ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Physical Activity and Psychosocial and Cognitive Outcomes in Children and Adolescents

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 60267

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mounting research indicates that the benefits of regular physical activity span the cognitive and affective domains in children and adolescents. Now, more than ever, achieving optimal mental health is a struggle in today’s society for youth, as there has been a substantial rise in psychosocial disorders affecting young people. Additionally, researchers are continuously identifying the cognitive benefits of habitual physical activity, especially in the context of academic performance. However, the relationships among the varying types and doses of physical activity with psychosocial and cognitive variables and how to implement effective, enjoyable, and sustainable physical activity programs to improve these outcomes in a variety of settings are research questions that need to be addressed to advance the field. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, “Physical Activity and Psychosocial and Cognitive Outcomes in Children and Adolescents”, offers an opportunity to publish high-quality research relating physical activity with psychosocial and cognitive outcomes in the pediatric population. We are particularly interested in novel physical intervention research that targets these outcomes in community-based settings. We also welcome papers investigating the effects of sports participation and specialized programming, such as active video gaming, on indicators of academic performance, especially in disadvantaged lower-income populations. High quality correlational and survey studies examining these relationships are also welcome. All manuscripts will be rigorously peer-reviewed by experts in the field.

Thank you for your consideration.

Assistant Professor Dr. Ryan D. Burns
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • academic performance
  • adolescents
  • children
  • cognitive development
  • fitness
  • health
  • motivation
  • physical activity
  • sports

Published Papers (17 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

25 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
Academic Achievement in Spanish Secondary School Students: The Inter-Related Role of Executive Functions, Physical Activity and Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041816 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4051
Abstract
There is a growing interest in determining which variables contribute to students’ academic performance, since this performance is associated with their wellbeing and with the progress of the nation. This study analyzed whether different variables (executive functions and physical activity levels, gender and [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in determining which variables contribute to students’ academic performance, since this performance is associated with their wellbeing and with the progress of the nation. This study analyzed whether different variables (executive functions and physical activity levels, gender and academic year) of 177 Spanish Compulsory Secondary School students contributed to their academic performance. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function 2 (BRIEF-2), Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and an ad hoc questionnaire were used to determine the students’ executive functioning, physical activity level, gender and academic year, respectively. Students’ grades were considered to be indicators of their academic achievement. Seven multiple linear regression models were constructed using the R computing language to examine the association between academic achievement (considered in each of the 5 subjects: Language, Mathematics, Geography and History, English and Physical Education; the mean of the instrumental subjects—Language and Mathematics—and the mean of all the subjects) and the independent variables. The results indicated that executive functions, physical activity and gender contributed to academic performance, but academic year did not. This suggests that students with good executive functions, who perform physical activity and are female, would have better academic achievement. This information should be considered when designing interventions to improve student academic achievement. Full article
11 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Cognitive Abilities among Youths Practicing Football
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041371 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3428
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess selected cognitive abilities depending on age, anthropometric parametres, physical fitness and technical skills in the group of young players training football. The study covered a group of 258 young players practicing football (age: 12.1± [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess selected cognitive abilities depending on age, anthropometric parametres, physical fitness and technical skills in the group of young players training football. The study covered a group of 258 young players practicing football (age: 12.1± 2.03), who were divided into 5 age categories (8–9 years old, 10–11 years old, 12–13 years old, 14–15 years old, 16–17 years old). Selected cognitive abilities include: simple reaction time (SIRT), complex reaction time (CHORT), hand-eye coordination (HECOR) and spatial orientation (SPANT). Studies were performed using Test2Drive computer tests. In addition, the level of physical fitness was measured using: The standing long jump, 30 m sprint, 20 m shuttle run test (without and with the ball) and slalom (without and with the ball). The analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between age and cognitive abilities. There was also a statistically significant correlation between fitness tests and reaction time in individual cognitive tests. There were no statistically significant relationships between technical skills and cognitive abilities. The study confirms that age and physical fitness affect the level of cognitive abilities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1142 KiB  
Article
Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors and Their Association with Self-Regulation in Chilean Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165676 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3184
Abstract
Background: Self-regulation comprises a series of important competencies, such as the ability to control inner states or responses toward thoughts, attention, emotions, or even performance. The relationship between self-regulation and different healthy lifestyle behaviors among children has not been examined in depth to [...] Read more.
