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Behavioral Models in Environmental Research and Public Health with Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 38518

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Finance, Fintech & Blockchain Research Center, Big Data Research Center, Asia University, Taichung City 41354, Taiwan
2. Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
3. Department of Economics and Finance, The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: behavioral models; mathematical modeling; econometrics; energy economics; equity analysis; investment theory; risk management; behavioral economics; operational research; decision theory; environmental economics; public health; time series analysis; forecasting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Behavioral models play a vital role in the many fields covered by environmental research and public health in addition to providing theories and tools that have been widely used.

Since most behavioral models are developed by using advanced mathematics, probability, knowledge of mathematics, probability, statistics, it is important to test their validity through the analysis of empirical real-world data.

The Special Issue “Behavioral Models in Environmental Research and Public Health with Applications”, with Wing Keung Wong serving as Guest Editor, will be devoted to the latest advancements on the title topic. This Special Issue will also bring together practical, state-of-the-art applications of mathematics, probability, and statistical techniques in environmental research and public health.

We invite investigators to contribute original research articles that advance the use of mathematics, probability, statistics, and behavioral models in the area of environmental research and public health. All submissions must contain original unpublished work not being considered for publication elsewhere.

Dr. Wing-Keung Wong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mathematics
  • probability
  • statistics
  • behavioral models
  • environmental research
  • public health

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 263 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial Statement and Research Ideas on Using Behavioral Models in Environmental Research and Public Health with Applications
by Wing-Keung Wong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127137 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Behavioral models are very important in the development of both environmental research and public health because much of the evidence of empirical findings cannot be explained by using the traditional theories in environmental research and public health; behavioral models play a key role [...] Read more.
Behavioral models are very important in the development of both environmental research and public health because much of the evidence of empirical findings cannot be explained by using the traditional theories in environmental research and public health; behavioral models play a key role in the analytical apparatus of contemporary approaches to overcome the difficulty in all areas of both environmental research and public health [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

24 pages, 1304 KiB  
Article
Habit—Does It Matter? Bringing Habit and Emotion into the Development of Consumer’s Food Waste Reduction Behavior with the Lens of the Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
by Sumia Mumtaz, Amanda M. Y. Chu, Saman Attiq, Hassan Jalil Shah and Wing-Keung Wong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106312 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
The immense food waste, generated by restaurants is not only a serious burden for the foodservice business but also a cause of anguish for the emerging nations in which eating out is becoming increasingly trendy. Consumers’ food wastes account for a significant portion [...] Read more.
The immense food waste, generated by restaurants is not only a serious burden for the foodservice business but also a cause of anguish for the emerging nations in which eating out is becoming increasingly trendy. Consumers’ food wastes account for a significant portion of restaurant food waste, indicating the need for a change in consumers’ behavior to minimize food waste. To examine this problem, our study sought to identify the elements that influence restaurant consumers’ behaviors on food waste reduction, reuse, and recycling. The influence of anticipated positive emotions, awareness of consequences, environmental knowledge, and social norms on waste reduction intentions were examined by using a quantitative technique in the investigation. Furthermore, the influence of habits, waste reduction intentions, and facilitating conditions on food waste reduction, reuse, and recycling behaviors have also been investigated. The study collected 1063 responses and employed the PLS-SEM approach to verify the hypotheses. The results suggested that anticipated positive emotions, awareness of consequences, environmental knowledge, and social norms all have substantial impacts on waste reduction intentions. In addition, habits, waste reduction intentions, and facilitating conditions have noteworthy influences on consumers’ behaviors towards food waste reduction, reuse, and recycling in restaurants. Understanding these elements could help in correcting customers’ waste behaviors in restaurants. The findings in this study are useful for managers, policymakers, and researchers who want to solve the problems of food waste. The implications, limits, and suggestions for further studies have also been discussed in our study. Full article
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18 pages, 1185 KiB  
Article
Antecedents of Consumer Food Waste Reduction Behavior: Psychological and Financial Concerns through the Lens of the Theory of Interpersonal Behavior
by Saman Attiq, Amanda M. Y. Chu, Rauf I. Azam, Wing-Keung Wong and Sumia Mumtaz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312457 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
This study sought to investigate the role of consumers’ emotional, cognitive, and financial concerns in the development of food waste reduction, reuse, and recycling behavior among restaurant patrons. Food waste in restaurants is a major problem for the food service industry, and it [...] Read more.
