessel stay points based on the principle of spatiotemporal density to semantically label vessel trajectories; using the Fast Dynamic Time Warping (FastDTW) similarity measurement algorithm and the Ordering Points to Identify the Clustering Structure (OPTICS) clustering algorithm to cluster vessel trajectories to show the differences and similarities between vessel traffic flows; and showing the distribution of vessels and the variation trend of vessel density based on the vessel heatmap. Based on the AIS data of the Yangtze River Estuary, three cases are used to prove the usefulness and effectiveness of the system in vessel behaviour analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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25 pages, 8054 KiB  
Article
An Efficient, Platform-Independent Map Rendering Framework for Mobile Augmented Reality
by Kejia Huang, Chenliang Wang, Shaohua Wang, Runying Liu, Guoxiong Chen and Xianglong Li
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(9), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10090593 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3377
Abstract
With the extensive application of big spatial data and the emergence of spatial computing, augmented reality (AR) map rendering has attracted significant attention. A common issue in existing solutions is that AR-GIS systems rely on different platform-specific graphics libraries on different operating systems, [...] Read more.
With the extensive application of big spatial data and the emergence of spatial computing, augmented reality (AR) map rendering has attracted significant attention. A common issue in existing solutions is that AR-GIS systems rely on different platform-specific graphics libraries on different operating systems, and rendering implementations can vary across various platforms. This causes performance degradation and rendering styles that are not consistent across environments. However, high-performance rendering consistency across devices is critical in AR-GIS, especially for edge collaborative computing. In this paper, we present a high-performance, platform-independent AR-GIS rendering engine; the augmented reality universal graphics library (AUGL) engine. A unified cross-platform interface is proposed to preserve AR-GIS rendering style consistency across platforms. High-performance AR-GIS map symbol drawing models are defined and implemented based on a unified algorithm interface. We also develop a pre-caching strategy, optimized spatial-index querying, and a GPU-accelerated vector drawing algorithm that minimizes IO latency throughout the rendering process. Comparisons to existing AR-GIS visualization engines indicate that the performance of the AUGL engine is two times higher than that of the AR-GIS rendering engine on the Android, iOS, and Vuforia platforms. The drawing efficiency for vector polygons is improved significantly. The rendering performance is more than three times better than the average performances of existing Android and iOS systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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24 pages, 4294 KiB  
Article
Heat Maps: Perfect Maps for Quick Reading? Comparing Usability of Heat Maps with Different Levels of Generalization
by Katarzyna Słomska-Przech, Tomasz Panecki and Wojciech Pokojski
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10080562 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6737
Abstract
Recently, due to Web 2.0 and neocartography, heat maps have become a popular map type for quick reading. Heat maps are graphical representations of geographic data density in the form of raster maps, elaborated by applying kernel density estimation with a given radius [...] Read more.
Recently, due to Web 2.0 and neocartography, heat maps have become a popular map type for quick reading. Heat maps are graphical representations of geographic data density in the form of raster maps, elaborated by applying kernel density estimation with a given radius on point- or linear-input data. The aim of this study was to compare the usability of heat maps with different levels of generalization (defined by radii of 10, 20, 30, and 40 pixels) for basic map user tasks. A user study with 412 participants (16–20 years old, high school students) was carried out in order to compare heat maps that showed the same input data. The study was conducted in schools during geography or IT lessons. Objective (the correctness of the answer, response times) and subjective (response time self-assessment, task difficulty, preferences) metrics were measured. The results show that the smaller radius resulted in the higher correctness of the answers. A larger radius did not result in faster response times. The participants perceived the more generalized maps as easier to use, although this result did not match the performance metrics. Overall, we believe that heat maps, in given circumstances and appropriate design settings, can be considered an efficient method for spatial data presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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22 pages, 5250 KiB  
Article
Form Follows Content: An Empirical Study on Symbol-Content (In)Congruences in Thematic Maps
by Silvia Klettner
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120719 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 2379
Abstract
Through signs and symbols, maps represent geographic space in a generalized and abstracted way. Cartographic research is, therefore, concerned with establishing a mutually shared set of signs and semiotic rules to communicate geospatial information successfully. While cartographers generally strive for cognitively congruent maps, [...] Read more.
Through signs and symbols, maps represent geographic space in a generalized and abstracted way. Cartographic research is, therefore, concerned with establishing a mutually shared set of signs and semiotic rules to communicate geospatial information successfully. While cartographers generally strive for cognitively congruent maps, empirical research has only started to explore the different facets and levels of correspondences between external cartographic representations and processes of human cognition. This research, therefore, draws attention to the principle of contextual congruence to study the correspondences between shape symbols and different geospatial content. An empirical study was carried out to explore the (in)congruence of cartographic point symbols with respect to positive, neutral, and negative geospatial topics in monothematic maps. In an online survey, 72 thematic maps (i.e., 12 map topics × 6 symbols) were evaluated by 116 participants in a between-groups design. The point symbols comprised five symmetric shapes (i.e., Circle, Triangle, Square, Rhomb, Star) and one Asymmetric Star shape. The study revealed detailed symbol-content congruences for each map topic as well as on an aggregated level, i.e., by positive, neutral, and negative topic clusters. Asymmetric Star symbols generally showed to be highly incongruent with positive and neutral topics, while highly congruent with negative map topics. Symmetric shapes, on the other hand, emerged to be of high congruence with positive and neutral map topics, whilst incongruent with negative topics. As the meaning of point symbols showed to be susceptible to context, the findings lead to the conclusion that cognitively congruent maps require profound context-specific considerations when designing and employing map symbols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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16 pages, 7273 KiB  
Article
Developing Versatile Graphic Map Load Metrics
by Radek Barvir and Vit Vozenilek
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9120705 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Graphic map load is a property of a map quantifying the amount of map content. It indicates the visual complexity of the map and helps cartographers to adapt maps and other geospatial visualizations to accomplish their purpose. Generally, map design needs to enable [...] Read more.
Graphic map load is a property of a map quantifying the amount of map content. It indicates the visual complexity of the map and helps cartographers to adapt maps and other geospatial visualizations to accomplish their purpose. Generally, map design needs to enable the user to quickly, comprehensively, and intuitively obtain the relevant spatial information from a map. Especially, this applies in cases like crisis management, immunology and military. However, there are no widely applicable metrics to assess the complexity of cartographic products. This paper evaluates seven simple metrics for graphic map load calculation based on image analytics using the set of 50 various maps on an easily understandable scale of 0–100%. The metrics are compared to values of user-perceived map load survey joined by 62 respondents. All the suggested metrics are designed for calculation with easy-accessible software and therefore suitable for use in any user environment. Metrics utilizing the principle of edge detection have been found suitable for a diversity of geospatial visualizations providing the best results among other metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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16 pages, 4372 KiB  
Article
VisWebDrone: A Web Application for UAV Photogrammetry Based on Open-Source Software
by Nathalie Guimarães, Luís Pádua, Telmo Adão, Jonáš Hruška, Emanuel Peres and Joaquim J. Sousa
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9110679 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3720
Abstract
Currently, the use of free and open-source software is increasing. The flexibility, availability, and maturity of this software could be a key driver to develop useful and interesting solutions. In general, open-source solutions solve specific tasks that can replace commercial solutions, which are [...] Read more.
Currently, the use of free and open-source software is increasing. The flexibility, availability, and maturity of this software could be a key driver to develop useful and interesting solutions. In general, open-source solutions solve specific tasks that can replace commercial solutions, which are often very expensive. This is even more noticeable in areas requiring analysis and manipulation/visualization of a large volume of data. Considering that there is a major gap in the development of web applications for photogrammetric processing, based on open-source technologies that offer quality results, the application presented in this article is intended to explore this niche. Thus, in this article a solution for photogrammetric processing is presented, based on the integration of MicMac, GeoServer, Leaflet, and Potree software. The implemented architecture, focusing on open-source software for data processing and for graphical manipulation, visualization, measuring, and analysis, is presented in detail. To assess the results produced by the proposed web application, a case study is presented, using imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle in two different areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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18 pages, 6859 KiB  
Article
A Simplified Method of Cartographic Visualisation of Buildings’ Interiors (2D+) for Navigation Applications
by Dariusz Gotlib, Michał Wyszomirski and Miłosz Gnat
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(6), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9060407 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
This article proposes an original method of a coherent and simplified cartographic presentation of the interior of buildings called 2D+, which can be used in geoinformation applications that do not support an extensive three-dimensional visualisation or do not have access to a 3D [...] Read more.
This article proposes an original method of a coherent and simplified cartographic presentation of the interior of buildings called 2D+, which can be used in geoinformation applications that do not support an extensive three-dimensional visualisation or do not have access to a 3D model of the building. A simplified way of cartographic visualisation can be used primarily in indoor navigation systems and other location-based services (LBS) applications. It can also be useful in systems supporting facility management (FM) and various kinds of geographic information systems (GIS). On the one hand, it may increase an application’s efficiency; on the other, it may unify the method of visualisation in the absence of a building’s 3D model. Thanks to the proposed method, it is possible to achieve the same effect regardless of the data source used: Building Information Modelling (BIM), a Computer-aided Design (CAD) model, or traditional architectural and construction drawings. Such a solution may be part of a broader concept of a multi-scale presentation of buildings’ interiors. The article discusses the issues of visualising data and converting data to the appropriate coordinate system, as well as the properties of the application model of data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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20 pages, 10659 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Representation of Ocean Flow Fields Based on Feature Analysis
by Bo Ai, Decheng Sun, Yanmei Liu, Chengming Li, Fanlin Yang, Yong Yin and Huibo Tian
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(5), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9050307 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
When it comes to feature retention in multi-scale representations of ocean flow fields, not all data points are equal. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of selecting data points based on their importance. First, an autocorrelation analysis is performed on flow speed and [...] Read more.
When it comes to feature retention in multi-scale representations of ocean flow fields, not all data points are equal. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of selecting data points based on their importance. First, an autocorrelation analysis is performed on flow speed and the rate of change in flow direction. Then, the magnitude of speed and variation in the rate of change in flow direction are classified. Feature regions are determined according to autocorrelation aggregation and classification analysis. Then, rough set theory and evidence theory are applied, using these results to determine the weights of different points. Finally, these weights are used to construct multi-scale representations of ocean flow fields, which effectively retain flow-field characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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20 pages, 6648 KiB  
Article
Affective Communication of Map Symbols: A Semantic Differential Analysis
by Silvia Klettner
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(5), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9050289 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4712
Abstract
Maps enable us to relate to spatial phenomena and events from viewpoints far beyond direct experience. By employing signs and symbols, maps communicate about near as well as distant geospatial phenomena, events, objects, or ideas. Besides acting as identifiers, map signs and symbols [...] Read more.
Maps enable us to relate to spatial phenomena and events from viewpoints far beyond direct experience. By employing signs and symbols, maps communicate about near as well as distant geospatial phenomena, events, objects, or ideas. Besides acting as identifiers, map signs and symbols may, however, not only denote but also connote. While most cartographic research has focused on the denoting character of visual variables, research from related disciplines stresses the importance of connotative qualities on affect, cognition, and behavior. Hence, this research focused on the connotative character of map symbols by empirically assessing the affective qualities of shape stimuli. In three stimulus conditions of cartographic and non-cartographic contexts, affective responses towards a set of eight shape stimuli were assessed by employing a semantic differential technique. Overall findings showed that shape symbols lead to, at times, highly distinctive affective responses. Findings further suggest two particular stimulus clusters of affective qualities that prevailed over all stimulus conditions, i.e., a cluster of asymmetric stimuli and a cluster of symmetric stimuli. Between the intersection of psychology, cartography, and semiotics, this paper outlines theoretical perspectives on cartographic semiotics, discusses empirical findings, and addresses implications for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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22 pages, 5217 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Relief Shading Techniques Applied to Landforms
by Marianna Farmakis-Serebryakova and Lorenz Hurni
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9040253 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3883
Abstract
As relief influences disposition of all the other objects displayed on maps, terrain representation plays one of the key roles in the map creation process. Originally a manual technique, relief shading creates the three-dimensional effect and allows the user to read the terrain [...] Read more.
As relief influences disposition of all the other objects displayed on maps, terrain representation plays one of the key roles in the map creation process. Originally a manual technique, relief shading creates the three-dimensional effect and allows the user to read the terrain in an intuitive way. With the advent of digital elevation models (DEMs) analytical relief shading came into a wider use, since it is faster, requires less effort, and delivers reproducible results. In contrast to manual relief shading, however, it often lacks clarity when representing heterogeneous landscapes with diverse landforms. The aim of this work is to evaluate analytical hillshading methods against a set of landforms within an online survey. The responses revealed that the clear sky model performs best applied to most of the landforms included in the survey, in particular all the mountain and valley types. Cluster shading proved to work well for the mountainous and hilly areas but less so in the depiction of valleys. Texture shading and the multidirectional, oblique-weighted (MDOW) method deliver too much detail for most of the landforms presented. Glaciers were depicted in the best way using the aspect tool. For alluvial fans, the standard relief shading with custom lighting direction proved to work best compared to the other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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15 pages, 7608 KiB  
Article
A Method for Generating Variable-Scale Maps for Small Displays
by Rong Zhao, Tinghua Ai and Chen Wen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9040250 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, visualization techniques for mobile and interactive web maps have developed different requirements. Small screens make it difficult to simultaneously present information details and the surrounding context. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the internet and information technology, visualization techniques for mobile and interactive web maps have developed different requirements. Small screens make it difficult to simultaneously present information details and the surrounding context. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a novel variable-scale method that can allow users to properly specify the size, shape, and number of the focus area(s). Our method first establishes a hierarchical data structure for representing geographic data and then the client-side can request and represent the information according to only the operational command input by users. Experimental results show that this method can realize the variable-scale representation of real geographic data on a single screen. It can effectively solve the contradiction between a small-screen display and a large quantity of information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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13 pages, 3752 KiB  
Article
A High-performance Cross-platform Map Rendering Engine for Mobile Geographic Information System (GIS)
by Shaojie Li, Shaohua Wang, Yong Guan, Zhiyan Xie, Kejia Huang, Ming Wen and Lixin Zhou
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(10), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8100427 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3707
Abstract
With the diversification of terminal equipment and operating systems, higher requirements are placed on the rendering performance of maps. The traditional map rendering engine relies on the corresponding operating system graphics library, and there are problems such as the inability to cross the [...] Read more.
With the diversification of terminal equipment and operating systems, higher requirements are placed on the rendering performance of maps. The traditional map rendering engine relies on the corresponding operating system graphics library, and there are problems such as the inability to cross the operating system, low rendering performance, and inconsistent rendering style. With the development of hardware, graphics processing unit (GPU) appears in various platforms. How to use GPU hardware to improve map rendering performance has become a critical challenge. In order to address the above problems, this study proposes a cross-platform and high-performance map rendering (Graphics Library engine, GL engine), which uses mask drawing technology and texture dictionary text rendering technology. It can be used on different hardware platforms and different operating systems based on the OpenGL graphics library. The high-performance map rendering engine maintains a consistent map rendering style on different platforms. The results of the benchmark experiments show that the performance of GL engine is 1.75 times and 1.54 times better than the general map rendering engine in the iOS system and in the Android system, respectively, and the rendering performance for vector tiles is 11.89 times and 9.52 times better than rendering in the Mapbox in the iOS system and in the Android system, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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