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Effective Management of Chronic Diseases: Prevention, Assessment and Treatment

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 20011

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: physiotherapy; physical therapy; chronic diseases; rehabilitation; respiration disorders

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Guest Editor
Nurse Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, 52005 Granada, Spain
Interests: nurse; healthcare; chronic diseases; health education; respiration disorders

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Guest Editor
Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
Interests: physiotherapy; physical therapy; chronic diseases; rehabilitation; neurological disorders; neurorehabilitation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic diseases are nonreversible, long-duration, slowly progressing pathologies. Approximately one in three adults suffers from multiple chronic diseases, which represent the leading cause of disability worldwide. The most prevalent chronic conditions are cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease, which are commonly associated with higher healthcare use and the worst clinical profile when healthcare is disrupted.

Identification of at-risk populations, early diagnosis, and prognosis prediction  play major roles in preventing or reducing the burden of chronic illness. Addressing chronic disease is a major challenge for healthcare systems around the world, as it requires a long period of supervision, observation, care and/or rehabilitation.

Management focuses on the specific symptoms of the disease and complications arising (poor quality of life, social problems, limited activities of daily living, etc.), the prevention of comorbidities, and the implementation of proactive, multidisciplinary, patient-centered care.

This Special Issue in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health calls for papers addressing these topics, especially those investigating pharmacological and/or non-pharmacological medicine and care provided by allied health professionals in primary and specialty care to prevent, manage, assess, and treat chronic disease.

Dr. Marie Carmen Valenza
Dr. María Granados-Santiago
Dr. Laura López-López
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chronic disease
  • chronic condition
  • prevention
  • well-being promotion
  • treatment
  • disease management

Published Papers (5 papers)

