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Health-Related Quality of Life and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 46654

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Department of Physiatry and Nursing, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences (FCSD), University of Zaragoza, Ronda Misericordia 5, 22001 Huesca, Spain
Interests: adolescents; MASS; osteoporosis; children; fractures; physical-activity; publication bias; weight-bearing exercise; vitamin-D status; impact exercise
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Health, Economy, Motricity and Education (HEME) Research Group. Faculty of Sport Sciences. University of Extremadura. 10003 Cáceres. Spain
Interests: strength and conditioning; soccer; strength; biomechanics; sports sciences; fibromyalgia; children and adolescents; public health; chronic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Promoting a Healthy Society (PHeSo) Research Group, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
Interests: global health; physical and sports activities as a strategy to promote a healthy society; physical activity interventions; exercise training physical exercise; physical health; assessment of physical capacity; health, quality of life in groups of subjects and active lifestyle (elderly; children, type 2 diabetes, Parkinson, etc.); balance and muscle strength; rehabilitation; osteoporosis; fall prevention; validity and reliability of physical fitness testing; active tourism; outdoor behavioral healthcare; wilderness therapy; forest bathing; shinrin-yoku; Buddhist walking
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Regular physical activity offers many health benefits in children and adolescents, helping to manage some conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and hyperactivity. A higher level of physical fitness has also been associated with higher academic performance in children.
Several studies found a relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), so it is important to increase the level of physical activity in order to improve HRQOL in youths. HRQOL can be measured by either objective or subjective ways.
Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue is to document progress in the knowledge of how physical activity practice can improve HRQOL in children and adolescents.

Prof. Dr. Jorge Pérez-Gómez
Prof. Dr. German Vicente-Rodriguez
Dr. Jorge Carlos-Vivas
Prof. Dr. José Carmelo Adsuar
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • kids
  • children
  • adolescents
  • lifestyle
  • physical benefits
  • physical exercise
  • physical fitness
  • psychological benefits
  • welfare
  • wellbeing
  • youth

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Is the Level of Motor Development at School Entry Related to the Use of Municipal Exercise Programs? A Social-Differential Analysis
by Daniel M. Faßbender, Katharina Kreffter, Simon Götz, Maurus Hagemeister, Stefanie Lisak-Wahl, Thuy Ha Nguyen, Theodor Stemper and Simone Weyers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053047 - 5 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Children’s motor development is socially unevenly distributed despite many municipal exercise programs (EXP). It has not been sufficiently investigated whether and how they appeal to children from different social backgrounds. This study investigates the use of municipal EXP in preschool age and the [...] Read more.
Children’s motor development is socially unevenly distributed despite many municipal exercise programs (EXP). It has not been sufficiently investigated whether and how they appeal to children from different social backgrounds. This study investigates the use of municipal EXP in preschool age and the association between participation and motor development considering social circumstances. In school entry health examinations, parents were asked about participating in various EXP (response = 65.5%; n = 6480). Motor development, i.e., body coordination and visual-motor coordination, were assessed by a social pediatric development screening, and social circumstances by migration background (MB) and parental education (PE). Poisson regression estimated adjusted Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR; 95% confidence interval, 95%—CI) for relationships between social circumstances and participation in programs and participation and body coordination/visual-motor coordination. Children with MB (IRR 0.73; 95%—CI 0.71–0.75) and low PE (IRR 0.45; 95%—CI 0.40–0.50) used EXP less often. Children participating less often have a finding in body- (IRR 0.76; 95%-CI 0.63–0.90) and visual-motor coordination (IRR 0.47; 95%—CI 0.35–0.62). Significant effects were found for children with and without MB and higher PE. Municipalities should make EXP more attractive for families with MB and low PE. Full article
18 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Active Video Games Improve Muscular Fitness and Motor Skills in Children with Overweight or Obesity
by Cristina Comeras-Chueca, Lorena Villalba-Heredia, Jose Luis Perez-Lasierra, Jorge Marín-Puyalto, Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Alex Gonzalez-Aguero and José A. Casajús
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052642 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5820
Abstract
