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Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 April 2023) | Viewed by 64066

Special Issue Editor

Department of Preventive Dental Science Division of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0W2, Canada
Interests: dental public health; clinical pediatric dentistry; nonpharmacological techniques for managing children at the dental office; oral rehabilitation under general anesthesia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Dental public health and pediatric dentistry are two recognized specialties. Looking at the definition of each, one can easily see they are closely intertwined. Dental public health is concerned with diagnosis, prevention, and control of dental diseases and the promotion of oral health through organized community efforts. Pediatric dentistry is concerned with providing primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health diagnosis, care, and consultative expertise for infants and children through adolescence, including those of all ages with special care needs. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health aims to publish articles focusing on dental public health issues in pediatric dentistry. Some areas this Special Issue seeks to address include but are not limited to:

  • Community-based, public health approaches to optimize the oral health for all children;
  • Caries detection tools;
  • Interventions to prevent and/or arrest disease progression;
  • Caries-risk assessment; and
  • Recent advancements or trends in pediatric dentistry procedures and materials.

The title suggested for this Special Issue is Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health, for which I particularly seek submissions to showcase the interface between public health and pediatric dentistry: theory, policy, methodology, and application.

Prof. Dr. Ziad D. Baghdadi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Dental care for children
  • Dental caries
  • Health knowledge, attitudes, practice
  • Oral health
  • Patient advocacy
  • Pediatric dentistry
  • Primary health care
  • Public policy

Published Papers (21 papers)

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14 pages, 693 KiB  
Article
Awareness and Attitude of Physicians on the Role of Dentists in the Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316126 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Background: Efforts to evaluate physicians’ awareness and attitude toward dentists’ comprehensive role in OSA management are relatively negligible. Therefore, this study aimed to assess physicians’ awareness and attitude toward the role of dentists in OSA management in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a multi-center [...] Read more.
Background: Efforts to evaluate physicians’ awareness and attitude toward dentists’ comprehensive role in OSA management are relatively negligible. Therefore, this study aimed to assess physicians’ awareness and attitude toward the role of dentists in OSA management in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a multi-center cross-sectional study, a total of 358 physicians in Saudi Arabia were subjected to an e-questionnaire composed of three sections: (1) physicians’ demographic data, (2) physicians’ general and specific knowledge of OSA and its management [using 29 factual statements to be responded by “True, False, or I don’t know” responses], and (3) physicians’ attitude towards dentists’ role in OSA management [using 12 attitude statements to be responded by a Likert scale of “Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Usually, Always” responses]. A scoring system was applied for both knowledge and attitude, total and percentage mean scores (PMS) were calculated, and knowledge and attitude levels were categorized accordingly. Predictors of correct knowledge and favorable attitude were identified using multiple regression analyses. Results: Physicians had an overall average knowledge level (PMS = 56% ± 19.4%), with 35.5% and 5.9% reporting good general and specific knowledge levels, respectively (χ2 = 143.0, p < 0.001). Physicians had an overall neutral attitude level (PMS = 64.4% ± 17.5%), with about one-half reporting a neutral attitude level (48.9%) and only one-fourth reporting a positive attitude level (27.7%). Higher levels of knowledge were a significant predictor of favorable attitudes (t = 5.71, p < 0.001). Higher training levels were a significant predictor of correct knowledge (t = 3.60, p < 0.001) and favorable attitude (t = 3.15, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Physicians showed insufficient knowledge about OSA and a less than favorable attitude towards dentists’ role in its management. Enhancing medical curricula and clinical protocols and guidelines on the dentists’ role in OSA management is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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9 pages, 944 KiB  
Article
Study Regarding the Optimal Dimension of Intraoral Bitewing Radiographs in Patients with Primary Dentition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215413 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of a radiographic plate to allow correct visualization of dental tissues and correct fit in the oral cavity of children with deciduous dentition. A quasi-experimental clinical study was carried out in children [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of a radiographic plate to allow correct visualization of dental tissues and correct fit in the oral cavity of children with deciduous dentition. A quasi-experimental clinical study was carried out in children of both sexes aged between 3 and 5 years. The study variables were the complete visualization of the dental structures, the surveillance of ischemia on soft tissues, stimulation of the gag reflex, and acceptance of the radiographic plate by the pediatric patient through a validated visual analogue scale that measures anxiety. The data obtained were subjected to a descriptive and comparative statistical analysis carried out for both study phases. A total of 80 children participated in the study. The optimal dimensions obtained for the radiographic plate were 19.5 mm in height and 27.3 mm in width. Visualization of the dental tissues during both phases was not statistically significant (p = 0.412). However, there were statistically significant differences regarding the presence of ischemia, gag reflex, and child rejection (p < 0.001). A smaller radiographic plate allows correct visualization of the coronal dental tissues without causing rejection, ischemia, or gag reflex in patients in the deciduous dentition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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20 pages, 781 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Short-Term Intervention with Lactobacillus salivarius Probiotic on Early Childhood Caries—An Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912447 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
ECC is a significant therapeutic and social problem and a global burden on public health. The aim of this clinical trial was to test whether a 2-week daily consumption of chewing tablets containing thermally inactivated L. salivarius reduces the 12-month caries increment compared [...] Read more.
