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Athlete’s Health and Safety

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 24068

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Faculty of Life and Natural Sciences, School of Sport Sciences, University of Nebrija, Campus La Berzosa, Calle del Hostal, Hoyo de Manzanares, 28248 Madrid, Spain
Interests: physical fitness; exercise science; exercise physiology; exercise performance; sports science; strength & conditioning; resistance training; sport physiology ergometry; rehabilitation
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Life Sciences and Nature, University of Nebrija, 28015 Madrid, Spain
Interests: microbiota; hypoxia
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Guest Editor
Center for Higher Education Alberta Giménez, Affiliated to Comillas Pontifical University, 07013 Palma, Spain
Interests: sport; performance; health; hyperthermia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The beneficial effects of physical exercise and sport both on a physiological and psychological level are well known and have shown great evolution in the last 50 years. The practice of vigorous physical exercise has beneficial effects on different pathologies such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, respiratory diseases, cancer, etc. In addition, sports practice is negatively related to aspects that are detrimental to health, such as alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption or consumption of ultra-processed foods. The field of physical exercise is constantly evolving, whether with new training methods, with new supplements that improve health and performance, or with new technologies that improve the sports results of athletes. On the other hand, the sports safety section is showing great progress, since science and innovation in materials allow the creation of increasingly effective, safe and sophisticated sports equipment. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: Health and sport Physical exercise Sport Sports safety Sports equipments Performance Fitness Sports supplementation

Dr. Fco Javier Grijota Pérez
Dr. Martínez Guardado Ismael
Dr. Siquier Coll Jesús
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • health
  • sport
  • safety
  • performance
  • disease
  • fitness

