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Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 24627

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Highway Engineering Research Group, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: road safety; vulnerable road users; micromobility; highway geometric design; traffic engineering; vehicle emissions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Highway Engineering Research Group, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: road safety; vulnerable road users; road geometric design; autonomous vehicles; vehicle emissions; pavement maintenance; crash analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Global Status Report on Road Safety 2018, launched by the WHO in December 2018, highlights that the number of annual road traffic death has reached 1.35 million. Vulnerable road users—pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists—account for more than half of all global death. A large proportion of these traffic crashes are caused by human factors, or human factors are involved. Therefore, research on driving behavior should be considered of great interest in the field of road safety, considering as a driver not only passenger car drivers, but also truck drivers, motorists, cyclists, e-scooter users, etc.

This Special Issue aims to characterize driving behavior and its influence on road safety. It will help researchers and practitioners to improve their understanding of driving behavior and its consequences so as to design safer facilities, driver assistance systems, and vehicles.

Potential topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Accident data analysis focusing on driving behavior;
  • Driving behavior when motorized vehicles interact with cyclists or other micromobility users;
  • Driving behavior when motorized vehicles interact with pedestrians;
  • Driving behavior at intersections;
  • Risky driving behaviors: speeding, lane changing, car following;
  • The influence of safety surrogate measures on driving behavior;
  • The influence of new technologies, such as intelligent transportation systems and automated driving systems, on driving behavior.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Ana María Pérez-Zuriaga
Dr. David Llopis Castelló
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • driving behavior
  • road safety
  • crash analysis
  • motorized vehicles
  • vulnerable road users
  • speeding
  • traffic conflicts
  • surrogate measures
  • intelligent transportation systems
  • autonomous vehicles

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 4236 KiB  
Article
Current and Future Trends in Driver Behaviour and Traffic Safety Scholarship: An African Research Agenda
by Rose Luke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054290 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Road traffic accidents are strongly associated with driver behaviour. Africa, as a region, has the highest road accident fatality rate, but there is very little research dealing with this critical issue on the continent. This paper, therefore, sought to establish the state of [...] Read more.
Road traffic accidents are strongly associated with driver behaviour. Africa, as a region, has the highest road accident fatality rate, but there is very little research dealing with this critical issue on the continent. This paper, therefore, sought to establish the state of driver behaviour and road safety scholarship in Africa to determine current research trends as well as potential future research directions. To this end, two bibliometric analyses were conducted, one which considered the issue from an African perspective and the other which considered the broader body of work. The analysis revealed a critical shortage of research related to driver behaviour in Africa. The existing body of research primarily focused on the identification of issues and tended to focus on narrow research problems within limited geographical areas. A need was identified for the collection of broader macro-level data and statistical analyses thereof to indicate regional traffic crash patterns; causes and effects; country-level studies, particularly countries with high traffic fatality rates and low levels of research; cross-country comparisons; and modelling. Future research directions should also include the link between driver behaviour, traffic safety and the sustainable developments goals, as well as policy-related research to determine current and potential future country-level policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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21 pages, 12628 KiB  
Article
Why Do Drivers’ Collision Avoidance Maneuvers Tend to Cause SUVs to Sideslip or Rollover on Horizontal Curve and Grade Combinations?—An Analysis of the Causes Based on a Modified Multibody Dynamics Model
by Jinliang Xu, Wenzhen Lv, Chao Gao, Yufeng Bi, Minghao Mu and Guangxun E
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315877 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The extent to which drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers affect the safety margins of sideslip and rollover is not captured by road geometric design theory. To quantify the effects of drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers on the safety margins of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) on [...] Read more.
The extent to which drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers affect the safety margins of sideslip and rollover is not captured by road geometric design theory. To quantify the effects of drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers on the safety margins of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) on horizontal curve and grade combinations, a modified 8-degree-of-freedom multibody model based on SUVs was developed. The model was then used to calculate the design safety margins of sideslip and rollover for steady states and the actual safety margins for collision avoidance maneuvers. Subsequently, the design safety margin reduction rate (the difference between the design and actual safety margins divided by the design safety margin) was calculated and used to assess the safety margins. The results showed that the safety margins of SUVs were significantly reduced by braking, lane changing, and lane changing with braking. The marginal effects indicated that the greater the deceleration and the shorter the lane change duration, the greater the effect on the safety margins, particularly the sideslip safety margin. Furthermore, when the SUV was driven at 80 km·h−1 on grades with a horizontal curve radius of 270 m and 400 m, the sideslip safety margin with emergency braking (deceleration over −4.5 m·s−2) was reduced by 71% and 21%, and the rollover safety margin was reduced by 11% and 5%, respectively. Under these conditions, an emergency lane change (lane change duration less than 2 s) caused the SUV to sideslip and reduced the rollover safety margin by 47% (curve radius 270 m) and 45% (curve radius 400 m). Therefore, drivers’ collision avoidance maneuvers are a factor that cannot be neglected in alignment design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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15 pages, 5145 KiB  
Article
Research on Vehicle Trajectory Deviation Characteristics on Freeways Using Natural Driving Trajectory Data
by Zhenhua Dai, Cunshu Pan, Wenlei Xiong, Rui Ding, Heshan Zhang and Jin Xu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214695 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Lateral driving behavior analysis is the foundation of freeway cross-section design and the focus of road safety research. However, the factors that influence vehicle lateral driving behavior have not been clearly explained. The dataset of the natural driving trajectory of freeways is used [...] Read more.