This study sought to investigate the role of consumers’ emotional, cognitive, and financial concerns in the development of food waste reduction, reuse, and recycling behavior among restaurant patrons. Food waste in restaurants is a major problem for the food service industry, and it is a growing source of concern in developing countries, where eating out is becoming increasingly popular. A large portion of restaurant food waste in these markets originates from the plates of customers, highlighting the importance of consumer behavior changes in reducing waste. The current study has used a quantitative approach to analyze the impact of anticipated negative emotion of guilt, awareness of consequences, habit, and financial concern on food waste reduction behaviors, i.e., reduce, reuse, and recycle. The study collected 492 responses and data is analyzed for hypotheses testing through Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling. The findings showed that anticipated negative emotions of guilt, awareness of consequences, habit, and financial concern have a significant impact on restaurants’ consumer food waste reduction behaviors. Managers, policymakers, and researchers interested in resolving the food waste problem will find the study useful. Other topics discussed include the implications and limitations as well as possible future research directions. Full article
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19 pages, 1158 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Consequences Awareness of Public Environment on Medicine Return Behavior: A Moderated Chain Mediation Model
by Jun Lv, Xuan Liu and Sivhuang Lay
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189756 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
With global aging trends and prosperity in the medicine market, the number of unused or expired household unused or expired medicines is increasing. Medicines which are discarded improperly result in serious pollution. From the perspective of behavioral science, the main contribution of this [...] Read more.
With global aging trends and prosperity in the medicine market, the number of unused or expired household unused or expired medicines is increasing. Medicines which are discarded improperly result in serious pollution. From the perspective of behavioral science, the main contribution of this paper is the construction of a chain mediation model to analyze the influence mechanism between consequences awareness of the public environment and proper return behavior of unused or expired medicines. The model explores the moderating effect of personal health awareness with through observation of to the mediating effect of personal norms and return intention. Using a sample size of 366 residents from China, the proposed hypotheses are empirically tested. The results show: firstly, the direct effect of residents’ consequences awareness of public environmental awareness on the proper medicine return behavior is not significant; secondly, return intention plays a mediating role in the positive effect of consequences awareness of the public environment on proper return behavior; thirdly, personal norms and return intention play a chain mediating role in the positive impact of consequences awareness of the public environment on proper return behavior; and lastly, personal health awareness moderates the chain mediation path by strengthening the positive effect of return intention on proper return behavior. Full article
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18 pages, 412 KiB  
Article
How Does Income Inequality Influence Environmental Regulation in the Context of Corruption? A Panel Threshold Analysis Based on Chinese Provincial Data
by Shi Wang, Wen Zhang, Hua Wang, Jue Wang and Mu-Jun Jiang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158050 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
The question of how the income inequality of residents affects the level of environmental regulation in the context of official corruption was the core research issue of this study. We analyzed this problem using the panel threshold regression model from 26 provinces in [...] Read more.
The question of how the income inequality of residents affects the level of environmental regulation in the context of official corruption was the core research issue of this study. We analyzed this problem using the panel threshold regression model from 26 provinces in China from 1995 to 2017. We found that when there is no official corruption, the widening of the residents’ income inequality promotes stricter environmental regulations; when the corruption problem is serious, the expansion of the residents’ income inequality leads to the decline in environmental standards; that is, the impact of residents’ income inequality on environmental regulation has a threshold effect due to corruption. In addition, the threshold effect due to corruption of all residents’ income inequality on environmental regulation is mainly generated by the urban residents’ income inequality and the urban–rural income inequality. This paper contributes to the literature that concentrates on the relationship between income inequality and environmental regulation, and shows that corruption is a key factor that can deeply influence that relationship. The research conclusion shows that increasing anti-corruption efforts can not only maintain national political stability, social fairness, and justice, but also be a powerful measure for environmental pollution governance. Full article
23 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
Sustainability of Household Food Waste Reduction: A Fresh Insight on Youth’s Emotional and Cognitive Behaviors
by Saman Attiq, Ka Yin Chau, Shahid Bashir, Muhammad Danish Habib, Rauf I. Azam and Wing-Keung Wong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137013 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5434
Abstract
The sustainability of food waste is one of the most important contemporary economic, social, and environmental issues that encompasses useful academic, practical, and policymaking implications. Under the domain of sustainability, food waste is a serious global challenge with a growing public, political, and [...] Read more.