ECC is a significant therapeutic and social problem and a global burden on public health. The aim of this clinical trial was to test whether a 2-week daily consumption of chewing tablets containing thermally inactivated L. salivarius reduces the 12-month caries increment compared to the control group. The investigation was a single-center, randomized, controlled open-label, blinded end-point evaluation trial in two parallel groups. At baseline, 140 generally healthy children between 3 and 6 years of age with or without ECC were randomly assigned to the probiotic test group (n = 70) or to the treatment as the usual control group (n = 70). The primary outcome measure was the 1-year increment in caries incidence and prevalence. Secondary endpoints assessed were the initial, cavitated and obvious dentinal caries increment as well as the measurement of dental plaque accumulation, as an indicator of the ECC risk. Data were collected through the clinical assessment of the children’s caries (dmft and ICDAS II) and oral hygiene status (DI-S of OHI-S index). Caries incidence and prevalence were statistically significantly lower in the probiotic group versus the control group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0075). The initial and final mean OHI-S scores in the probiotic group did not show any significant differences. In conclusion, the regular short-term intake of probiotics may reduce caries development. Our findings suggest that self-administered probiotic therapy may provide a good complement to increase the effectiveness of individual preventive home care in preschool children. This is the first clinical study evaluating the effect of a short-term probiotic intervention on reducing early childhood caries with 12 months of follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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13 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Parental Education on Schoolchildren’s Oral Health—A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study in Romania
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 11102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191711102 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
The present study is part of the first national oral health survey for children in Romania. The aim of this study was to determine caries prevalence in correlation with the level of the parents’ education, preventive behavior, and socioeconomic parameters in 11–14-year-old schoolchildren [...] Read more.
The present study is part of the first national oral health survey for children in Romania. The aim of this study was to determine caries prevalence in correlation with the level of the parents’ education, preventive behavior, and socioeconomic parameters in 11–14-year-old schoolchildren in Romania. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was designed and conducted in 2019–2020. The sampled children were selected from 49 schools distributed in rural and urban areas of Romania, including its capital. Data were collected using the Oral Health Questionnaire for Children developed by the World Health Organization and described in the WHO Oral Health Surveys—Basic Methods, 5th edition, 2013, after positive informed consent. To express prevalence and severity of carious lesions, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria were recorded in school for 814 schoolchildren (388 boys and 426 girls) aged between 11 and 14 years old (mean age 12.29 ± 0.6). Elements regarding the specificity of the child (gender, age, and parental education) were tabulated against preventive behavior. The parents’ education was correlated with three clinical indices in order to assess the existence or lack of certain significant differences among schoolchildren in Romania. In terms of correlation between the mother’s education and preventive behavior, results showed a significant positive correlation in case of dental check-ups (rs = 0.08 *, p < 0.05), brushing (rs = 0.02 **, p < 0.01), and use of different types of dental hygiene aids (rs = 0.06 **, p < 0.01) and a negative correlation with tooth pain or discomfort (rs = −0.01 **, p < 0.01). A statistically significant positive relationship was highlighted between the mother’s education and the presence of restorations (rs = −0.09 **, p < 0.01). Regarding the father’s education, there was a positive relationship with oral hygiene behavior (rs = 0.18 **, p < 0.01) but a negative relationship with the D3T index (rs = −0.18 **, p < 0.01). In conclusion, there was a strong correlation between the parents’ education, preventive behavior, and oral health status of Romanian schoolchildren. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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10 pages, 700 KiB  
Article
Oral Hygiene in Adolescence: A Questionnaire-Based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127381 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3470
Abstract
Oral health is fundamental to our well-being, especially in adolescence. The aim of this study is to investigate oral hygiene knowledge through a questionnaire in a sample of adolescents, paying particular attention to those wearing orthodontic braces. The study was designed as a [...] Read more.