Lateral driving behavior analysis is the foundation of freeway cross-section design and the focus of road safety research. However, the factors that influence vehicle lateral driving behavior have not been clearly explained. The dataset of the natural driving trajectory of freeways is used in this study to analyze vehicle lateral driving behavior and trajectory characteristics. As vehicle trajectory characteristic indicators, parameters such as preferred trajectory deviation and standard deviation are extracted. The effects of lane position, speed, road safety facilities, and vehicle types on freeway trajectory behavior are investigated. The results show that lane width and lane position significantly impact vehicle trajectory distribution. As driving speed increases, the lateral distance between vehicles in the inner lane and the guardrail tends to increase. In contrast, vehicles in the outside lane will stay away from the road edge line, and vehicles in the middle lane will stay away from the right lane dividing line when the speed increases. Statistical analysis shows that the preferred trajectory distribution of the same vehicle type in different lane positions is significantly different among groups (Cohen’s d > 0.7). In the same lane, the lateral position characteristics of the center of mass of different vehicle types are basically the same (Cohen’s d < 0.35). This work aims to explain what variables cause trajectory deviation behaviors and how to design traffic safety facilities (guardrail and shoulder) and lane width to accommodate various vehicle types and design speeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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15 pages, 2487 KiB  
Article
Generation Paths of Major Road Accidents Based on Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis
by Yu Lei, Guirong Zhang, Shan Lu and Jiahuan Qian
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113761 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
In the process of continuously promoting safety management, major road accidents have become a key obstacle to improving overall road safety. The analysis of the overall road accidents hides the characteristics and laws of major road accidents. To clarify the causes of major [...] Read more.
In the process of continuously promoting safety management, major road accidents have become a key obstacle to improving overall road safety. The analysis of the overall road accidents hides the characteristics and laws of major road accidents. To clarify the causes of major road accidents, an analysis framework of “individual-vehicle-environment-management” is presented based on a literature review. Considering the interaction of the above variables, the fuzz-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to explore the generating paths of major road accidents based on 42 road accidents. The work shows that: (1) Major road accidents are caused due to the interactive coupling of “individual-vehicle-environment-management” elements. Major road accidents can occur with normal driving behaviors or sufficient response and rescue capabilities. (2) General road accidents and relatively major road accidents are more likely to occur in the presence of driving behavior errors, favorable road facilities, and sufficient response and rescue capabilities. Moreover, major road accidents are more likely to occur due to large vehicles with adverse vehicle performances. (3) There are three path modes and five condition configurations in major road accidents, namely individual-vehicle-management induced, individual-vehicle-environment induced, and vehicle induced mode. This work enriches the accident causation mode from a new configuration perspective and explains which variable combinations lead to the occurrence of major road accidents. Clarification of the differences between general accidents and major accidents will help to accurately predict and restrain the development of major road accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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18 pages, 2874 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effect of COVID-19 on Driver Behavior and Road Safety: A Naturalistic Driving Study in Malaysia
by Ward Ahmed Al-Hussein, Wenshuang Li, Lip Yee Por, Chin Soon Ku, Wajdi Hamza Dawod Alredany, Thanakamon Leesri and Huda Hussein MohamadJawad
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811224 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
The spread of the novel coronavirus COVID-19 resulted in unprecedented worldwide countermeasures such as lockdowns and suspensions of all retail, recreational, and religious activities for the majority of 2020. Nonetheless, no adequate scientific data have been provided thus far about the impact of [...] Read more.