The sustainability of food waste is one of the most important contemporary economic, social, and environmental issues that encompasses useful academic, practical, and policymaking implications. Under the domain of sustainability, food waste is a serious global challenge with a growing public, political, and corporate concern. Existing literature regarding the sensitization of consumers and the promotion of waste cautious behaviors still has much room for improvement in household waste. To bridge the gap in the literature, this study identifies and examines determinants of young consumers’ food waste reduction behavior in households. Using a sample size of 391 young consumers of household food products from Pakistan, a full-scaled administrative survey is conducted, and our hypotheses are empirically tested by using the PLS structural modeling equation. Our findings reveal significant impacts from both cognitive and emotional aspects on sustainable food waste reduction behavior. Our results have several important implications for policymakers and all the stakeholders, especially for marketers, including advertising strategies, policies to mitigate the impact of food waste, and the development of educational programs related to food waste. Full article
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21 pages, 4133 KiB  
Article
Sentiment Analysis Techniques Applied to Raw-Text Data from a Csq-8 Questionnaire about Mindfulness in Times of COVID-19 to Improve Strategy Generation
by Mario Jojoa Acosta, Gema Castillo-Sánchez, Begonya Garcia-Zapirain, Isabel de la Torre Díez and Manuel Franco-Martín
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126408 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3092
Abstract
The use of artificial intelligence in health care has grown quickly. In this sense, we present our work related to the application of Natural Language Processing techniques, as a tool to analyze the sentiment perception of users who answered two questions from the [...] Read more.
The use of artificial intelligence in health care has grown quickly. In this sense, we present our work related to the application of Natural Language Processing techniques, as a tool to analyze the sentiment perception of users who answered two questions from the CSQ-8 questionnaires with raw Spanish free-text. Their responses are related to mindfulness, which is a novel technique used to control stress and anxiety caused by different factors in daily life. As such, we proposed an online course where this method was applied in order to improve the quality of life of health care professionals in COVID 19 pandemic times. We also carried out an evaluation of the satisfaction level of the participants involved, with a view to establishing strategies to improve future experiences. To automatically perform this task, we used Natural Language Processing (NLP) models such as swivel embedding, neural networks, and transfer learning, so as to classify the inputs into the following three categories: negative, neutral, and positive. Due to the limited amount of data available—86 registers for the first and 68 for the second—transfer learning techniques were required. The length of the text had no limit from the user’s standpoint, and our approach attained a maximum accuracy of 93.02% and 90.53%, respectively, based on ground truth labeled by three experts. Finally, we proposed a complementary analysis, using computer graphic text representation based on word frequency, to help researchers identify relevant information about the opinions with an objective approach to sentiment. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that the application of NLP techniques in small amounts of data using transfer learning is able to obtain enough accuracy in sentiment analysis and text classification stages. Full article
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18 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
Implications of Governance, Natural Resources, and Security Threats on Economic Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa
by Husam Rjoub, Chuka Uzoma Ifediora, Jamiu Adetola Odugbesan, Benneth Chiemelie Iloka, João Xavier Rita, Rui Miguel Dantas, Mário Nuno Mata and José Moleiro Martins
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126236 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2814
Abstract
Sub-Saharan African countries are known to be bedeviled with some challenges hindering the economic development. Meanwhile, some of these issues have not been exhaustively investigated in the context of the region. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the implications of government effectiveness, availability [...] Read more.