Oral health is fundamental to our well-being, especially in adolescence. The aim of this study is to investigate oral hygiene knowledge through a questionnaire in a sample of adolescents, paying particular attention to those wearing orthodontic braces. The study was designed as a descriptive report of a local survey. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to individuals born between 2000 and 2005, both on paper and online. Among 213 adolescents answering the questionnaire, 206 went to the dentist at least once (most of them between 5 and 9 years old), and 144 experienced at least one session of professional oral hygiene. Approximately 83% of the sample brushed their teeth at least twice a day, while only 7% used dental floss daily. Only 54% of respondents wearing orthodontic braces were advised to undergo professional oral hygiene during their orthodontic treatment. Education on oral hygiene at home came only from their parents for 61% of the whole sample. Most respondents had their first visit to the dentist apparently too late. Flossing was rare, whether the adolescents wore orthodontic braces or not. In many cases, professional oral hygiene was not common during orthodontic treatment. Adolescents did not learn about oral hygiene from a dental specialist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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12 pages, 1282 KiB  
Article
Impact of Dietary Patterns on Plaque Acidogenicity and Dental Caries in Early Childhood: A Retrospective Analysis in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127245 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the relationship of dietary patterns, such as frequency, timing, and cariogenicity of food/beverage consumption, with plaque acidogenicity and early childhood caries (ECC) in Japan. A total of 118 children aged 1–4 years who had visited the pediatric dental [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the relationship of dietary patterns, such as frequency, timing, and cariogenicity of food/beverage consumption, with plaque acidogenicity and early childhood caries (ECC) in Japan. A total of 118 children aged 1–4 years who had visited the pediatric dental clinic were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed their records to collect data including age, sex, medical history, medication, caries status, and plaque acidogenicity level at the first dental visit. The plaque acidogenicity level was measured using Cariostat®. Dietary data were collected from 3-day dietary records, and the dietary cariogenicity score was calculated from these data. Children with ECC or high plaque acidogenicity consumed between-meal sugars more frequently than did their counterparts (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006, respectively). Children with ECC or high plaque acidogenicity drank juices between meals more frequently than at mealtimes (p = 0.02). Frequent consumption of between-meal sugars was associated with higher plaque acidogenicity and ECC, and frequent breast/bottle feeding was associated with ECC. No differences were found in the dietary cariogenicity scores between these groups. Therefore, the frequency and timing of sugar consumption, might affect plaque acidogenicity and ECC, and reducing the frequency of sugar intake could prevent ECC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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17 pages, 2379 KiB  
Article
Penetration and Adaptation of the Highly Viscous Zinc-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement on Contaminated Fissures: An In Vitro Study with SEM Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106291 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the penetration and adaptation of highly viscous zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement (ZRGIC), using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), when applied under various contaminated conditions on grooves and fissures of primary second molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 extracted [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the penetration and adaptation of highly viscous zinc-reinforced glass ionomer cement (ZRGIC), using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), when applied under various contaminated conditions on grooves and fissures of primary second molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 extracted human primary second molars were randomly assigned into five groups (8 teeth each), with different surface conditions (conditioned with 40% polyacrylic acid, dry condition, water contamination, saliva contamination, or saliva contamination and air-drying) on the occlusal surface before placement of zinc-reinforced highly viscous glass ionomer cement with the finger-press technique. After sectioning the teeth, they were subjected to SEM analysis, where four in each group underwent aging by thermocycling and the other four were without aging. ANOVA tests, post hoc analysis, and unpaired t-tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: There was a significant statistical difference in the sealant penetration in the non-aging group, but in the aging group, there was no significant statistical difference in the sealant penetration. On other hand, a significant statistical difference was found in the adaptation between all the