The spread of the novel coronavirus COVID-19 resulted in unprecedented worldwide countermeasures such as lockdowns and suspensions of all retail, recreational, and religious activities for the majority of 2020. Nonetheless, no adequate scientific data have been provided thus far about the impact of COVID-19 on driving behavior and road safety, especially in Malaysia. This study examined the effect of COVID-19 on driving behavior using naturalistic driving data. This was accomplished by comparing the driving behaviors of the same drivers in three periods: before COVID-19 lockdown, during COVID-19 lockdown, and after COVID-19 lockdown. Thirty people were previously recruited in 2019 to drive an instrumental vehicle on a 25 km route while recording their driving data such as speed, acceleration, deceleration, distance to vehicle ahead, and steering. The data acquisition system incorporated various sensors such as an OBDII reader, a lidar, two ultrasonic sensors, an IMU, and a GPS. The same individuals were contacted again in 2020 to drive the same vehicle on the same route in order to capture their driving behavior during the COVID-19 lockdown. Participants were approached once again in 2022 to repeat the procedure in order to capture their driving behavior after the COVID-19 lockdown. Such valuable and trustworthy data enable the assessment of changes in driving behavior throughout the three time periods. Results showed that drivers committed more violations during the COVID-19 lockdown, with young drivers in particular being most affected by the traffic restrictions, driving significantly faster and performing more aggressive steering behaviors during the COVID-19 lockdown than any other time. Furthermore, the locations where the most speeding offenses were committed are highlighted in order to provide lawmakers with guidance on how to improve traffic safety in those areas, in addition to various recommendations on how to manage traffic during future lockdowns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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16 pages, 626 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Risk Factors for Electric Scooter-Related Crashes and Injury Crashes among Scooter Riders: A Two-Phase Survey Study
by Disi Tian, Andrew D. Ryan, Curtis M. Craig, Kelsey Sievert and Nichole L. Morris
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610129 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Electric scooters (or e-scooters) are among the most popular micromobility options that have experienced an enormous expansion in urban transportation systems across the world in recent years. Along with the increased usage of e-scooters, the increasing number of e-scooter-related injuries has also become [...] Read more.
Electric scooters (or e-scooters) are among the most popular micromobility options that have experienced an enormous expansion in urban transportation systems across the world in recent years. Along with the increased usage of e-scooters, the increasing number of e-scooter-related injuries has also become an emerging global public health concern. However, little is known regarding the risk factors for e-scooter-related crashes and injury crashes. This study consisted of a two-phase survey questionnaire administered to a cohort of e-scooter riders (n = 210), which obtained exposure information on riders’ demographics, riding behaviors (including infrastructure selection), helmet use, and other crash-related factors. The risk ratios of riders’ self-reported involvement in an e-scooter-related crash (i.e., any crash versus no crash) and injury crash (i.e., injury crash versus non-injury crash) were estimated across exposure subcategories using the Negative Binomial regression approach. Males and frequent users of e-scooters were associated with an increased risk of e-scooter-related crashes of any type. For the e-scooter-related injury crashes, more frequently riding on bike lanes (i.e., greater than 25% of the time), either protected or unprotected, was identified as a protective factor. E-scooter-related injury crashes were more likely to occur among females, who reported riding on sidewalks and non-paved surfaces more frequently. The study may help inform public policy regarding e-scooter legislation and prioritize efforts to establish suitable road infrastructure for improved e-scooter riding safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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19 pages, 4192 KiB  
Article
Analysis on Risk Characteristics of Traffic Accidents in Small-Spacing Expressway Interchange
by Yanpeng Wang, Jin Xu, Xingliang Liu, Zhanji Zheng, Heshan Zhang and Chengyu Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 9938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19169938 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Many small-spacing interchanges (SSI) appear when the density of the expressway interchanges increases. However, the characteristics of traffic accidents in SSI have not been explained clearly. Therefore, this paper systematically takes the G3001 expressway in Xi’an as the research object to explore the [...] Read more.
Many small-spacing interchanges (SSI) appear when the density of the expressway interchanges increases. However, the characteristics of traffic accidents in SSI have not been explained clearly. Therefore, this paper systematically takes the G3001 expressway in Xi’an as the research object to explore the accident characteristics of SSI. Firstly, the expressway is divided into four sections. Furthermore, their safety can be evaluated by the number of accidents per unit distance of 100 million vehicles (NAP). Subsequently, eight indexes, such as mean spacing distance (MSD), are selected to explain the cause affecting expressway safety by developing the least square support vector machine (LSSVM). Secondly, the difference between SSI and normal-spacing interchanges (NSI) is clarified by statistical analysis. Finally, LSSVM, random forest, and logistic regression models are built using 12 indicators, such as the time spent exploring the causes of serious accidents. The results show that the inner ring NAP in Sections I and II with SSI is 27.2 and 33.7, higher than in other sections. The density, annual average daily traffic, and MSD adversely affect expressway traffic safety. The road condition mainly influences the serious traffic accidents in the SSI. This study can provide the theoretical basis for traffic management and accident prevention in the SSI of the expressway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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14 pages, 2097 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Influence of Road Geometry on Overtaking Cyclists on Two-Lane Rural Roads
by Griselda López, Sara Moll, Ana María Pérez-Zuriaga and Alfredo García
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159302 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Road cycling, both individually and in groups, is common in Spain, where most two-lane rural roads have no cycle lanes. Due to this, and the difference in speed between drivers and cyclists, the overtaking manoeuvre is one of the most dangerous interactions. This [...] Read more.
