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Ethnic Minority Health and Primary Care

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Care Sciences & Services".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 7316

Special Issue Editors

Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Gwendolen Road, Leicester LE5 4PW, UK
Interests: ethnic minority health; research equality; primary care; multimorbidity
Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Gwendolen Road, Leicester LE5 4PW, UK
Interests: designing more efficient trials; inclusivity; health inequalities; cardiometabolic disease prevention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well established that some ethnic minority populations face poorer health and quality of life compared to the general population. The disproportionate burden of the coronavirus pandemic on ethnic minority communities has further highlighted the need to understand and tackle long-standing health inequalities and increase the representation of minorities in health and social care research. Primary care health services and related research plays an important role in understanding and tackling these health inequalities. 

In this Special Issue, we are inviting submissions relating to ‘Ethnic Minority Health and Primary Care’, including work on health and wellbeing outcomes, access to and experiences of primary care services, changes to the delivery of primary care services, primary care policy/strategy, methodological considerations in primary care research, etc. 

We welcome all methodological approaches such as qualitative studies, mixed methods, policy/strategy analyses, large database analyses, intervention trials, and reviews.

We are particularly keen for authors to consider and acknowledge the considerable heterogeneity both within and between ethnic minority populations (e.g. utilise disaggregated ethnic group data) where possible.  

Dr. Ash Routen
Dr. Andrew Willis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ethnicity
  • ethnic minority health
  • minority
  • inclusion
  • health inequalities
  • primary care
  • health and social care
  • health
  • clinical

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Beyond Information Provision: Analysis of the Roles of Structure and Agency in COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence in Ethnic Minority Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217008 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
People from Black and Asian backgrounds are more likely to die from COVID-19 but less likely to be vaccinated, threatening to exacerbate health inequalities already experienced by ethnic minority groups. The literature suggests that mistrust rooted in structural inequality (including socioeconomic position and [...] Read more.
People from Black and Asian backgrounds are more likely to die from COVID-19 but less likely to be vaccinated, threatening to exacerbate health inequalities already experienced by ethnic minority groups. The literature suggests that mistrust rooted in structural inequality (including socioeconomic position and experience of racism) may be a key barrier to COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Understanding and addressing structural inequality is likely to lead to longer-term impacts than information alone. The aim of this study is to draw on health and sociological theories of structure and agency to inform our understanding of how structural factors influence vaccine confidence. We conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with 22 people from London and the surrounding areas from December 2021 to March 2022. Fourteen participants were members of the public from ethnic minority backgrounds, and seven were professionals working with the public to address concerns and encourage vaccine uptake. Our findings suggest that people from ethnic minority backgrounds make decisions regarding COVID-19 vaccination based on a combination of how they experience external social structures (including lack of credibility and clarity from political authority, neglect by health services, and structural racism) and internal processes (weighing up COVID-19 vaccine harms and benefits and concerns about vaccine development and deployment). We may be able to support knowledge accumulation through the provision of reliable and accessible information, particularly through primary and community care, but we recommend a number of changes to research, policy and practice that address structural inequalities. These include working with communities to improve ethnicity data collection, increasing funding allocation to health conditions where ethnic minority communities experience poorer outcomes, greater transparency and public engagement in the vaccine development process, and culturally adapted research recruitment processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnic Minority Health and Primary Care)
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23 pages, 757 KiB  
Article
Health Communication and Inequalities in Primary Care Access during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom: Lived Experiences and Recommendations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215166 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Health Communication is critical in the context of public health and this was highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ethnic minority groups were significantly impacted during the pandemic; however, communication and information available to them were reported to be insufficient. This study explored the [...] Read more.
Health Communication is critical in the context of public health and this was highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ethnic minority groups were significantly impacted during the pandemic; however, communication and information available to them were reported to be insufficient. This study explored the health information communication amongst ethnic communities in relation to their experiences with primary health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research used qualitative methodology using focus groups and semi-structured interviews with community members and leaders from three ethnic minority communities (African-Caribbean, Somali and South Asian) in Leicester, United Kingdom. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and open-coded. Rigour was determined through methodological coherence, appropriate and sufficient sampling, and iterative data collection and analysis. Six focus groups and interviews were conducted with 42 participants. Four overarching themes were identified related to health communication, experiences, services and community recommendations to improve primary care communication. To address primary care inequalities effectively and improve future health communication strategies, experiences from the pandemic should be reflected upon, and positive initiatives infused into the healthcare strategies, especially for ethnic minority communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnic Minority Health and Primary Care)
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Other

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28 pages, 1183 KiB  
Systematic Review
Examining Psychosocial and Economic Barriers to Green Space Access for Racialised Individuals and Families: A Narrative Literature Review of the Evidence to Date
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010745 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Background: Social prescribing (such as green social prescribing), aims to address health disparities cross-culturally to improve well-being. However, evidence highlights racial disparities in relation to access to quality green space (including local/national parks and recreational spaces). This review aimed to identify the psycho-socioeconomic [...] Read more.
Background: Social prescribing (such as green social prescribing), aims to address health disparities cross-culturally to improve well-being. However, evidence highlights racial disparities in relation to access to quality green space (including local/national parks and recreational spaces). This review aimed to identify the psycho-socioeconomic barriers to green space access for racialised individuals/families and Black Indigenous People of Colour (BIPOC), to understand what cultural adaptations might be made to help support them to access green social prescribing within the UK. Method: A narrative systematic review was conducted to identify barriers to green space access for racialised individuals/families and BIPOC. Searches of publication databases (APA PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [CDSR], Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL], Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], and SCOPUS Preview) were undertaken from January to February 2022, to identify quantitative peer reviewed studies. Of the 4493 abstracts identified, ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included for final review. Results: The results suggest that interpersonal, practical (such as transportation costs, entrance fees and lodging costs) and environmental factors can act as barriers to green space access for racialised individuals/families. Most frequently reported barriers were perceptions of safety and costs associated with travel and accessing green spaces, particularly for families. Conclusion: Factors such as diversity-friendly schemes (e.g., multiple languages on signs and additional prayer spaces in parks), funding and strategies to improve safety should be considered in the design and commissioning of green space and green social prescribing initiatives in primary care. By mitigating these barriers green space can become more accessible and improve inclusivity for racialised individuals/families. Future research could explore the inter-racial differences between racialised populations and which mechanisms reduce barriers to access and in what contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnic Minority Health and Primary Care)
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