groups (p < 0.05). Highly viscous zinc-reinforced glass ionomer fissure sealants have better fissure penetration and more intimate adaptation under fissures conditioned with 40% polyacrylic acid and dry surface fissures with no contamination. However, the best penetration and retention after aging were under contaminated fissures with a shiny layer of saliva. Conclusions: The ZRGIC is a highly viscous fluoride-releasing cement, effectively seals fissures by interfering with food lodgment and protecting teeth from caries. It is advisable to restore the fissures with the minimal technique of sensitive fluoride-releasing GIC, particularly in young, uncooperative children, rather than leaving a caries-prone environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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9 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Apical Plug Formation during Apexification of Immature Teeth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095304 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability and time required for the formation of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregation (MTA) apical plugs, using three different delivery methods: an amalgam carrier (AC), the Micro Apical Placement (MAP) System or a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability and time required for the formation of Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregation (MTA) apical plugs, using three different delivery methods: an amalgam carrier (AC), the Micro Apical Placement (MAP) System or a novel tool using a modified cannula (MC). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 uniformed molar roots were divided into three main groups, according to the technique of apical plug formation: AC, MAP, and MC. Each group was divided into two subgroups, according to the filling material used: MTA and Biodentine. A timer was used to calculate the required time for apical plug formation. After setting the filling materials, the apical microleakage of the formed plugs was quantified using the dye extraction method and spectrophotometry. The differences between the groups were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: No significant differences were reported in the time required to form the apical plugs in all groups (p > 0.05). However, the apical plugs formed by the AC method had significantly higher microleakage than those formed using the MAP and MC methods (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the sealing ability of the apical plugs formed by the MC method is comparable to the MAP method and better than the AC method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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11 pages, 1393 KiB  
Article
Morphometric Analysis of Permanent Canines: Preliminary Findings on Odontometric Sex Dimorphism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042109 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2297
Abstract
Aim: This study aims to investigate the morphometrics of permanent canines in establishing sexual dimorphism in the native Arabian population. Methods: Thirty (male = 12; female = 18) native Arabian subjects, with ages ranging between 20–45 years. The mesiodistal (MD), cericoincisal (CI) and [...] Read more.
Aim: This study aims to investigate the morphometrics of permanent canines in establishing sexual dimorphism in the native Arabian population. Methods: Thirty (male = 12; female = 18) native Arabian subjects, with ages ranging between 20–45 years. The mesiodistal (MD), cericoincisal (CI) and labiolingual (LL) widths of the teeth 13, 23, 33, and 43 and the inter-canine distance in maxillary (MaxICW) and mandibular (ManICW) arches were measured using a digital caliper. The gran method was used for establishing sex dimorphism among the study subjects. Descriptive statistics were employed using SPSS version 20.0 (Armonk, NY, USA, IBM Corp.). Results: The comparison of either of the measurements (MD, CI, LL, MaxICW and ManICW) were shown to be statistically significant (p > 0.05). The overall mean values of teeth 13, 23, 33, and 43 for CI, LL, MaxICW, and ManICW were lower for females than males (p > 0.05). The MD width was higher in females than that of males (p > 0.05). The sex dimorphism value for teeth 13, 23, 33, and 43 were 0.98, 0.99, 1, and 0.99, respectively. The standard canine index was high for mandibular teeth and lower for mandibular teeth, and SCI values for teeth 13, 23, 33, and 43 were 0.219, 0.218, 0.257 and 0.256, respectively. Conclusion: The morphometrics of permanent canines are helpful in sex determination with the aid of odontometric analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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17 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination and Oropharyngeal Cancer: Knowledge, Perception and Attitude among Italian Pediatric Dentists
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020790 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Background: Pediatric dentists could play a key role in the prevention of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OP-cancer). The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, perception, and attitude on HPV-related OP-cancer, HPV infection, and HPV vaccination among Italian pediatric dentists. [...] Read more.