Road cycling, both individually and in groups, is common in Spain, where most two-lane rural roads have no cycle lanes. Due to this, and the difference in speed between drivers and cyclists, the overtaking manoeuvre is one of the most dangerous interactions. This study analyses how road geometry influences the overtaking manoeuvre performance. Field data of 1355 overtaking manoeuvres were collected using instrumented bicycles, riding along different rural road segments, and considering individual, medium and large groups of cyclists. The safety variables that characterise the overtaking manoeuvre are overtaking vehicle speed and lateral clearance. These variables have been correlated to geometric characteristics of the road, such as the type of centre line, the horizontal alignment, the speed limit, and the road cross section. Regression models have been fitted considering each cyclist group size and configuration. For individuals and medium groups, wider roads generate higher lateral clearances and lower overtaking speeds, while for large groups only the solid centre line was significant, generating lower clearances and higher speeds. Results suggest that other factors need to be considered, especially for large groups. Results offer a deeper understanding of the phenomenon by providing key points for improving road geometry design, such as widening the shoulders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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20 pages, 6388 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Dynamic Exclusive Pedestrian Phase Based on Transportation Equity and Cost Analysis
by Yining Lu, Tao Wang, Zhuangzhuang Wang, Chaoyang Li and Yi Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138176 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
The exclusive pedestrian phase (EPP) has proven to be an effective method of eliminating pedestrian–vehicle conflicts at signalized intersections. The existing EPP setting conditions take traffic efficiency and safety as optimization goals, which may contribute to unfair interactions between vehicles and [...] Read more.
The exclusive pedestrian phase (EPP) has proven to be an effective method of eliminating pedestrian–vehicle conflicts at signalized intersections. The existing EPP setting conditions take traffic efficiency and safety as optimization goals, which may contribute to unfair interactions between vehicles and pedestrians. This study develops a multiobjective optimization framework to determine the EPP setting criteria, with consideration for the tradeoff between transportation equity and cost. In transportation equity modeling and considering environmental conditions, the transportation equity index is proposed to quantify pedestrian–vehicle equity differences. In cost modeling, traffic safety and efficiency factors are converted into monetary values, and the pedestrian–vehicle interaction is introduced. To validate the proposed optimization framework, a video-based data collection is conducted on wet and dry environment conditions at the selected intersection. The parameters in the proposed model are calibrated based on the results of the video analysis. This study compares the performance of the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA) and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) methods in building the sets of nondominated solutions. The optimization results show that the decrease in transportation equity will lead to an increase in cost. The obtained Pareto front approximations correspond to diverse signal timing patterns and achieve a balance between optimizing either objective to different extents. The sensitivity analysis reveals the application domains for the EPP and the traditional two-way control phase (TWC) under different vehicular/pedestrian demand, yielding rate, and environment conditions. The EPP control is more suitable at intersections with high pedestrian volumes and low yielding rates, especially in wet conditions. The results provide operational guidelines for decision-makers for properly selecting the pedestrian phase pattern at signalized intersections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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20 pages, 3628 KiB  
Article
Modeling Motorcyclists’ Aggressive Driving Behavior Using Computational and Statistical Analysis of Real-Time Driving Data to Improve Road Safety and Reduce Accidents
by Sarah Najm Abdulwahid, Moamin A. Mahmoud, Nazrita Ibrahim, Bilal Bahaa Zaidan and Hussein Ali Ameen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137704 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Driving behavior is considered one of the most important factors in all road crashes, accounting for 40% of all fatal and serious accidents. Moreover, aggressive driving is the leading cause of traffic accidents that jeopardize human life and property. By evaluating data collected [...] Read more.