Sub-Saharan African countries are known to be bedeviled with some challenges hindering the economic development. Meanwhile, some of these issues have not been exhaustively investigated in the context of the region. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the implications of government effectiveness, availability of natural resources, and security threats on the regions’ economic development. Yearly data, spanning from 2007 to 2020, was converted from low frequency (yearly) to high frequency (quarterly) and utilized. Data analysis was conducted using Dynamic heterogeneous panel level estimators (PMG and CS-ARDL). Findings show that while PMG estimator confirms a long-run causal effect of governance, natural resources, and security threats on economic development, only natural resources show a short-run causal effect with economic development, while the CS-ARDL (model 2) confirms the significance of all the variables both in the long and short-run. Moreover, the ECT coefficients for both models were found to be statistically significant at less than 1% significance level, which indicates that the systems return back to equilibrium in case of a shock that causes disequilibrium, and in addition, reveals a stable long-run cointegration among the variables in the model. Finally, this study suggests that the policy makers in SSA countries should place more emphasis on improving governance, managing security challenges, and effectively utilizing rents from the natural resources, as all these have severe implications for the economic development of the region if not addressed. Full article
17 pages, 1701 KiB  
Article
How Well Does a Sequential Minimal Optimization Model Perform in Predicting Medicine Prices for Procurement System?
by Amarawan Pentrakan, Cheng-Chia Yang and Wing-Keung Wong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115523 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2655
Abstract
The lack of an efficient approach in managing pharmaceutical prices in the procurement system led to a substantial burden on government budgets. In Thailand, although the reference price policy was implemented to contain the drug expenditure, there have been some challenges with the [...] Read more.
The lack of an efficient approach in managing pharmaceutical prices in the procurement system led to a substantial burden on government budgets. In Thailand, although the reference price policy was implemented to contain the drug expenditure, there have been some challenges with the price dispersion of medicines and pricing information transparency. This phenomenon calls for the development of a potential algorithm to estimate appropriate prices for medical products. To serve this purpose, in this paper, we first developed the model by the sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm for predicting the range of the prices for each medicine, using the Waikato environment for knowledge analysis software, and applying feature selection techniques also to examine improving predictive accuracy. We used the dataset comprised of 2424 records listed on the procurement system in Thailand from January to March 2019 in the application and used a 10-fold cross-validation test to validate the model. The results demonstrated that the model derived by the SMO algorithm with the gain ratio selection method provided good performance at an accuracy of approximately 92.62%, with high sensitivity and precision. Additionally, we found that the model can distinguish the differences in the prices of medicines in the pharmaceutical market by using eight major features—the segmented buyers, the generic product groups, trade product names, procurement methods, dosage forms, pack sizes, manufacturers, and total purchase budgets—that provided the highest predictive accuracy. Our findings are useful to health policymakers who could employ our proposed model in monitoring the situation of medicine prices and providing feedback directly to suggest the best possible price for hospital purchasing managers based on the feature inputs in their procurement system. Full article
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19 pages, 8041 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Models for Prediction of Cumulative Trauma Disorders Applied to the Maquiladora Industry
by Melissa Airem Cázares-Manríquez, Claudia Camargo-Wilson, Ricardo Vardasca, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Jesús Everardo Olguín-Tiznado, Juan Andrés López-Barreras and Blanca Rosa García-Rivera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073830 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3144
Abstract
Temperature gradient changes on the surface of the skin or in the middle of the body are signs of a disease. The aim of this study is to develop quantitative models for the prediction of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) arising from highly repetitive [...] Read more.
Temperature gradient changes on the surface of the skin or in the middle of the body are signs of a disease. The aim of this study is to develop quantitative models for the prediction of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) arising from highly repetitive activities, considering risk factors, such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate, to prevent injuries in manufacturing factory operators. This research involved 19 individuals from the area of sanding and 14 individuals from the area of tolex in manufacturing factories who had their vital signs and somatometry taken, as well as thermal images of their hands in the dorsal and palmar areas; an evaluation by the OCRA method was also applied. Factors such as BP and heart rate were determined to significantly influence the injuries, but no strong association with BMI was found. Quadratic regression models were developed, the estimates of which were adequately adjusted to the variable (R2 and R2 adjusted > 0.70). When integrating the factors of the OCRA method to the generated models, a better fit was obtained (R2 and adjusted R2 > 0.80). In conclusion, the participants who present levels out of the normal range in at least one of the factors have high probabilities of developing injuries in their wrists. Full article
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21 pages, 1489 KiB  
Article
The Evolution Characteristics and Influence Mechanism of Chinese Venture Capital Spatial Agglomeration
by Li Yao, Alex Singleton, Pingjun Sun and Guanpeng Dong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062974 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2533
Abstract
As an emerging financial entity, venture capital has a significant impact on regional development. However, the research on venture capital mainly focuses on the fields of finance, management, and economics, and fewer researchers study venture capital from the perspective of geography and space. [...] Read more.
As an emerging financial entity, venture capital has a significant impact on regional development. However, the research on venture capital mainly focuses on the fields of finance, management, and economics, and fewer researchers study venture capital from the perspective of geography and space. This research explored the evolution characteristics and influence mechanism of Chinese venture capital spatial agglomeration. The innovation of this paper lies in including the spatial effect and conducting a spatial econometric analysis of the spatial agglomeration of venture capital in China after the exploratory analysis of the factors affecting the spatial agglomeration of venture capital. Firstly, based on the data of study area, this paper found that the spatial distribution of venture capital in China had an obvious agglomeration characteristic by using multiple measurement methods. Secondly, by constructing the spatial econometric model based on three different spatial weight matrices, we found that the science and technology environment, financial environment, social environment, and entrepreneurial environment levels were the main factors to affect the agglomeration of venture capital. Thirdly, due to the degree of spatial agglomeration of venture capital being divided into three stages in terms of time dimension, after the regression analysis of different periods, we found that the factors which affected spatial agglomeration of venture capital changed significantly with the passage of time. In addition, from the regression results of eastern, central, and western region samples, we can see that the degree of spillover effect was the lowest in the central region, the highest in the western region, and the middle in the eastern region. At last, this paper provided useful policy enlightenment for enterprise innovation, industrial upgrading, and regional economic management. Full article
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12 pages, 2590 KiB  
Article
Chaos Analysis of Urban Low-Carbon Traffic Based on Game Theory
by Xiaohui Wu, Ren He and Meiling He
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052285 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Developing urban low-carbon traffic is an effective measure to reduce traffic carbon emissions, which are important parts of greenhouse gas. In order to understand the development characteristics and regular patterns of urban low-carbon traffic, we present a game model that enables us to [...] Read more.
Developing urban low-carbon traffic is an effective measure to reduce traffic carbon emissions, which are important parts of greenhouse gas. In order to understand the development characteristics and regular patterns of urban low-carbon traffic, we present a game model that enables us to predict the possible range of travel mode choice and the impact of low-carbon awareness. Through chaos analysis and simulation of the model, the authors come to realize that the proportions of travel mode choice can reach an equilibrium under a certain urban traffic system. This equilibrium is related to low-carbon awareness and the situation of the urban traffic system. The research we have done suggests that in small cities with undeveloped traffic systems, the most effective measure to achieve urban low-carbon traffic is to increase the comprehensive costs of high-carbon travel. However, in big cities with developed traffic systems, raising low-carbon awareness of residents can greatly increase the proportion of low-carbon travelers and improve the stability of travel mode choice. The results could provide development strategies and policy suggestions for urban low-carbon traffic and reduce the adverse impact of urban traffic emissions on public health. Full article
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20 pages, 4365 KiB  
Article
Evolutionary Games of Low-Carbon Behaviors of Construction Stakeholders under Carbon Taxes
by Qiang Du, Yunqing Yan, Youdan Huang, Chanchan Hao and Jiao Wu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020508 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3233
Abstract
The development of low-carbon buildings (LCBs) in China has not reached its expected status, although the Chinese government has formulated many relevant regulations. The real estate developers and consumers are essential participants in the development of LCBs. This paper explores whether the government’s [...] Read more.
The development of low-carbon buildings (LCBs) in China has not reached its expected status, although the Chinese government has formulated many relevant regulations. The real estate developers and consumers are essential participants in the development of LCBs. This paper explores whether the government’s implementation of the carbon tax will change their choices of LCBs. Evolutionary game models between developers and consumers are established under static and dynamic carbon taxes. Their evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) are deduced in different situations. According to the real scenarios in China, numerical simulations are further conducted to show that carbon tax influences the low-carbon behaviors of stakeholders in the construction industry. Under a static carbon tax, the two players cannot reach an equilibrium state, while the game system is stable under a dynamic tax. The probability of the developers constructing LCBs is positively related to the carbon tax, while its degree is gradually weakened as the tax rate increases. Therefore, an appropriate tax should be set to promote the development of LCBs effectively. Finally, policy implications are put forwarded to guide the participants’ low-carbon behaviors and reduce the carbon emissions in the Chinese construction industry. Full article
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