Background: Self-regulation comprises a series of important competencies, such as the ability to control inner states or responses toward thoughts, attention, emotions, or even performance. The relationship between self-regulation and different healthy lifestyle behaviors among children has not been examined in depth to date. The aim of this study was to explore the association between physical activity, screen time levels, and/or Mediterranean Diet adherence and self-regulation in Chilean children. Methods: A total of 1561 children aged 8–12 years from eight public schools with low socioeconomic status were included. Physical activity, screen time, Mediterranean Diet, and self-regulation were assessed with validated questionnaires. Results: Children who were classified as active or those who reported less than 2 h per day of screen time had higher self-regulation than those who were classified as inactive or counterparts with 2 h per day or more of screen time, respectively. Using joint categories, active children both with low and high screen time showed higher self-regulation compared to inactive/high screen time peers. Additionally, active groups with adherence or non-adherence to the Mediterranean Diet had higher self-regulation compared to inactive and non-adherence peers. Conclusion: Having a greater number of healthy habits, mainly regular physical activity, was associated with higher self-regulation, which might be one potential strategy to promote child social-emotional development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
Effect of Gender, Physical Activity and Stress-Related Hormones on Adolescent’s Academic Achievements
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114143 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4855
Abstract
Background: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to develop better fitness and body function in children. Various studies have shown that as the age of students increases, its correlation with school achievement decreases. Different hormonal changes during adolescence make it difficult to adjust [...] Read more.
Background: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to develop better fitness and body function in children. Various studies have shown that as the age of students increases, its correlation with school achievement decreases. Different hormonal changes during adolescence make it difficult to adjust in his/her environment, causing stress. To the best of our knowledge, no study has studied the correlation between stress-related hormones and school performance among adolescents. This study was conducted to evaluate physical activity and stress-related hormones, cortisol and serotonin, among school adolescents aged 12–18 years old and find their association with academic achievements. Methods: A total of 300 students were invited to participate in this study. Physical activity of the participants was assessed in relation to the time spent performing various physical activities. End of the academic year grades were obtained from the school as a collective measure of academic achievement and executive function. The levels of cortisol and serotonin were measured using the competitive immunoassay techniques. Results: There was a significant correlation between age, gender, BMI, cortisol, serotonin, physical activity score; and academic achievement, and executive functioning among participants. Academic achievement and executive functioning scores correlated positively with gender, serotonin, physical activity score, but negatively with age, BMI and salivary cortisol. Stepwise regression analysis showed that physical activity and demographic parameters and stress-related hormones, cortisol and serotonin, explained around 61.9–77.9% of academic performance and executive functioning variation in school adolescents, especially females. Conclusions: Optimal physical activity and release of stress-related hormones could be the determining factor for performance in school and other activities. These results should be taken into consideration while planning the school curriculum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 527 KiB  
Article
Perceived Competence, Achievement Goals, and Return-To-Sport Outcomes: A Mediation Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17092980 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3716
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the potential mediating effect of achievement goals on perceived competence and return-to-sport outcomes among college athletes sustaining a sport injury. Altogether, 75 male and female college athletes from the United States who returned to sport [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the potential mediating effect of achievement goals on perceived competence and return-to-sport outcomes among college athletes sustaining a sport injury. Altogether, 75 male and female college athletes from the United States who returned to sport after having missed competition for an average of 3 weeks due to injury, completed valid and reliable inventories measuring perceived competence, achievement goals, and return-to-sport outcomes. Results indicated that task-approach goals significantly mediated the relationship between perceived competence and a renewed sport perspective. These data suggest the importance of promoting competence beliefs and a task-oriented focus among athletes returning to sport following athletic injury. From a practical standpoint, clinicians can foster competence perceptions by integrating progressive physical tests assessing functionality and sport-specific skills/abilities. Furthermore, these data suggest that coaches, physical therapists, and significant others may do well to use language that orients injured athletes towards attaining success as opposed to avoiding failure, to emphasize effort, task completion, and correct form, and to avoid comments that compare athletes to others or to their preinjury standards of performance. From a theoretical standpoint, our mediation findings extend previous achievement goal research into the sport injury domain, further highlighting the importance of task-approach goals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1196 KiB  