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10 pages, 678 KiB  
Article
The Lived Self-Care Experiences of Patients Undergoing Long-Term Haemodialysis: A Phenomenological Study
by Sisook Kim and Hyunsook Zin Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 4690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064690 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1874
Abstract
The study aims to understand the lived self-care experiences of patients who have undergone long-term haemodialysis. The study adopts a qualitative phenomenological design. Data were collected for six months, from 1 July to 31 December 2020. Out of 90 outpatients in a haemodialysis [...] Read more.
The study aims to understand the lived self-care experiences of patients who have undergone long-term haemodialysis. The study adopts a qualitative phenomenological design. Data were collected for six months, from 1 July to 31 December 2020. Out of 90 outpatients in a haemodialysis clinic at a university hospital in Seoul, Korea, 11 patients who had received haemodialysis for more than 10 years were purposefully selected, and 9 of them took part in in-depth interviews. The main research question was, ‘What was the experience of surviving long-term haemodialysis?’ The study revealed four main themes surrounding the topic of self-care: (A) the desire to keep living despite challenges, (B) creating one’s own dietary principles, (C) moving one’s body with the remaining strength, and (D) moving toward independence. In the long-term self-care of haemodialysis patients, they shared personal observations on their disease and treatment process and their struggles to try to manage their own physical and emotional self-care. By exploring the experience of long-term haemodialysis, it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their perceptions, emotions, and motivations. With this information, healthcare professionals can develop interventions and support strategies that are tailored to the specific needs of haemodialysis patients. Full article
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9 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
The Spanish Version of the International Index of Erectile Function: Adaptation and Validation
by Esther Díaz-Mohedo, Antonio Meldaña Sánchez, Francisco Cabello Santamaría, Elena Molina García, Sofía Hernández Hernández and Fidel Hita-Contreras
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031830 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 13184
Abstract
Background: The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is a widely employed questionnaire in urology to assess erectile dysfunction (ED) in both clinical research and practice. Objective: To translate and culturally adapt the Spanish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) [...] Read more.
Background: The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is a widely employed questionnaire in urology to assess erectile dysfunction (ED) in both clinical research and practice. Objective: To translate and culturally adapt the Spanish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and to analyze its psychometric properties in Spanish men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: Firstly, direct and reverse translations were performed. Secondly, a pilot study was carried out on 23 patients with the lowest possible education level without being illiterate. Finally, 170 participants completed the IIEF. Test–retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis) were assessed. Concurrent and divergent validity were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), respectively. Discriminant validity (with and without anxiety or depression) was calculated using a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: High internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.968, total score) and moderate-to-excellent test–retest reliability were found. The factor analysis showed a two-factor structure (explained variance of 77.34%). Significant correlations of the IIEF total score (p < 0.01) and domains (p < 0.05) with HADS anxiety and depression scores were observed (concurrent validity), while non-significant correlations with SF-12 physical and mental summary scores were found (divergent validity). The IIEF total score could discriminate between participants with and without anxiety (p < 0.05) and depression (p < 0.01), with an optimal cut-off point of <39.50 for both anxiety (48.30% sensitivity and 78.75% specificity) and depression (50.00% sensitivity and 81.01% specificity). Clinical implications: The psychometric properties of the IIEF have not been analyzed in Spanish people to date. Strengths and Limitations: The Spanish version of the IIEF was shown to be capable of discriminating between men with erectile dysfunction with and without depression or anxiety. There are some limitations to this study that should be noted. It was conducted on Spanish participants, and, thus, it should be employed with caution in other Spanish-speaking countries. This study was carried out on a selected population, and, therefore, the generalizability of its results to other populations might be limited. Moreover, a large majority of the participants (89.41%) had secondary or higher education. Future studies should be performed on a more general population with a varied geographical and educational background. Conclusions: The Spanish IIEF is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing erectile function among Spanish men with ED. Full article
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9 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Pain Intensity, Physical Factors, Pronociceptive Pain Modulation Profile and Psychological Vulnerability on Upper Limb Disability in Older Patients with Chronic Shoulder Pain
by Geraldine Valenza-Peña, Javier Martín-Núñez, Alejandro Heredia-Ciuró, María Granados-Santiago, Laura López-López, Marie Carmen Valenza and Irene Cabrera-Martos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215006 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Background: Chronic shoulder pain is a very prevalent condition causing disability and functional impairment. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between pain intensity, physical variables, psychological vulnerability, pronociceptive pain modulation profile and disability in older people with chronic shoulder [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic shoulder pain is a very prevalent condition causing disability and functional impairment. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between pain intensity, physical variables, psychological vulnerability, pronociceptive pain modulation profile and disability in older people with chronic shoulder pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 56 participants with non-specific chronic shoulder pain of the “Complejo Hospitalario Universitario” (Granada) and 56 healthy controls were included. The outcomes evaluated were pain intensity (visual analogue scale), physical factors (dynamometry for grip strength), psychological vulnerability (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia), pronociceptive pain modulation profile (pain pressure algometry) and disability (Quick Disability Arm Shoulder Hand questionnaire). Results: Disability showed a positive correlation with pain and psychological vulnerability (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation with pronociceptive pain variables and dynamometry (p < 0.001). Psychological vulnerability also presented a strong negative correlation with proprioceptive pain variables and dynamometry and a positive correlation with pain (p < 0.05). In regard to the pronociceptive pain modulation profile, a strong negative correlation with pain (p < 0.001) and a positive moderate correlation with dynamometry (p < 0.001) were shown. Conclusions: Our results support a strong association between disability, psychological vulnerability and pronociceptive pain modulation profile in older adults with chronic shoulder pain. Full article
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9 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Function and the Ability to Operate Long-Term Oxygen Therapy Equipment: An Exploratory Study
by Hiroki Annaka, Tomonori Nomura and Hiroshi Moriyama
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710708 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Chronic respiratory disease patients with severe hypoxia receive long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). The proper operation of LTOT equipment is essential for continuing treatment. This exploratory study investigated the relationship between cognitive impairment as a comorbidity in patients receiving LTOT and their ability to [...] Read more.
Chronic respiratory disease patients with severe hypoxia receive long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). The proper operation of LTOT equipment is essential for continuing treatment. This exploratory study investigated the relationship between cognitive impairment as a comorbidity in patients receiving LTOT and their ability to operate the LTOT equipment. The study measured responses to questions based on the ability of participants to operate the equipment and applied the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The ability of groups with MoCA scores ≤ 25 and >25 to operate LTOT equipment was compared to confirm the correlation between MoCA and ability to operate the equipment. An aggregate of 60 participants receiving LTOT were recruited, of whom 45 (75%) were MoCA score ≤ 25. The group of MoCA score ≤ 25 demonstrated a lower ability to operate LTOT equipment than group of MoCA score > 25 (p = 0.012). Additionally, a correlation was found between the ability to operate LTOT equipment and MoCA (rs = 0.743, p < 0.001). The results indicated that the group of MoCA score ≤ 25 indicated a lower ability to operate LTOT equipment than that of MoCA score > 25. Cognitive impairment in patients receiving LTOT can affect their ability to operate LTOT equipment. Full article
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6 pages, 318 KiB  
Brief Report
Telehealth Intervention to Improve Uptake of Evidence-Based Medications among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Heart Failure or Cardiovascular Disease
by Armando Silva-Almodóvar and Milap C. Nahata
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043613 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Introduction: Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1) agonists are recommended for patients with type two diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or heart failure (HF) to reduce cardiovascular-related mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Introduction: Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1) agonists are recommended for patients with type two diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or heart failure (HF) to reduce cardiovascular-related mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate a telehealth targeted medication review (TMR) program to identify patients for uptake of these evidence-based medications. Methods: This was an observational descriptive study of a TMR program for Medicare-enrolled, Medication Therapy Management-eligible patients in one insurance plan. Prescription claims and patient interviews identified individuals who would benefit from SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 agonists. Facsimiles were sent to providers of patients with educational information about the targeted medications. Descriptive statistics described characteristics and proportion of patients prescribed targeted medications after 120 days. Bivariate statistical tests evaluated associations between age, sex, number of medications, number of providers, and poverty level with adoption of targeted medications. Results: A total of 1106 of 1127 had a facsimile sent to their provider after a conversation with the patient. Among patients with a provider facsimile, 69 (6%) patients filled a prescription for a targeted medication after 120 days. There was a significant difference in age between individuals who started a targeted medication (67 ± 10 years) compared with patients who did not (71 ± 10 years) (p = 0.001). Conclusions: A TMR efficiently identified patients with T2D and ASCVD or HF who would benefit from evidence-based medications. Although younger patients were more likely to receive these medications, the overall uptake of these medications within four months of the intervention was lower than expected. Full article
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