Background: Pediatric dentists could play a key role in the prevention of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OP-cancer). The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, perception, and attitude on HPV-related OP-cancer, HPV infection, and HPV vaccination among Italian pediatric dentists. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Pediatric dentists received, by email, a link to participate in the questionnaire online. The questionnaire comprised four parts: (i) demographic information, (ii) knowledge on HPV-related OP-cancer, HPV infection, and HPV vaccine, (iii–iiii) perceptions and attitude on HPV-related OP-cancer, HPV infection, and HPV vaccine. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: A total of 271 pediatric dentists completed the questionnaire. Results showed a good overall knowledge; a positive perception of their role in HPV disease prevention; a good attitude in discussing sensitive topics; a need for acquiring more information about HPV’s connection to cancer, HPV infection, and HPV vaccine. Conclusions: Improving educational training programs, as well as informing about prevention of HPV-related OP-cancer, will place pediatric dentists in the front line of HPV diseases primary prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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11 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Oral Health Status of Children Living with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010545 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Background: Diabetes is a well-known predisposing factor for oral diseases, so prevention in an early age is mandatory. Objective: To provide oral screening for children living with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the oral and general health indexes of T1DM children [...] Read more.
Background: Diabetes is a well-known predisposing factor for oral diseases, so prevention in an early age is mandatory. Objective: To provide oral screening for children living with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the oral and general health indexes of T1DM children and compare these data to healthy siblings and controls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 DM patients and 78 siblings, thereafter 80 DM children and 95 controls, took part. A detailed questionnaire, panoramic radiographs, and lateral cephalograms were obtained in every orthodontic consultation. We used Pearson’s chi-square test for statistical analysis and compared the data of the study and control groups. Results: The oral health values of DM children were significantly better (DMF-T 0.83–1.3) than the national average (3.8–4.5). A total of 75% (n = 60) of the children needed orthodontic treatment for orthodontic or skeletal anomalies. The prevalence of skeletal anomalies was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in the control group. The frequency of coeliac disease was significantly elevated compared to any literature data (1–3.5%) in the study (15%) and in the control sibling group (13%). Conclusions: Co-morbidities such as CD should get more attention as a prognostic factor for a future higher incidence of diabetes. T1DM children can be motivated and health-conscious patients with excellent oral hygiene and dental status. Orthodontic treatment can help eliminate the oral complications of DM. Special diabetes ambulances may help provide oral care for patients with DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
9 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Oral Health Knowledge Gaps and Their Impact on the Role of Pediatricians: A Multicentric Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910237 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the current level of pediatricians to promote oral health. In particular, the study sought to determine whether years of experience were associated with the dentistry knowledge of pediatricians. Materials and Methods: Online recruitment was used to obtain [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the current level of pediatricians to promote oral health. In particular, the study sought to determine whether years of experience were associated with the dentistry knowledge of pediatricians. Materials and Methods: Online recruitment was used to obtain a sample of pediatricians from the United States of America, Greece, and Saudi Arabia. These three countries are the participants in this research project. The participants completed an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire is available upon request. The differences in responses to knowledge questions, attitude questions, and solution questions were examined with respect to years of experience. Poisson regression models were used to examine whether these differences were statistically significant. Results: A total of 313 pediatricians participated in the study. The study found moderate levels of dental knowledge among pediatricians. A total of 53.4% reported that they had adequate knowledge to make the right recommendations on oral health for patients and parents. Compared to the participants in a residency program, the participants with 5 to 10 years of experience were over 2.72 times as likely to report adequate knowledge, and participants with 10 years of experience or more were nearly 1.98 times as likely to report adequate knowledge. There was a significant association between dentistry knowledge questions and attitude. Conclusion: The current level of influence of pediatricians in promoting pediatric oral health is limited to moderate. The gaps in oral health knowledge remain an issue, even among a broad sample of pediatricians from Greece, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, particularly pediatricians with less work experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
13 pages, 10046 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Color Perception and Preference with Eye-Tracking Analysis in a Dental Treatment Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157981 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2822
Abstract
Nowadays, medical facilities are developing their treatment environment to provide better services to their patients. In particular, dental hospitals have been considered uncomfortable and uninviting spaces, which needs to change so that people can visit easily and feel more relaxed. However, only a [...] Read more.