Driving behavior is considered one of the most important factors in all road crashes, accounting for 40% of all fatal and serious accidents. Moreover, aggressive driving is the leading cause of traffic accidents that jeopardize human life and property. By evaluating data collected by various collection devices, it is possible to detect dangerous and aggressive driving, which is a huge step toward altering the situation. The utilization of driving data, which has arisen as a new tool for assessing the style of driving, has lately moved the concentration of aggressive recognition research. The goal of this study is to detect dangerous and aggressive driving profiles utilizing data gathered from motorcyclists and smartphone APPs that run on the Android operating system. A two-stage method is used: first, determine driver profile thresholds (rules), then differentiate between non-aggressive and aggressive driving and show the harmful conduct for producing the needed outcome. The data were collected from motorcycles using -Speedometer GPS-, an application based on the Android system, supplemented with spatiotemporal information. After the completion of data collection, preprocessing of the raw data was conducted to make them ready for use. The next steps were extracting the relevant features and developing the classification model, which consists of the transformation of patterns into features that are considered a compressed representation. Lastly, this study discovered a collection of key characteristics which might be used to categorize driving behavior as aggressive, normal, or dangerous. The results also revealed major safety issues related to driving behavior while riding a motorcycle, providing valuable insight into improving road safety and reducing accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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12 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Road-Traffic Injuries Associated with E-Bike: Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study
by Zhaohao Zhong, Zeting Lin, Liping Li and Xinjia Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095186 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
The Electric Bike (EB) has become an ideal mode of transportation because of its simple operation, convenience, and because it is time saving, economical and environmentally friendly. However, electric bicycle road-traffic injuries (ERTIs) have become a road-traffic safety problem that needs to be [...] Read more.
The Electric Bike (EB) has become an ideal mode of transportation because of its simple operation, convenience, and because it is time saving, economical and environmentally friendly. However, electric bicycle road-traffic injuries (ERTIs) have become a road-traffic safety problem that needs to be solved urgently, bringing a huge burden to public health. In order to provide basic data and a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of ERTIs in Shantou, mixed research combining a case-control study and a case-crossover study was carried out to investigate the cycling behavior characteristics and injury status of EB riders in Shantou city, and to explore the influencing factors of ERTI. The case-control study selected the orthopedic inpatient departments of three general hospitals in Shantou. The case-crossover study was designed to assess the effect of brief exposure on the occurrence of ERTIs, in which each orthopedic inpatient serves as his or her own control. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associated factors of ERTIs. In the case-control study, multivariable analysis showed that chasing or playing when cycling, finding the vehicle breakdown but continuing cycling, not wearing the helmet, and retrograde cycling were risk factors of ERTIs. Compared with urban road sections, suburb and township road sections were more likely to result in ERTIs. Astigmatism was the protective factor of ERTI. The case-crossover study showed that answering the phone or making a call and not wearing a helmet while cycling increased the risk of ERTIs. Cycling in the motor-vehicle lane and cycling on the sidewalk were both protective factors. Therefore, the traffic management department should effectively implement the policy about wearing a helmet while cycling, increasing the helmet-wearing rate of EB cyclists, and resolutely eliminate illegal behaviors such as violating traffic lights and using mobile phones while cycling. Mixed lanes were high-incidence road sections of ERTIs. It was suggested that adding people-non-motor-vehicles/motor vehicles diversion and isolation facilities in the future to ensure smooth roads and safety would maximize the social economic and public health benefits of EB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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Review

Jump to: Research

27 pages, 18878 KiB  
Review
Talking on the Phone While Driving: A Literature Review on Driving Simulator Studies
by Răzvan Gabriel Boboc, Gheorghe Daniel Voinea, Ioana-Diana Buzdugan and Csaba Antonya
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710554 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Distracted driving is a growing concern around the world and has been the focus of many naturalistic and simulator-based studies. Driving simulators provide excellent practical and theoretical help in studying the driving process, and considerable efforts have been made to prove their validity. [...] Read more.
Distracted driving is a growing concern around the world and has been the focus of many naturalistic and simulator-based studies. Driving simulators provide excellent practical and theoretical help in studying the driving process, and considerable efforts have been made to prove their validity. This research aimed to review relevant simulator-based studies focused on investigating the effects of the talking-on-the-phone-while-driving distraction on drivers’ behavior. This work is a scoping review which followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. The search was performed on five databases, covering twenty years of research results. It was focused on finding answers to three research questions that could offer an overview of the main sources of distraction, the research infrastructure, and the measures that were used to analyze and predict the effects of distractions. A number of 4332 studies were identified in the database search, from which 83 were included in the review. The main findings revealed that TPWD distraction negatively affects driving performance, exposing drivers to dangerous traffic situations. Moreover, there is a general understanding that the driver’s cognitive, manual, visual, and auditory resources are all involved, to a certain degree, when executing a secondary task while driving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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