Article
High Physical Self-Concept Benefits on School Adjustment of Korean Student-Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082653 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Successful adjustment of student-athletes to their school is an internationally relevant issue. In Korea, school-athletes abandon their athletic activity at a rate of over 40%, suggesting an urgent need to develop measures that allow them to balance sports and academic life. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
Successful adjustment of student-athletes to their school is an internationally relevant issue. In Korea, school-athletes abandon their athletic activity at a rate of over 40%, suggesting an urgent need to develop measures that allow them to balance sports and academic life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of physical self-concept on school adaptation among student-athletes. We analyzed data from 589 student-athletes, including sex and award-winning career as covariates. Then, reliability and validity of scales were obtained. The results showed that student-athletes with higher physical self-concept are more likely to be successful in school adjustment. The effects of physical self-concept on school adjustment were proven to be mediated by sex and award-winning career of student-athletes. This result provides the basis for the importance of recognizing the concept of physical self as a way for student athletes to adapt well to school life. As differences depending on gender and award experience exist, they should be taken into account when teaching student athletes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
The Role of Physical Activity on Parental Rejection and Body Image Perceptions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072176 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3315
Abstract
The present study investigated the potential moderating role of physical activity on the relationship between parental rejection and poor body image perceptions. Late adolescents and young adults from Turkey (N = 373; 256 females/117 males) reported their memories of upbringing (Egna Minnen [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the potential moderating role of physical activity on the relationship between parental rejection and poor body image perceptions. Late adolescents and young adults from Turkey (N = 373; 256 females/117 males) reported their memories of upbringing (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran/EMBU) related to both their mother and father, respectively, levels of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaires/IPAQ), and body image perception (Body Cathexis Scale/body dissatisfaction and Social Physique Anxiety Scale/SPAS). EMBU mother and father rejection scores were combined and dichotomized, placing participants into high and low rejection groups. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for gender and body mass index, showed that high parental rejection was associated with poorer overall body image perception (η2 = 0.09; η2 Body Dissatisfaction = 0.09; η2 SPAS = 0.04), whereas higher physical activity was linked to better body image perception η2 = 0.02; η2 Body Dissatisfaction = 0.04; η2 SPAS = 0.03). While level of physical activity did not mediate the negative relationship between parental rejection on body image perceptions, very physically active individuals recalling high parental rejection displayed body image perceptions similar to participants with low parental rejection. Thus, although higher parental rejection is related to poorer body image perception, interventions targeting regular physical activity may help buffer against these negative effects. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 564 KiB  
Article
Bidirectional Associations across Time between Entitativity, Positive Affect, Generosity, and Religiousness in Adolescents Training with a Religiously Affiliated Charity Marathon Team
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030686 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Numerous studies have established that participation in regular physical activity provides physical, cognitive, and affective benefits to adolescents, but fewer studies have examined how athletic involvement might affect character, social, or religious developmental markers of psychosocial functioning. The purpose of this study is [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have established that participation in regular physical activity provides physical, cognitive, and affective benefits to adolescents, but fewer studies have examined how athletic involvement might affect character, social, or religious developmental markers of psychosocial functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the bidirectional associations between entitativity (group closeness), positive affect, generosity, and religiousness across time among adolescents and emerging adults involved in charitable marathon training. We collected data from 396 adolescents and emerging adults who trained for half/full marathons with a religiously affiliated charity team. Participants completed measures at three occasions over 18 weeks (pre-training, mid-training, post-race). We conducted cross-lagged path analysis of latent factors to study concurrent and longitudinal effects of intrinsic religiousness, positive affectivity, and entitativity on interpersonal generosity and fundraising. Participants who reported higher levels of pre-training generosity were more likely to experience positive affect during training, which predicted higher levels of post-race generosity. Likewise, the internalization of religious ideas, reflected in increased intrinsic religiousness during training, was associated with higher post-race generosity. Overall, results support the potential of charitable sporting events to promote positive psychosocial developmental outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 341 KiB  