Nowadays, medical facilities are developing their treatment environment to provide better services to their patients. In particular, dental hospitals have been considered uncomfortable and uninviting spaces, which needs to change so that people can visit easily and feel more relaxed. However, only a few systematic studies have reported on the demand for building a comfortable space. This study aimed to investigate gaze characteristics based on a color preference survey of the dental unit chair, which has the most influence on spatial perception in the dental treatment environment, using an eye tracking technique for color. The results of this study showed that the color perception by eye tracking and the color preference by survey did not tend to match. The color most viewed by a majority of subjects was pink, which attracted a high level of attention, regardless of personal preference. In addition, for the psychological color images associated with color preference, the subjects tended to prefer images such as warmth, friendliness, and calmness. This appeared to reflect the psychology of the subjects who wished to replace their feelings of anxiety or fear when going to the dental hospital with comfort and tranquility. Therefore, colors that can provide comfort and tranquility to patients should be considered first as visual elements (e.g., brown) in creating a dental treatment environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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12 pages, 1382 KiB  
Article
Association of Vital Pulp Therapy Outcomes with Tooth Type, Arch Location, Treatment Type, and Number of Surfaces Destroyed in Deciduous Teeth: A Retrospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157970 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3118
Abstract
There is a paucity of information concerning vital pulp treatment outcomes in the undergraduate teaching setting. This study aimed to determine which type of deciduous molar, arch location, type of vital pulp therapy, and the number of carious surfaces involved had a better [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of information concerning vital pulp treatment outcomes in the undergraduate teaching setting. This study aimed to determine which type of deciduous molar, arch location, type of vital pulp therapy, and the number of carious surfaces involved had a better prognosis when carried out by undergraduate dental students. The method used was the review of clinical records of 590 patients with 600 deciduous molars, that visited the outpatient undergraduate dental clinics for vital pulp therapy. Statistical analysis used to determine the associations of tooth type, arch location, treatment type, and the number of carious surfaces involved in successful outcomes was logistic regression analysis with significance set at p < 0.05. According to the regression analysis model results, there was a significant association based on tooth type (p < 0.05) and arch location (p = 0.003). In addition, there was a significant association based on the type of treatment performed (p = 0.036). However, there was no significant association in success rates based on the number of carious surfaces involved (p = 0.873). In conclusion, second deciduous molars and maxillary deciduous molars had a better overall prognosis, and indirect pulp therapy was revealed to be more highly associated with successful treatment outcomes in comparison to ferric sulfate pulpotomy in our setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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15 pages, 363 KiB  
Article
Exploring Eating Challenges and Food Selectivity for Latinx Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Qualitative Visual Methodology: Implications for Oral Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073751 - 03 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3271
Abstract
Diet and food choices significantly impact teeth, including enamel quality and development of dental caries. However, studies focusing on diet and its relation to oral care in Latinx children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been minimally addressed in research. This [...] Read more.