(1) Background: Childhood obesity is an important public health problem. Children with overweight or obesity often tend to show the pediatric inactivity triad components; these involve exercise deficit disorder, pediatric dynapenia, and physical illiteracy. The aim of the study was to examine the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Childhood obesity is an important public health problem. Children with overweight or obesity often tend to show the pediatric inactivity triad components; these involve exercise deficit disorder, pediatric dynapenia, and physical illiteracy. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of an active video games (AVG) intervention combined with multicomponent exercise on muscular fitness, physical activity (PA), and motor skills in children with overweight or obesity. (2) Methods: A total of 29 (13 girls) children (10.07 ± 0.84 years) with overweight or obesity were randomly allocated in the intervention group (AVG group; n = 21) or in the control group (CG; n = 8). The intervention group performed a 5-month AVG training using the Xbox 360® with the Kinect, the Nintendo Wii®, dance mats, and the BKOOL® interactive cycling simulator, combined with multicomponent exercise, performing three sessions per week. The control group continued their daily activities without modification. Weight, PA using accelerometers, and motor competence using the Test of Gross Motor Development 3rd edition were measured. Muscular fitness was evaluated through the Counter Movement Jump height, maximal isometric strength of knee extension and handgrip strength, and lean mass using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mann–Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The biserial correlation coefficients (r) were calculated. Spearman’s correlation coefficients among PA, muscular fitness, and motor competence variables were also calculated. (3) Results: The AVG group significantly increased their knee extension maximal isometric strength (4.22 kg; p < 0.01), handgrip strength (1.93 kg; p < 0.01), and jump height (1.60 cm; p < 0.01), while the control group only increased the knee extension maximal isometric strength (3.15 kg; p < 0.01). The AVG group improved motor competence and light physical activity (p < 0.05) and decreased sedentary time (p < 0.05). Lean mass improved in both AVG group and CG (p < 0.05). Lastly, the percentage of improvement of motor skills positively correlated with the percentage of improvement in vigorous PA (r = 0.673; p = 0.003) and the percentage of improvement in CMJ (r = 0.466; p = 0.039). (4) Conclusions: A 5-month intervention combining AVG with multicomponent training seems to have positive effects on muscle fitness, motor competence, and PA in children with overweight or obesity. Full article
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13 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Life of Children with Epilepsy and the Impact of the Disease on the Family Functioning
by Anna Rozensztrauch and Aleksandra Kołtuniuk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042277 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3624
Abstract
Epilepsy is a neurological chronic disease, which negatively affects physical, psychological and social functioning of children and their families. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in children with diagnosed epilepsy and the impact of a [...] Read more.
Epilepsy is a neurological chronic disease, which negatively affects physical, psychological and social functioning of children and their families. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) in children with diagnosed epilepsy and the impact of a child’s disease on the functioning of the family. Method: A cross-sectional survey involved a total of 103 legal guardians of children with diagnosed epilepsy. QoL was measured by PedsQL 4.0, with appropriate forms for specific age groups, the impact of a child’s condition on the functioning of the family was measured by PedsQL 2.0 Family Impact Module, and the authors’ own questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and medical data. Results: Subjects reported a decreased level of family daily activities (total score: 32.4 out of 100, SD = 26.5) and relationships (total score: 55.63 out of 100, SD = 24.03). QoL in children aged 5–7 years is lower by an average of 11.956 points as compared with children aged 2–4 years. Comorbidities had a significant impact (p < 0.05) on QoL in all domains. The overall QoL has reported a low score of 46.42 out of 100, respectively (SD ± 20.95), with the highest mean scores reported for the social functioning (total score: 49.4, SD = 27.3) and the physical functioning (total score: 49.4, SD = 28.4) and with the lowest mean score reported for the work/school functioning (total score: 42.3, SD = 27.8). Conclusions: Child’s epilepsy shows a considerable negative impact on the QoL of children and family functioning. Full article
10 pages, 458 KiB  
Article
The Quality of Life of Children with Myelomeningocele: A Cross-Sectional Preliminary Study
by Anna Rozensztrauch, Magdalena Iwańska and Maciej Bagłaj
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010756 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the defects and symptoms caused by myelomeningocele (MMC) and quality of life. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Methods: The subjects were 52 parents of children with MMC. Structured questionnaires were used: the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory [...] Read more.