Article
Multidimensional Self-Concept Depending on Levels of Resilience and the Motivational Climate Directed towards Sport in Schoolchildren
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020534 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4059
Abstract
(1) Background: Motivation towards sports practice is fundamental at an early age, as this can favor the integral development of the student body. (2) Methods: The main objective of this study was to describe and analyze the relationships between the different [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Motivation towards sports practice is fundamental at an early age, as this can favor the integral development of the student body. (2) Methods: The main objective of this study was to describe and analyze the relationships between the different dimensions of self-concept based on motivational climate, body mass index and resilience in a sample of 203 children from the third cycle of primary education, with an age between 11 and 13 years (M = 11.54). They completed the motivational climate questionnaires (PMCSQ-2), the self-concept questionnaire (AF-5) and the questionnaire that measures resilience levels (the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)). (3) Results: The results showed that boys are more resilient than girls and, in turn, have a greater tendency to task climate compared to them. Regarding self-concept, males presented higher scores in the academic, social and physical dimensions. In the same line as resilience, the motivational climate in males is oriented to the ego climate and the feminine to the task climate. Negative correlations of physical self-concept were found with the ego and task climate. (4) Conclusions: The task climate was identified as a predictor of resilience levels. Full article
7 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Stand-Biased Desk Intervention on Sleep Quality of High School Students: A Pilot Study Using Tri-Axial Accelerometery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010037 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Prolonged sitting is related to a sedentary inactive lifestyle and related to obesity and many metabolic problems caused by inactivity. The problem gets more serious for people who spent most of their work time in a seated position like students or office workers. [...] Read more.
Prolonged sitting is related to a sedentary inactive lifestyle and related to obesity and many metabolic problems caused by inactivity. The problem gets more serious for people who spent most of their work time in a seated position like students or office workers. In this study, we provided standing desk and stool to the local public high school and observed the changes in their behavior in terms of physical activity using tri-axial accelerometer before and after intervention. Previously published study using the same dataset under the larger project reported increased physical activity during school hours. In this study, we extracted more diverse features directly from the raw data instead of using data processed by the software that manufacturer provided. Hence, we were able to analyze the same features (sedentary, physically active time) as well as sleep-related variables. Of the interest, sleep is another important feature that can tell us about participants’ health conditions. Even if the intervention contributed to updating their behavioral patterns, the result might be nullified in the long run if their sleep pattern was compromised. The quantity and quality of sleep was not changed after the intervention. Therefore, the efficacy of standing desks has been confirmed again. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
A Pilot Acceptability Study of an ‘AllPlay Pre-Learn’ Day Program to Facilitate Participation in Organised Physical Activity for Children with Disabilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245058 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3447
Abstract
In a mixed-methods design, the current study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of a junior Australian rules football program across two ‘AllPlay Pre-Learn’ days for children aged 5–11 years with disabilities, based on parent and child responses. Three online surveys were created by [...] Read more.
In a mixed-methods design, the current study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of a junior Australian rules football program across two ‘AllPlay Pre-Learn’ days for children aged 5–11 years with disabilities, based on parent and child responses. Three online surveys were created by health professionals based on existing participation models. Surveys were completed by parents immediately before (n = 23), after the ‘Pre-Learn’ days (n = 15) and following the conclusion of the community version of the program (n = 13). Quantitative findings indicated significant improvements in child ratings around enjoyment of the sport. Qualitative analyses generated three themes around enjoyment in a low-stress environment; the education provided around the sport for parents/children; and, contemplation about playing the football program within their community. Four families (22% of the original attendees) went on to play the sport within a community setting. Despite acknowledged limitations, this study demonstrates preliminary evidence in support of an ‘AllPlay Pre-Learn’ day as a stepping stone to facilitate later participation in a football program within a child’s community. Increased participation would allow children to experience the benefits associated with sport participation, such as motor and social skill development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Effect of Vigorous Physical Activity on Executive Control in Middle-School Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203949 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effect of vigorous physical activity on executive control in eighth grade students from the U.S. Participants were eighth grade students (N = 68; 26 girls, 42 boys) recruited from one middle [...] Read more.