Diet and food choices significantly impact teeth, including enamel quality and development of dental caries. However, studies focusing on diet and its relation to oral care in Latinx children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been minimally addressed in research. This qualitative study used an inclusive visual methodology to explore what Latinx caregivers learned about their child’s diet preferences and food routines in relation to their oral health. As a secondary aim, the study sought to explore whether notable differences in diet emerged between Latinx children with and without ASD. Participants were 32 Latinx caregivers from 18 families with children with and without Autism (n = 8 with a typically developing child and n = 10 with a child with ASD) who completed a food journal activity and photo elicitation interview. Interviews were thematically coded for themes pertaining to parents’ perceptions of their child’s diet and oral health. Findings of this study indicate that the process of taking photos helped Latinx caregivers to better situate the barriers and behaviors influencing everyday food routines in their children within the context of relating to their overall oral health. Via their active participation in the research process, parents were empowered to note strategies they could employ that would directly impact their child’s oral health outcomes, such as reducing juice intake and monitoring sugar consumption. Therefore, visual research methodologies are an important strategy for researchers to consider in order to empower participants to be part of the research process and part of the outcomes, and to offer better understanding of the lived experience of populations underrepresented in the literature, such as Latinx children with and without ASD and their families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
18 pages, 384 KiB  
Article
How Do Mothers Living in Socially Deprived Communities Perceive Oral Health of Young Children? A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073521 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3233
Abstract
This qualitative study aims to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the knowledge and perceptions of mothers living in Greater Western Sydney (GWS), one of Australia’s most socio-economically disadvantaged regions, regarding the factors that influence oral health of young children. Mother–child dyads [...] Read more.
This qualitative study aims to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the knowledge and perceptions of mothers living in Greater Western Sydney (GWS), one of Australia’s most socio-economically disadvantaged regions, regarding the factors that influence oral health of young children. Mother–child dyads (n = 45) were purposively selected from a population-based cohort study in GWS. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subsequently analyzed using thematic analysis. Five main themes emerged from the interviews: (1) beliefs about child oral health and first set of teeth; (2) awareness and attitudes towards oral health services; (3) identification of caries risk and protective factors; (4) broader cultural and social class influences on childhood oral health practices; and (5) the influence of parental self-confidence, self-efficacy, and perceived control. Overall, mothers reported having limited knowledge and awareness on the importance of baby teeth, child’s first dental visit, and seeking oral health care. Oral health and preventative practices in children were reported to be influenced by past dental experiences, culture and social class, and parental factors. The empirical findings of this study bring our attention to the critical factors that influence child oral health and the opportunities for co-creating child oral health promotion by targeting mothers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
10 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
A Randomized Clinical Trial Preventive Outreach Targeting Dental Caries and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life for Refugee Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041686 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3078
Abstract
Objective: The study assessed a preventive outreach educational intervention targeting improvements in dental caries and oral-health-related quality of life in the children of refugee families by comparing pre- and postintervention outcomes. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial assessed the outcomes at baseline and [...] Read more.
Objective: The study assessed a preventive outreach educational intervention targeting improvements in dental caries and oral-health-related quality of life in the children of refugee families by comparing pre- and postintervention outcomes. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial assessed the outcomes at baseline and three times over six months using the WHO oral health assessment form (DMFT/dmft) and the parent version of the Michigan Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life scale. Children and at least one of their parents/caretakers were educated on oral health topics in two one-hour sessions. Results: Of the 66 enrolled families, 52 (72%) completed the six-month follow-up. DMFT/dmft scores increased significantly in both the control and intervention groups (p < 0.05); differences in the changes in the DMFT/dmft and MOHRQoL-P scores from baseline to the three- and six-month follow-up visits between groups were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Oral health education programs targeting a diverse group of refugee children and their parents/caregivers single-handedly did not reduce the increased number of caries lesions or improve oral-health-related quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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13 pages, 3165 KiB  
Article
Tooth-Level Analysis of Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in Myanmar Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207613 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
In developing countries, the prevalence of dental caries in children remains high, which means that implementing a simple and convenient classification is critical. The classification needs to be evidence-based and needs to reflect tooth-level information. In this study, the prevalence of dental caries [...] Read more.