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the defects and symptoms caused by myelomeningocele (MMC) and quality of life. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Methods: The subjects were 52 parents of children with MMC. Structured questionnaires were used: the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQLTM 4.0) and a Study-Specific Questionnaire (SSQ). Results: The overall PedsQLTM 4.0 score was 56.4 (SD ± 14.7). A strong, significant negative correlation was found between the children’s age and emotional functioning. Functioning in this area deteriorated with age by a mean of 1.5 points per year of age. Children with no hydrocephalus functioned significantly better than those with this defect in the physical, social, and school areas (p < 0.05). Foot deformities significantly (p = 0.033) adversely affected the children’s physical functioning. Living in a single-parent family had no statistically significant impact on functioning in any of the areas analyzed (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Understanding the QoL of children with MMC and identifying its determinants may help in planning interventions to minimize the adverse impact of the illness. Full article
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10 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Health-Related Fitness Levels among Title I Elementary School Students
by Taemin Ha, Jongho Moon, Brian Dauenhauer, Jennifer Krause, Jaimie McMullen and Karen Gaudreault
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157778 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Over the past few decades, studies have emphasized improving children’s health by increasing health-related fitness levels. Despite the known benefits of health-related fitness in youth, studies have also highlighted a lack of physical activity opportunities for children living in low-income households. The purpose [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, studies have emphasized improving children’s health by increasing health-related fitness levels. Despite the known benefits of health-related fitness in youth, studies have also highlighted a lack of physical activity opportunities for children living in low-income households. The purpose of this study was to investigate the health-related fitness levels of students attending Title I (low-income) elementary schools. A total of 77 elementary students (50.6% female; Mage = 10.0, SD = 0.827) from two Title I elementary schools in the western United States completed the FitnessGram assessments of aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the number of students in the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) based upon the FitnessGram HFZ Performance Standards. Less than 17% of students achieved the HFZ for aerobic capacity and only 31.2% achieved the HFZ for upper body strength and endurance. Students performed better for abdominal strength and endurance and flexibility with 55.8% and 68.8% achieving the HFZ, respectively. The results of this study offer insights into the health-related fitness levels of a unique population, students attending Title I schools. School health professionals, including physical education teachers, need to be aware of existing disparities and make efforts to systematically intervene. Full article
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8 pages, 667 KiB  
Article
External Loads in Under-12 Players during Soccer-7, Soccer-8, and Soccer-11 Official Matches
by Mario Sanchez, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Daniel Hernandez, Manuel Carretero, Jesus Maria Luis-Pereira and Javier Sanchez-Sanchez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094581 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the external loads (i.e., displacement distances and velocities) of 10–11 years-old soccer players during Soccer-7 (i.e., seven-a-side), Soccer-8 (i.e., eight-a-side), and Soccer-11 (i.e., eleven-a-side) official matches. Male athletes (n = 133; age, 10.9 ± [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the external loads (i.e., displacement distances and velocities) of 10–11 years-old soccer players during Soccer-7 (i.e., seven-a-side), Soccer-8 (i.e., eight-a-side), and Soccer-11 (i.e., eleven-a-side) official matches. Male athletes (n = 133; age, 10.9 ± 0.8 years) were measured during official matches for total distance (TD), relative distance (Drel), maximal velocity (Vmax), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC), and absolute and relative distance covered at different velocities. Data during matches were collected using a Global Positioning System unit. Greater TD was recorded during Soccer-11 compared to Soccer-7 and Soccer-8 (p < 0.01), and greater Drel during Soccer-11 compared to Soccer-8 (p < 0.05). Absolute ACC was greater during Soccer-11 compared to Soccer-7 (p < 0.01), although relative values for %ACC and %DEC were greater during Soccer-7 and Soccer-8 compared to Soccer-11 (p < 0.01). Globally, results show that Soccer-11 matches induce greater external loads compared to Soccer-7 and Soccer-8 matches. Current results may help coaches and soccer-related organizers to plan more suited soccer competitions for young players, with lower external loads. Full article
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12 pages, 380 KiB  
Article
Concurrent Validity and Reliability of a Novel Visual Analogue Fitness Perception Scale for Adolescents (FP VAS A)
by María Mendoza-Muñoz, José C. Adsuar, David Manuel Mendoza-Muñoz, Patricia Polero and Jorge Carlos-Vivas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073457 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
Introduction: Self-reported physical fitness (PF) provides an accurate measure of PF, specifically for young people. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is one of the most used psychosocial measurement methods. The main arguments in favor of VAS are its ease of use and comprehension, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Self-reported physical fitness (PF) provides an accurate measure of PF, specifically for young people. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is one of the most used psychosocial measurement methods. The main arguments in favor of VAS are its ease of use and comprehension, particularly for less educated participants. There are some scales that assess self-perception of PF, but the VAS presented in this study covers a higher range of responses and a number of variables than other already validated measures. Aims: The aim was to determine the concurrent validity of the Visual Analogue Fitness Perception Scale for Adolescents (FP VAS A) (Sub-study 1) and check its reliability (Sub-study 2). Methods: Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed, as well as PF tests (manual dynamometry, Course Navette, 4 × 10 m, and sit and reach). The International Fitness Scale (IFIS) and FP VAS A were used to assess self-reported PF. Results: Two sub-studies were carried out: in sub-study 1 a total of 67 students (26 males and 41 females aged 12–16 years) participated. The results showed a significant direct correlation between the level of PF and self-perception of PF (IFIS and FP VAS A), with the FP VAS A obtaining a higher correlation with PF (r = 0.444 to 0.666) than the IFIS and PF (r = 0.154 to 0.557). In sub-study 2 (test–retest of the FP VAS A), a total of 217 students (120 males and 97 females aged 12–17 years) participated. It showed a moderate reliability for all items; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was between 0.800 and 0.870, and kappa values ranged from 0.622 (endurance) to 0.458 (flexibility). In addition, Cronbach’s α for the total was 0.860. Conclusion: This study showed good validity and reliability for the FP VAS A in adolescents. Full article

Review

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12 pages, 740 KiB  
Review
Effect of COVID-19 on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents and Children: A Systematic Review
by Hadi Nobari, Mohamad Fashi, Arezoo Eskandari, Santos Villafaina, Álvaro Murillo-Garcia and Jorge Pérez-Gómez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094563 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 138 | Viewed by 9434
Abstract
The aim of the present systematic review was to assess and provide an up-to-date analysis of the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents. Thus, an electronic search of the literature, in [...] Read more.