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effect of vigorous physical activity on executive control in eighth grade students from the U.S. Participants were eighth grade students (N = 68; 26 girls, 42 boys) recruited from one middle school located in the Mountain West region of the U.S. Two groups of participants were assigned to receive either a vigorous physical activity or a sedentary condition within a counter-balanced cross-over design using a 2-week washout. Both groups were administered Trails Making Tests A (TMT-A) and B (TMT-B) at 20- and 25-min post-treatment, respectively. Mixed design ANOVA tests with repeated measures examined differences between treatments on TMT-A and TMT-B performance and the modifying effect of sex. Students who completed the physical activity condition displayed a faster time to completion on the TMT-B compared to students who completed the sedentary condition (Mean difference = −6.5 s, p = 0.026, d = 0.42). There were no differences between treatment groups on TMT-A and no sex × treatment interactions (p > 0.05). This pilot study suggests that vigorous physical activity may improve executive control in middle-school students and adds to the existent literature that continues to examine the emerging link between physical activity and cognition in school-based settings. Full article
7 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Acute Exercise and Academic Achievement in Middle School Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193527 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4978
Abstract
(1) The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and non-exercise on measures of academic achievement and cognition in pre-adolescent students. (2) In a randomized crossover design, sixty-three participants with a mean age of 13.7 [...] Read more.
(1) The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and non-exercise on measures of academic achievement and cognition in pre-adolescent students. (2) In a randomized crossover design, sixty-three participants with a mean age of 13.7 ± 0.47 years completed 20 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or non-exercise with a period of seven days between each bout. Immediately after each bout, participants were tested for academic achievement and cognitive performance. Academic achievement was assessed using standardized, age-appropriate mathematics tests. Cognition was measured using the Dot, Word, and Color tasks of the Stroop Test (Victoria version). (3) Participants scored significantly higher on the mathematics tests (F1,62 = 4.50, p = 0.038) and all elements of the Stroop Test (Dot: F1,62 = 8.14, p = 0.006; Word: F1,62 = 9.90, p = 0.003; Color: F1,62 = 7.57, p = 0.008) following acute resistance exercise as compared to non-exercise. Math test performance was not statistically different between the aerobic and resistance exercise treatments (F1,62 = 0.214, p = 0.645), but participants did perform significantly better on all elements of the Stroop Test following resistance exercise as compared to aerobic exercise (Dot: F1,61 = 25.82, p < 0.001; Word: F1,62 = 14.73, p < 0.001; Color: F1,62 = 20.14, p < 0.001). (4) Resistance exercise acutely influenced academic achievement and cognition in a positive manner. Such results add to the growing body of research that may support an increase in the prescription of varied exercise modalities within school settings for the purposes of improving academic performance and student health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

30 pages, 1201 KiB  
Review
Class Time Physical Activity Programs for Primary School Aged Children at Specialist Schools: A Systematic Mapping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245140 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4233
Abstract
Children with disabilities tend to be less active than typically developing peers and may therefore miss important developmental benefits. Class time physical activity (PA) programs can provide additional PA to children and have shown to contribute to numerous benefits in mainstream classrooms. However, [...] Read more.
Children with disabilities tend to be less active than typically developing peers and may therefore miss important developmental benefits. Class time physical activity (PA) programs can provide additional PA to children and have shown to contribute to numerous benefits in mainstream classrooms. However, it is unclear whether class time PA opportunities are provided in specialist education settings. This review aimed to identify and map class time PA programs that have been implemented in specialist schools and classes. Nine electronic databases were searched. Grey literature searches were also conducted. Programs were included if they were implemented in a primary/elementary specialist school or class, involved a PA component, were conducted during class time and involved more than one child from the class participating. Included programs were mapped and narratively synthesised according to activity type. Of the 2068 records screened, 34 programs were included. Programs involving dance/drama activities (k = 11) were most common and programs involving stretching activities (k = 2) were least frequently implemented. Twenty-three programs had been evaluated, of which only two were randomised controlled trials. More class time PA opportunities are warranted in specialist education settings. Further research is required to build the evidence base for these programs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 468 KiB  
Review
Parent Engagement and Support, Physical Activity, and Academic Performance (PESPAAP): A Proposed Theoretical Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234698 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4961
Abstract
An emerging area of research within public health is the interaction between parents and their children for the promotion of physical activity. Higher levels of daily physical activity may not only improve physical health but also yield better academic performance by improving cognitive [...] Read more.