In developing countries, the prevalence of dental caries in children remains high, which means that implementing a simple and convenient classification is critical. The classification needs to be evidence-based and needs to reflect tooth-level information. In this study, the prevalence of dental caries in the primary dentition of 352 Myanmar school children at the ages of 5, 6, and 7 was analyzed at the tooth level to clarify the underlying data structure of the patterns of dental caries in the population. Ninety-three percent of subjects had caries in primary dentition and the mean number of decayed teeth in primary dentition was 7.54 ± 4.82. Based on the item response theory analysis, mixed-effect modeling, and Bayesian network analysis, we proposed the following classification: Group 1: No dental caries; Group 2: Dental caries in molar teeth or dental caries in maxillary anterior teeth; Group 3: Dental caries in both molar and maxillary anterior teeth; Group 4: Dental carries in mandibular anterior teeth. Dental caries (dmft) in the groups was different between groups. The results of characteristics of tooth-level information and classification presented in this study may be a useful instrument for the analysis of the data of dental caries prevalence in primary dentition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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10 pages, 6233 KiB  
Case Report
Oro-Dental Manifestations in a Pediatric Patient Affected by Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 8957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178957 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6226
Abstract
Aim: Aim of this case report is to describe oro-facial abnormalities in a patient affected by Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome, a rare autism syndrome, with not well described dental and cranial malformations. Case Report: Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome is a rare [...] Read more.
Aim: Aim of this case report is to describe oro-facial abnormalities in a patient affected by Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome, a rare autism syndrome, with not well described dental and cranial malformations. Case Report: Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome is a rare autosomal genetic syndrome causing mental impairment and autism, craniofacial dysmorphism, chest deformity and multiple organs dysfunction. Oro-facial involvement in Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome has not been thoroughly described yet. The present article reports a case of a 9 years old male patient affected by Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome, presenting with oral breathing typical facies, high arched palate, II class and dental crowding. The patient teething was adequate to his age. The enamel of incisors and molars showed demineralization areas and dark spots, a clinical picture consistent with molar incisor hypomineralization syndrome. These hypo-mineralized areas are more susceptible to cavities, in fact the patient’s 4.6 tooth was decayed. The child was brought to our attention due to a mucocele on the lower lip, confirmed by histopathologic examination. Available data on oro-dental manifestation of this syndrome are rather poor and inconsistent, also due to the rarity of the disease. The finding of enamel abnormalities in the presented case could suggest a potential genetic etiopathogenesis linked to the same genes causing Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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14 pages, 11251 KiB  
Case Report
Dental Care for a Child with Congenital Hydrocephalus: A Case Report with 12-Month Follow-Up
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031209 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7046
Abstract
Hydrocephalus affects the central nervous system as a result of progressive ventricular dilatation from the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain’s lateral ventricles. This paper reports on the oral characteristics of a child with congenital hydrocephalus, discusses her complex dental care needs, [...] Read more.
Hydrocephalus affects the central nervous system as a result of progressive ventricular dilatation from the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain’s lateral ventricles. This paper reports on the oral characteristics of a child with congenital hydrocephalus, discusses her complex dental care needs, and presents dental management of this case. Despite the complex and challenging dental needs, this child received dental treatment in a chairside approach without general anesthesia. A thorough knowledge of the patient’s medical condition, together with expert clinical skills, was indispensable for managing the child and improving the quality and length of her life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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8 pages, 6871 KiB  
Case Report
Full Mouth Rehabilitation of Two Siblings with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II Using Different Treatment Modalities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197029 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
Background: Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is a complex anomaly, not only by its structure but by treatment approach. The treatment protocol depends on the severity, behavior, and the age of the patient. Case Description: This paper presents two siblings’ cases of DGI type II [...] Read more.
Background: Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is a complex anomaly, not only by its structure but by treatment approach. The treatment protocol depends on the severity, behavior, and the age of the patient. Case Description: This paper presents two siblings’ cases of DGI type II (DGI-II) with different treatment based on the patient’s clinical severity, behavior, and age (mixed versus primary dentition). The first case involves a patient in the primary dentition with severe attrition leading to a reduction in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) treated by the fabrication of complete overlay dentures. The second case involves a patient in the early mixed dentition treated with restorations and extractions. Conclusion: Full mouth rehabilitation in the two patients dramatically improves function, aesthetics, and proved to be a significant psychological boost to the patient’s well-being. Practical Implications: Early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach for patients with DGI to preserve the remaining teeth and rehabilitation for their function and aesthetics are essential for obtaining a favorable prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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