The aim of the present systematic review was to assess and provide an up-to-date analysis of the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents. Thus, an electronic search of the literature, in two well-known databases (PubMed and Web of Science), was performed until February 2021 (without date restriction). PRISMA guideline methodology was employed and data regarding the HRQoL were extracted from eligible studies. Articles were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) children and/or adolescent population (4 to 19 years old); (b) HRQoL as a main assessment; (c) German, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English language; and (d) pre-pandemic and during pandemic HRQoL data. Following the initial search, 241 possible related articles were identified. A total of 79 articles were identified as duplicates. Moreover, 129 articles were removed after reading the title and abstract. Of the remaining 33 articles, 27 were removed since they were not focused on children or adolescents (n = 19), articles did not report pre- and post- pandemic HRQoL values (n = 6), articles were not focused on HRQoL (n = 6), and one article was an editorial. Finally, six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and, therefore, were included in the systematic review. A total of 3177 children and/or adolescents during COVID-19 were included in this systematic review. Three articles showed that COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the HRQoL of children and adolescents, and another did not report comparison between pre- and during COVID-19 pandemic, although a reduction in the HRQoL can be observed. Nevertheless, two articles did not find significant changes and another one did not report p-values. Regarding sex differences, only two studies analyzed this topic, observing no differences between girls and boys in the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on HRQoL. Taking into account these results, this systematic review might confirm that COVID-19 has a negative impact on the HRQoL of children and/or adolescents. Full article
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13 pages, 590 KiB  
Review
Active Video Games for Improving Mental Health and Physical Fitness—An Alternative for Children and Adolescents during Social Isolation: An Overview
by Isis Kelly dos Santos, Rafaela Catherine da Silva Cunha de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo de Medeiros, Paulo Francisco de Almeida-Neto, Dianne Cristina Souza de Sena, Ricardo Ney Cobucci, Ricardo Santos Oliveira, Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral and Paulo Moreira Silva Dantas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041641 - 9 Feb 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 15267
Abstract
The aim of this study was to synthesize the evidence on the effects of active video games (AVGs) on mental health, physical fitness and body composition of children and adolescents. A search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed; MEDLINE (by Ovid); SportDiscus, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to synthesize the evidence on the effects of active video games (AVGs) on mental health, physical fitness and body composition of children and adolescents. A search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed; MEDLINE (by Ovid); SportDiscus, Cochrane library systematic reviews (CENTRAL) and EMBASE with no language restrictions during October 2020. Reviews on the use of AVGs were included in the study. We use the AMSTAR (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews) scale to analyze the methodological quality of the studies. Seventeen systematic reviews and meta-analyzes were included on the effects of AVGs with 30 to 4728 children and adolescents of both sexes with ages ranging from 6 to 19 years. In five studies, the population was overweight or obese. Regarding the quality, 12 studies were of moderate quality, two had high quality, two had low quality and one showed very low quality. The analyzed data indicate that the use of AVGs with a frequency of 1 to 3 times a week with durations of between 10 and 90 min per day shows positive effects on mental health and physical functioning. There was moderate quality evidence that AVGs can result in benefits for self-esteem, increased energy expenditure, physical activity and reduced body mass index in children and adolescents who used AVGs in the home environment. Further research is needed on this tool to help in the process of social isolation and consequently in promoting health and well-being. Full article
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