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Sustainable Management of Waste

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018) | Viewed by 99963

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
Interests: engineering properties of contaminated soils; centrifugal modeling of contaminant transport; micro-mechanics; reuse of contaminated soils; ultrasound research; underground infrastructure initiative; nanobubbles; Sustainable Waste Management
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Waste management is a challenge to developing nations, and is not sustainable in developed nations. With significant contributions to global warming from waste, the abovementioned problems are further compounded. Global non-renewable resources are depleted as a result of over-consumption. Furthermore, continuous depletion of natural finite resources is leading to an uncertain future. Therefore, to prevent further depletion of global resources, there is a need for sustainable consumption and strategic waste management systems based on (1) waste avoidance (zero waste), (2) material efficiency and (3) resource recovery. Additionally, there are significant advances in waste management with respect to policy, science and engineering that are not widely known. The main purpose of this Special Issue is to assemble those advances and disseminate them in a single issue.

Prof. Dr. Jay N. Meegoda
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Sustainability
  • Waste Management
  • Zero Waste
  • Resource Recovery
  • Developing and Developed Nations

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Waste Stability Indices for Mechanical–Biological Waste Treatment and Composting Plants
by Andrzej Jędrczak and Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112585 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4006
Abstract
Achieving high efficiency of biological waste treatment in mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants requires reliable methods for measuring the degree of biodegradation of organic substances. For this purpose, several physical, chemical, and biological indices are used. This paper presents respirometric activity (AT4), biogas potential [...] Read more.
Achieving high efficiency of biological waste treatment in mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants requires reliable methods for measuring the degree of biodegradation of organic substances. For this purpose, several physical, chemical, and biological indices are used. This paper presents respirometric activity (AT4), biogas potential (GB21), total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC, respectively), and loss on ignition (LOI) values, as well as the correlations between the indices selected for stabilized waste produced in 18 MBT plants in Poland, which use various technologies for biological processing of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The study confirms that there is a linear relationship between AT4 and GB21 for stabilized waste produced in MBT plants, regardless of the waste treatment technology used. It has also been found that there is a linear relationship between AT4 and the concentration of dissolved carbon in water extract from stabilized waste. This indicates that DOC can be used for monitoring the organic matter stabilization process in mechanical–biological waste treatment plants. Its advantage is a shorter time needed for measurements in comparison to AT4 and GB21 tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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15 pages, 3387 KiB  
Article
Organic Waste Buyback as a Viable Method to Enhance Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries
by Hiroshan Hettiarachchi, Jay N. Meegoda and Sohyeon Ryu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112483 - 7 Nov 2018
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 11145
Abstract
Many developing countries have inadequate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management systems due to lack of not only the awareness, technologies, finances, but also a proper governance that is able to enforce and monitor the regulations. Not all the solutions practiced by and in [...] Read more.
Many developing countries have inadequate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management systems due to lack of not only the awareness, technologies, finances, but also a proper governance that is able to enforce and monitor the regulations. Not all the solutions practiced by and in developed countries fit to the developing country contexts. The local conditions and limitations must always be taken into account when proposing waste management options for developing countries. The excessively high organic waste fraction in MSW and relatively inexpensive labor markets available in developing countries are two of the strengths that have not yet been utilized fully. This manuscript is an attempt to point out the benefits we receive from the above two strengths if we establish organic waste buyback programs. This can only become successful if we find solutions to: (1) collect source-separated organic waste, and then (2) find stable markets for the products made from organic waste. Compost or biogas could be the best bet developing countries can consider as products. However, there must be some policy interventions to support buyback programs at the waste collection stage as well as at the product marketing stage. Implementation of such organic waste buyback centers that can offer some incentives can indirectly motivate residents to do source separation. This will in turn also help promote more recycling, as any waste bin that has no organics in it is much easier for anyone (e.g., waste pickers) to look for other recyclables. Developing country settings such as the Green Container composting program in Cajicá, Colombia, and buyback centers in South Africa that are presented later in the manuscript are thought to be the places where the concept can be implemented with little effort. The environment, economy, and society are considered to be the three dimensions (or pillars) of sustainability. Interestingly, the organic waste buyback centers solution has positive implications on all three aspects of sustainability. Thus, it also supports the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations (UN), by making specific contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as zero hunger (SDG 2), affordable and clean energy (SDG 7), climate action (SDG 13), clean water and sanitation (SDG 6), and sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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23 pages, 955 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Efficiency of Municipal Solid Waste Management in China
by Qing Yang, Lingmei Fu, Xingxing Liu and Mengying Cheng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112448 - 2 Nov 2018
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 6058
Abstract
Poor public health is always associated with the mismanagement of municipal solid waste (MSW). Many cities are besieged by MSW in the world. It is essential to do a good job in MSW management (MSWM). In order to improve the efficiency of MSWM, [...] Read more.
Poor public health is always associated with the mismanagement of municipal solid waste (MSW). Many cities are besieged by MSW in the world. It is essential to do a good job in MSW management (MSWM). In order to improve the efficiency of MSWM, the Chinese government has intensively implemented relevant policies. There are still few studies on MSWM efficiency in China. The research aims to comprehensively analyze MSWM efficiency, find high-efficiency MSWM policy implementation routes and the breakthrough on improving MSWM efficiency. To measure Chinese MSWM efficiency accurately, this paper introduced the three-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model into the research. According to the results of DEA, Fuzzy c-Means algorithm was used to the cluster analysis of 33 typical cities. After eliminating the interference of the external environment and random disturbance, the mean value of MSWM efficiency declined from 0.575 to 0.544. The mean of pure technical efficiency (PTE) was declined from 0.966 to 0.611, while the mean of scale efficiency (SE) increased from 0.600 to 0.907. The PTE of central and northeastern cities was relatively low. The SE of western cities was comparatively high and the efficiency distribution of the eastern region was relatively scattered. In general, MSWM efficiency is low and expected to be improved. Regional differences in MSWM efficiency have been shown. The management effectiveness of eight pilot cities (MSW classification) is affirmative but not that significant. To improve MSWM efficiency, differential management for four types of cities should be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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17 pages, 928 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Relationships between the Characteristics of the Village Population Structure and Rural Residential Solid Waste Collection Services: Evidence from China
by Sha Cao, Dingde Xu and Shaoquan Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112352 - 25 Oct 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3395
Abstract
Based on survey data collected in 2016 from 100 villages across five provinces in China, this paper uses binary logistic model to explore the main factors related to the supply and quality of rural residential solid waste collection (RRSWC) services, especially focusing on [...] Read more.
Based on survey data collected in 2016 from 100 villages across five provinces in China, this paper uses binary logistic model to explore the main factors related to the supply and quality of rural residential solid waste collection (RRSWC) services, especially focusing on the role of village population structure characteristics. It is indicated from the results that village population structure characteristics are significantly correlated with RRSWC services; specifically: (1) the total registered population of village households is significantly positively correlated with the supply of RRSWC services, however, the correlation between the registered population and the quality of RRSWC services is negative and the more the labors working and living outside the village, the less likely the village is to provide RRSWC services; (2) the villagers’ educational levels and RRSWC services show no significant correlativity at the present stage; (3) the preferential policies brought by population structure advantage play a positive role in the supply of RRSWC services but is not clearly related to the quality of RRSWC services, especially in the villages with a larger minority population. In addition, the study finds that, the economic development level of a village and the characteristics of village leaders are also positively correlated with the supply and quality of RRSWC services and; the natural and traffic conditions have no significant correlation with RRSWC services. This study can act as a reference for the further promotion of the development of RRSWC services in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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16 pages, 1548 KiB  
Article
Electronic Waste Governance under “One Country, Two Systems”: Hong Kong and Mainland China
by Natalie W. M. Wong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112347 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 7362
Abstract
China is one of the largest e-waste dumping sites in the world, and Hong Kong, a semi-autonomous territory in China, is also affected by illegal e-waste disposal and transfer. While the Chinese government implemented a waste import ban in January 2018, Hong Kong [...] Read more.
China is one of the largest e-waste dumping sites in the world, and Hong Kong, a semi-autonomous territory in China, is also affected by illegal e-waste disposal and transfer. While the Chinese government implemented a waste import ban in January 2018, Hong Kong has not enforced Chinese policies under the “One Country, Two Systems” framework. Drawing on a policy network approach, this paper provides an explanatory framework for e-waste governance in Hong Kong and China, and identifies the major obstacles to shaping effective transboundary e-waste control and prevention. The paper argues that institutional arrangements play a dominant role in governing e-waste policy networks at the local level of governance in Hong Kong and China; however, a lack of accountability and capacity at the transboundary level can explain the different waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) management strategies in these two places. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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17 pages, 4645 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Evolution Game of Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling Behavior Based on Prospect Theory under Environmental Regulation
by Hong Shen, Ying Peng and Chunxiang Guo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071518 - 18 Jul 2018
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 4745
Abstract
With the development of the construction industry, increasing concern over construction and demolition waste (CDW) has initiated a wave of environmental regulation by the government in order to reduce the environmental impact and ensure sustainable development. Research on behavioral decision-making can offer a [...] Read more.
With the development of the construction industry, increasing concern over construction and demolition waste (CDW) has initiated a wave of environmental regulation by the government in order to reduce the environmental impact and ensure sustainable development. Research on behavioral decision-making can offer a theoretical basis for the government and individuals. This paper aims to study the behavioral decision-making of stakeholders in CDW recycling under environmental regulation. Considering the limited rationality of stakeholders and the difference in reference points, an evolutionary game model including contractors and manufacturers of construction materials is proposed based on the prospect theory of behavioral economics. The results indicate that, only when the perceived benefits of one or both stakeholders for participation under the environmental regulation exceed those for non-participation, can the CDW recycling system eventually evolve to a stable state in which both stakeholders choose to participate. In addition, factors such as the initial strategy, production cost, technology, subsidies, recycling benefits, and the degree of perception of the stakeholders, exert certain influences on the stable state. To attain the required stable state, the government should increase the subsidies for the stakeholders and strengthen the publicity regarding recycling effects to improve the perceived benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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15 pages, 2589 KiB  
Article
Highly Efficient and Sustainable Spent Mushroom Waste Adsorbent Based on Surfactant Modification for the Removal of Toxic Dyes
by Ahmad Alhujaily, Hongbo Yu, Xiaoyu Zhang and Fuying Ma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071421 - 5 Jul 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4342
Abstract
The treatment of wastewater always demands eco-friendly and cost-efficient adsorbents. In this paper, spent mushroom waste (SMW) was modified by a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) to eliminate toxic dyes. A characterization of adsorbents confirmed that CTAB was successfully embedded into the SMW [...] Read more.
The treatment of wastewater always demands eco-friendly and cost-efficient adsorbents. In this paper, spent mushroom waste (SMW) was modified by a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) to eliminate toxic dyes. A characterization of adsorbents confirmed that CTAB was successfully embedded into the SMW structure. The spent mushroom waste, modified by CTAB (SMWC), exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity of 249.57 mg·g−1, 338.67 mg·g−1, and 265.01 mg·g−1 for the Direct red 5B (DR5B), Direct blue 71 (DB71), and Reactive black (RB5) dyes, respectively. Batch experiments indicated that the dye adsorption of SMWC depended mainly on pH, dye concentration, temperature, and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm could be fitted to the Langmuir model and described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The dye adsorption mechanism was dominated mostly by the chemosorption of the dyes and the SMWC surface. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous. SMWC could successfully remove over 90% of dyes from various water samples. This can be considered a feasible waste resource utility, since it meets both the ecological and the economic requirements for auspicious industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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10 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from the Combustion of Waste Vinyl
by Mona Loraine M. Barabad, Wonseok Jung, Michael E. Versoza, Yong-il Lee, Kyomin Choi and Duckshin Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071390 - 2 Jul 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3750
Abstract
Vinyl samples were burned in a controlled environment to determine the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during the combustion process. Open burning of plastic or vinyl products poses several environmental and health risks in developed and developing [...] Read more.
Vinyl samples were burned in a controlled environment to determine the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during the combustion process. Open burning of plastic or vinyl products poses several environmental and health risks in developed and developing countries, due to the release of high concentrations of harmful pollutants. The production of fine and ultrafine particles was significant. At a heat flux of 25 kW/m2, the production of PM of 0.35 μm in size was highest at 63.0 μg/m3. In comparison, at fluxes of 35 and 50 kW/m2, the production of PM of 0.45 μm in size was highest with values of 67.8 and 87.7 μg/m3, respectively. Benzene, acetone, and other toxic compounds were also identified in the analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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23 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Solid Waste Management Solutions for a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand: Recommendations Based on Stakeholder Input
by Nachalida Yukalang, Beverley Clarke and Kirstin Ross
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071302 - 21 Jun 2018
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 10603
Abstract
Municipal solid waste is a significant problem, particularly in developing countries that lack sufficient infrastructure and useable land mass to process it in an appropriate manner. Some developing nations are experiencing a combination of issues that prevent proper management of solid waste. This [...] Read more.
Municipal solid waste is a significant problem, particularly in developing countries that lack sufficient infrastructure and useable land mass to process it in an appropriate manner. Some developing nations are experiencing a combination of issues that prevent proper management of solid waste. This paper reviews the management of municipal solid waste in northeast Thailand, using the Tha Khon Yang Sub-district Municipality (TKYSM) in Maha Sarakham Province as a case study. The combination of rapid population and economic growth and its associated affluence has led to an increase in the use of consumer items and a concomitant increase in the production of municipal solid waste. In the TKYSM there is pressure on local government to establish a suitable waste management program to resolve the escalating waste crisis. The aim of this study is to provide viable solutions to waste management challenges in the TKYSM, and potentially to offer guidance to other similar localities also facing the same challenges. It is well established that successful changes to waste management require an understanding of local context and consideration of specific issues within a region. Therefore, extensive community consultation and engagement with local experts was undertaken to develop an understanding of the particular waste management challenges of the TKYSM. Research methods included observations, one-on-one interviews and focus groups with a range of different stakeholders. The outcomes of this research highlight a number of opportunities to improve local infrastructure and operational capacity around solid waste management. Waste management in rural and urban areas needs to be approached differently. Solutions include: development of appropriate policy and implementation plans (based around the recommendations of this paper); reduction of the volume of waste going to landfill by establishing a waste separation system; initiation of a collection service that supports waste separation at source; educating the citizens of the municipality; and the local government staff, and for the local government to seek external support from the local temples and expertise from the nearby university. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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15 pages, 2659 KiB  
Article
Vertical Distribution of Total Mercury and Mercury Methylation in a Landfill Site in Japan
by Jing Yang, Masaki Takaoka, Akira Sano, Akito Matsuyama and Ryuji Yanase
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061252 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4016
Abstract
Mercury is a neurotoxin, with certain organic forms of the element being particularly harmful to humans. The Minamata Convention was adopted to reduce the intentional use and emission of mercury. Because mercury is an element, it cannot be decomposed. Mercury-containing products and mercury [...] Read more.
Mercury is a neurotoxin, with certain organic forms of the element being particularly harmful to humans. The Minamata Convention was adopted to reduce the intentional use and emission of mercury. Because mercury is an element, it cannot be decomposed. Mercury-containing products and mercury used for various processes will eventually enter the waste stream, and landfill sites will become a mercury sink. While landfill sites can be a source of mercury pollution, the behavior of mercury in solid waste within a landfill site is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the depth profile of mercury, the levels of methyl mercury (MeHg), and the factors controlling methylation in an old landfill site that received waste for over 30 years. Three sampling cores were selected, and boring sampling was conducted to a maximum depth of 18 m, which reached the bottom layer of the landfill. Total mercury (THg) and MeHg were measured in the samples to determine the characteristics of mercury at different depths. Bacterial species were identified by 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing, because the methylation process is promoted by a series of genes. It was found that the THg concentration was 19–975 ng/g, with a geometric mean of 298 ng/g, which was slightly less than the 400 ng/g concentration recorded 30 years previously. In some samples, MeHg accounted for up to 15–20% of THg, which is far greater than the general level in soils and sediments, although the source of MeHg was unclear. The genetic data indicated that hgcA was present mostly in the upper and lower layers of the three cores, merA was almost as much as hgcA, while the level of merB was hundreds of times less than those of the other two genes. A significant correlation was found between THg and MeHg, as well as between MeHg and MeHg/THg. In addition, a negative correlation was found between THg and merA. The coexistence of the three genes indicated that both methylation and demethylation processes could occur, but the lack of merB was a barrier for demethylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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23 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Public Awareness of Remanufactured Products in Yangtze River Delta of China: Present Status, Problems and Recommendations
by Jian Cao, Xihui Chen, Xueping Zhang, Yanchen Gao, Xuemei Zhang, Yunwen Zhao, Xiaoli Yang, Jiayang Xu, Gengui Zhou and Jerald L. Schnoor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061199 - 7 Jun 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4256
Abstract
Exponential increase of used and scrapped products has aroused worldwide attention, with various coping strategies regarding environmental protection and resource reutilization being considered and implemented. Among these, remanufacturing, processing used products environmentally and restoring them to like-new conditions, is preferred by nations around [...] Read more.
Exponential increase of used and scrapped products has aroused worldwide attention, with various coping strategies regarding environmental protection and resource reutilization being considered and implemented. Among these, remanufacturing, processing used products environmentally and restoring them to like-new conditions, is preferred by nations around the world. China has been committed to developing and advancing the remanufacturing industry along with its products since 2013, however only a few residents are able to recognize and purchase remanufactured products at the present time. This paper aims to investigate the public awareness of Chinese residents on these emerging products by conducting a questionnaire survey and field research for data collection, and analyzing the results statistically. Results show that most Chinese residents are not familiar with remanufactured products, the superior attributes of such products, or the channels available to purchase them. This could be explained by insufficient publicity and promotion on the part of the government and business enterprises. Factors influencing the purchase intentions of customers are illuminated and potential problems are summarized, in response to which, respective recommendations are provided for both policy makers and firms to popularize remanufactured products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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14 pages, 1241 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Rice Husk Compost as an Alternate Organic Manure to Enhance the Productivity of Blackgram in Typic Haplustalf and Typic Rhodustalf
by Subramanium Thiyageshwari, Pandurangan Gayathri, Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy, Rangasamy Anandham and Diby Paul
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020358 - 17 Feb 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5935
Abstract
The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH). Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer [...] Read more.
The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH). Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) in black soil (typic Haplustalf) and red soil (typic Rhodustalf) soil. The results revealed that, inoculation with lignocellulolytic fungus (LCF) Aspergillus sp. @ 2% was considered as the most efficient method of composting within a short period. Characterization of composted rice husk (CRH) was examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM) for identifying significant structural changes. At the end of composting, N, P and K content increased with decrease in CO2 evolution, C:N and C:P ratios. In comparison to inorganic fertilization, an increase in grain yield of 16% in typic Haplustalf and 17% in typic Rhodustalf soil over 100% RDF was obtained from the integrated application of CRH@ 5 t ha−1 with 50% RDF and biofertilizers. The crude protein content was maximum with the combined application of CRH, 50% RDF and biofertilizers of 20% and 21% in typic Haplustalf and typic Rhodustalf soils, respectively. Nutrient rich CRH has proved its efficiency on crop growth and soil fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 2990 KiB  
Review
Managerial Areas of Construction and Demolition Waste: A Scientometric Review
by Jianguo Chen, Yangyue Su, Hongyun Si and Jindao Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112350 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 6135
Abstract
In past decades, the massive generation of construction and demolition waste (CDW) was increasingly threatening the public environment and humanity health worldwide. A large amount of research has been devoted to the CDW from difference perspectives. However, few scholars have attempted to summarize [...] Read more.
In past decades, the massive generation of construction and demolition waste (CDW) was increasingly threatening the public environment and humanity health worldwide. A large amount of research has been devoted to the CDW from difference perspectives. However, few scholars have attempted to summarize and review the extant studies, especially in the managerial areas of CDW (MA-CDW). This paper fills this gap via a systematic and quantitative review in the CDW management field. Employing the scientometric analysis method, a total of 261 articles published from 2006 to 2018 were collected to construct the knowledge map and comprehensive framework for MA-CDW. Results show that the overall evolutionary trend of MA-CDW was from basic management concepts to internal and external challenges analysis, to organizational strategy and innovative management practices. The major MA-CDW knowledge domains were identified and summarized into four pillars, namely: (1) factor and challenge; (2) composition and quantification; (3) assessment and comparison; and (4) technology and method. Based on the trend, knowledge gaps and future research directions were found out and discussed. This study contributes to the existing MA-CDW knowledge by presenting a comprehensive knowledge framework. Furthermore, these findings can provide the researchers and practitioners with an in-depth understanding for the sustainable governance of CDW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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16 pages, 1417 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Processes, Parameters, and Optimization of Anaerobic Digestion
by Jay N. Meegoda, Brian Li, Kush Patel and Lily B. Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102224 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 350 | Viewed by 22968
Abstract
Anaerobic digestion is a technology that has been used by humans for centuries. Anaerobic digestion is considered to be a useful tool that can generate renewable energy and significant research interest has arisen recently. The underlying theory of anaerobic digestion has been established [...] Read more.
Anaerobic digestion is a technology that has been used by humans for centuries. Anaerobic digestion is considered to be a useful tool that can generate renewable energy and significant research interest has arisen recently. The underlying theory of anaerobic digestion has been established for decades; however, a great deal of current research is directed towards the optimization of anaerobic digestion under diverse digestion conditions. This review provides a summary of the processes underlying anaerobic digestion, commonly-utilized measurements of anaerobic sludge, operating parameters of anaerobic digesters, and methods of acceleration and optimization used to improve process efficiency. Recent developments in addition to older research are considered to provide a general but comprehensive summary of accumulated knowledge in the theory of anaerobic digestion, as well as considerations in the efficient operation of digesters. We have determined that the numerous factors pertinent to the design and operation of batch-based anaerobic digesters must each be considered to ensure the maximum efficiency and cost-effectiveness of a digester provided its respective operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management of Waste)
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