An emerging area of research within public health is the interaction between parents and their children for the promotion of physical activity. Higher levels of daily physical activity may not only improve physical health but also yield better academic performance by improving cognitive skills, classroom behavior, and academic achievement within the pediatric population. However, no theoretical model has yet been proposed to interrelate constructs of parental engagement and support, physical activity, and academic performance within the pediatric population. Here, we: 1) summarize salient research related to pediatric physical activity and academic performance, parents’ physical activity engagement with their children, and the role of parental support in child academic performance; 2) propose a theoretical model interrelating parent physical activity engagement and support, physical activity, and academic performance (PESPAAP); 3) identify features of the proposed model that support its potential merit; and 4) provide potential future research directions and potential analyses that can be undertaken to support, modify, or disprove the proposed theoretical model. The proposed PESPAAP model provides a logically sound model that can be modified or expanded upon to improve applicability and generalizability and can be used as a framework to help align testable hypotheses for studies examining these interrelationships. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

10 pages, 1394 KiB  
Case Report
Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Donor and Recipient and Their Subsequent Cognitive Functioning in Late Childhood as Juvenile Athletes—A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052545 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
Objective: It is estimated that twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) occurs in 10–15% of monochorionic twin pregnancies. One of the fetuses takes on the role of donor and the other of recipient. The treatment administered involves serial amnioreduction and laser photocoagulation of the [...] Read more.
Objective: It is estimated that twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) occurs in 10–15% of monochorionic twin pregnancies. One of the fetuses takes on the role of donor and the other of recipient. The treatment administered involves serial amnioreduction and laser photocoagulation of the communicating blood vessels. After TTTS, children may have deficiencies in psychomotor functioning, in particular in cognitive functions, expressive language, and motor skills. Few scientific reports indicate that twins after TTTS do not demonstrate significant differences in tests which measure intellectual functioning. Methods: The cognitive functioning of twins in the late childhood period was compared using the following tools: an analysis of their medical history, an interview with their parents, and neuropsychological tests allowing the evaluation of their whole profile of cognitive functions. Case Study: Cognitive functioning in the late childhood period was analyzed in a pair of 11-year-old male twins (juvenile athletes), a donor and a recipient, who had developed TTTS syndrome in the prenatal period. Results: Comparison of the cognitive functioning profile of the donor and recipient revealed that children with a history of TTTS develop normally in terms of cognitive and motor functioning in late childhood. A comparative analysis of the donor and recipient was more favorable for the recipient, who had a higher level of general intelligence, visual–motor memory, and semantic fluency. Conclusions: The fact that both the donor and the recipient chose to pursue athletics suggests that gross motor skills are their strongest suit. Playing sports as a method of rehabilitation of cognitive function of children born prematurely after TTTS could contribute to the improvement of cognitive functioning. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2639 KiB  
Brief Report
Trends in Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Motivation during a Classroom-Based Active Video Game Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162821 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3352
Abstract
The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate trends in children’s sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA), and motivation during a 12 week classroom-based Active Video Game (AVG) program. A sample of 16 children, recruited from an elementary school, participated in AVG [...] Read more.
The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate trends in children’s sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA), and motivation during a 12 week classroom-based Active Video Game (AVG) program. A sample of 16 children, recruited from an elementary school, participated in AVG for 30 minutes per school day for 12 consecutive weeks. School day time in SB and PA, in addition to step counts, were assessed across 12 weeks using accelerometers and motivation was assessed via questionnaires. Mixed effects models with a quadratic time parameter were employed to examine time trends. A significant negative trend was observed for SB, while light and vigorous PA and step counts yielded positive trends until approximately 8–9 weeks where a quadratic inflection point was observed (p < 0.001). Regarding motivational variables, enjoyment and social support from teachers significantly increased across 12 weeks (p < 0.05). A 12 week classroom AVG program yielded a positive trend in school day light and vigorous PA and step counts, and a negative trend in SB until 8–9 weeks into the program. This study supports the use of low-cost classroom-based AVG programs to improve children’s physical and mental health, but favorable PA trends were attenuated past 8–9 weeks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop