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Special Issue "Update on Hydration during Endurance Events"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 2053

Special Issue Editor

Department of Physiology, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain
Interests: exercise physiology; muscle damage; hypoxia, hydration and cardiovascular alterations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Total body water is essential to the physiological function of the human body, especially during endurance exercise in warm environments, where a dehydration state can be reached rapidly. Factors such as physical condition, individual sweats, temperature, and hydration strategy lead to a state of dehydration much more easily. Athletes who lose as little as 1–2% of their body mass through sweat loss exhibit an increase in heart rate, core temperature, muscle glycogen use, as well as a decrease in cardiac output, cognitive awareness, anaerobic power, and time to exhaustion. Moreover, recent studies have indicated that even lower levels of dehydration (–1%) provoke unfavorable changes in athletic performance. However, overdrinking is just as undesirable, as it could generate a decrease in sodium levels, inducing a state of hyponatremia.

Thus, the goal of drinking during exercise should be to prevent a body mass loss of –2% without overdrinking. To evade these issues, athletes must establish a liquid consumption strategy during competitions or training. In recent years, there have been two trends in the area of sports rehydration, drinking when thirsty and/or ad libitum drinking. Scientists have yet to reach a consensus on what constitutes an appropriate fluid replacement strategy during exercise.

Thus, this Special Issue aims to provide an overview of the most recent developments in the field of hydration programs, mainly on changes in essential physiological systems, health, and sports performance. We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles and up-to-date reviews.

Dr. Jerónimo Aragón-Vela
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • hydration programs
  • exercise performance
  • physiology
  • dehydration
  • heat illness
  • thirst sensation
  • fluid balance

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Seawater Hydration Modulates IL-6 and Apelin Production during Triathlon Events: A Crossover Randomized Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159581 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
A triathlon is an endurance event in which athletes need an efficient hydration strategy since hydration is restricted at different stages. However, it seems that seawater intake can be a suitable hydration alternative for this type of endurance event. Therefore, the aim of [...] Read more.
A triathlon is an endurance event in which athletes need an efficient hydration strategy since hydration is restricted at different stages. However, it seems that seawater intake can be a suitable hydration alternative for this type of endurance event. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of seawater hydration during a triathlon on cytokine production. Fifteen trained male triathletes (age = 38.8 ± 5.62 years old; BMI = 22.58 ± 2.51 kg/m2) randomly performed three triathlons, one of them consuming seawater (Totum SPORT, Laboratories Quinton International, S.L., Valencia, Spain), the other one consuming tap water ad libitum, and the last a physiologic saline solution as placebo. The triathlon consisted of an 800 m swim, a 90 km bike ride, and a 10 km run. Blood samples were taken at rest and after training, where markers of inflammation, hemoglobin, and hematocrit concentration were assessed. While the seawater was not ergogenic, it significantly increased the release of IL-6 and apelin post-exercise. However, no differences were found between the fractalkine, IL-15, EPO, osteonectin, myostatin, oncostatin, irisin, FSTL1, osteocrin, BDNF, and FGF-21 values over those of the placebo group. The present study demonstrates that hydration with seawater stimulates myokine production, which could lead to improved performance recovery after exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Hydration during Endurance Events)
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