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Increases Muscle Activations but Does Not Change Maximal Joint Angles during the Bar Dip
by Alec McKenzie, Zachary Crowley-McHattan, Rudi Meir, John Whitting and Wynand Volschenk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114390 - 3 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2368
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to profile and compare the bar dip’s kinematics and muscle activation patterns in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions. Fifteen healthy males completed one set of bar dips to exhaustion. Upper limb and trunk kinematics, using 3D motion capture, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to profile and compare the bar dip’s kinematics and muscle activation patterns in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions. Fifteen healthy males completed one set of bar dips to exhaustion. Upper limb and trunk kinematics, using 3D motion capture, and muscle activation intensities of nine muscles, using surface electromyography, were recorded. The average kinematics and muscle activations of repetitions 2–4 were considered the non-fatigued condition, and the average of the final three repetitions was considered the fatigued condition. Paired t-tests were used to compare kinematics and muscle activation between conditions. Fatigue caused a significant increase in repetition duration (p < 0.001) and shifted the bottom position to a significantly earlier percentage of the repetition (p < 0.001). There were no significant changes in the peak joint angles measured. However, there were significant changes in body position at the top of the movement. Fatigue also caused an increase in peak activation amplitude in two agonist muscles (pectoralis major [p < 0.001], triceps brachii [p < 0.001]), and three stabilizer muscles. For practitioners prescribing the bar dip, fatigue did not cause drastic alterations in movement technique and appears to target pectoralis major and triceps brachii effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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11 pages, 2271 KiB  
Article
Bench, Bar, and Ring Dips: Do Kinematics and Muscle Activity Differ?
by Alec McKenzie, Zachary Crowley-McHattan, Rudi Meir, John Whitting and Wynand Volschenk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013211 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5088
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to profile and compare the kinematics, using 3D motion capture, and muscle activation patterns, using surface electromyography (sEMG), of three common dip variations; the bench, bar, and ring dips. Thirteen experienced males performed four repetitions of each [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to profile and compare the kinematics, using 3D motion capture, and muscle activation patterns, using surface electromyography (sEMG), of three common dip variations; the bench, bar, and ring dips. Thirteen experienced males performed four repetitions of each dip variation. For each participant, repetitions 2–4 were time-normalized and then averaged to produce a mean value for all kinematic and sEMG variables. The mean maximal joint angles and mean peak sEMG amplitudes were compared between each variation using a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Several significant differences (p < 0.05) between dip variations were observed in both kinematic and sEMG data. The bench dip predominantly targets the triceps brachii but requires greater shoulder extension range. The mean peak triceps brachii activation was 0.83 ± 0.34 mV on the bench, 1.04 ± 0.27 mV on the bar, and 1.05 ± 0.40 mV on the ring. The bar dip is an appropriate progression from the bench dip due to the higher peak muscle activations. The ring dip had similar peak activations to the bar dip, with three muscles increasing their activation intensities further. These findings have implications for practitioners prescribing the dip, particularly to exercisers with a history of shoulder pain and injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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16 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Body Composition and Its Perception among Professional Female Volleyball Players and Fitness Athletes (Silesia, Poland)
by Agnieszka Białek-Dratwa, Wiktoria Staśkiewicz, Mateusz Grajek, Aleksandra Filip, Mateusz Rozmiarek, Karolina Krupa-Kotara and Oskar Kowalski
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 11891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191911891 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
Female athletes experience both sociocultural and sport-specific pressures of an ideal body and appearance and are vulnerable to dissatisfaction with their bodies. Among sport-specific pressures, the type of sport is a predictor of body image dissatisfaction. The study included 150 females: 50 volleyball [...] Read more.
Female athletes experience both sociocultural and sport-specific pressures of an ideal body and appearance and are vulnerable to dissatisfaction with their bodies. Among sport-specific pressures, the type of sport is a predictor of body image dissatisfaction. The study included 150 females: 50 volleyball players, 50 bodybuilding and fitness athletes, and 50 female students, who were the control group. Body composition and perception and evaluation of one’s own body were assessed. BMI was similar in the study group of female athletes and the control group, but the bodybuilding and fitness athletes had the lowest body fat, while the control group had the highest. Perception of one’s own body in the aspect of the evaluation of specific body parts was highest among bodybuilding and fitness athletes, while in the aspect of body condition, the best results were obtained by volleyball players. Most female volleyball players were dissatisfied with their current body weight, as were women in the control group, in contrast to female bodybuilding and fitness athletes, who were most often satisfied with their current body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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8 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Functional Arch Support Insoles on the Biomechanics and Performance in Right-Forward Lunging Step of Badminton Players
by Hung-Wen Chen, Hsien-Te Peng and Yan Wei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811210 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in biomechanical parameters and sports-specific performance of lower limbs between arch support insoles (ASI) and flat insoles (FLI) when performing net strides. After installing the MVN IMU system, 18 college badminton team members [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in biomechanical parameters and sports-specific performance of lower limbs between arch support insoles (ASI) and flat insoles (FLI) when performing net strides. After installing the MVN IMU system, 18 college badminton team members were asked to take the following tests: (1) Consecutive net stride tests; (2) Six-point footwork tests; (3) Retrieve/stroke the ball at the left and right net; (4) Smash and retrieve/stroke the ball at the net; (5) Smash at the front and back crossover step. The joint angle of the lower limbs and ground reaction force during the support phase was collected. The results demonstrated that the peak right hip flexion angle was significantly greater with ASI than FLI (63.09 ± 10.70; 60.08 ± 13.82; p = 0.028), while the peak right foot inversion angle was significantly smaller with ASI than FLI (20.68 ± 7.87; 23.85 ± 8.11; p = 0.013). The principal conclusion was that the arch support insole avoids the decrease in the hip flexion angle and the increase in the foot inversion angle during the net stride tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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12 pages, 1363 KiB  
Article
Adolescent Athletes at Risk of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction: A Result of Training or Pre-Existing Asthma?
by Kamila Malewska-Kaczmarek, Katarzyna Bobeff, Tymoteusz Mańkowski, Daniela Podlecka, Joanna Jerzyńska and Iwona Stelmach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159119 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Exercise may trigger bronchoconstriction, especially in a group of athletes in whom bronchospasm during exercise is reported to occur more frequently than in nonathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and environmental risk factors contributing to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) [...] Read more.
Exercise may trigger bronchoconstriction, especially in a group of athletes in whom bronchospasm during exercise is reported to occur more frequently than in nonathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and environmental risk factors contributing to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in adolescent athletes. A prospective study was conducted among a group of 101 adolescent athletes who underwent spirometry, exercise challenge, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements, and allergy assessment. The study group was divided into three subgroups of athletes based on the most common sports environments: swimmers, “indoor” athletes, and “outdoor” athletes. The clinical evaluation demonstrated a high frequency of EIB in the study group. Moreover, a large proportion of the athletes in whom EIB was observed reported no pre-existing symptoms suggestive of bronchospasm or asthma. Among patients without a previous diagnosis of asthma, clinical evaluation confirmed 22% with positive exercise challenges, compared with 77% of adolescents with negative test results. Moreover, among the athletes with a history of asthma, 39% had positive exercise challenges. Both EIB and asthma are common conditions that affect adolescent athletes. Physicians should pay particular attention to this group, as the symptoms can lead to under- and overdiagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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11 pages, 663 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cloth Masks and N95 Respirators on Maximal Exercise Performance in Collegiate Athletes
by Matthew E. Darnell, Tyler D. Quinn, Sean P. Carnahan, Tyler Carpenter, Nicholas Meglino, Patrick L. Yorio and Jeanne M. Doperak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137586 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
This study compared exercise performance and comfort while wearing an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (N95), cloth mask, or no intervention control for source control during a maximal graded treadmill exercise test (GXT). Twelve Division 1 athletes (50% female, age = 20.1 ± 1.2, [...] Read more.
This study compared exercise performance and comfort while wearing an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (N95), cloth mask, or no intervention control for source control during a maximal graded treadmill exercise test (GXT). Twelve Division 1 athletes (50% female, age = 20.1 ± 1.2, BMI = 23.5 ± 1.6) completed GXTs under three randomized conditions (N95, cloth mask, control). GXT duration, heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO2), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and perceived comfort were measured. Participants ran significantly longer in control (26.06 min) versus N95 (24.20 min, p = 0.03) or cloth masks (24.06 min, p = 0.04). No differences occurred in the slope of HR or SpO2 across conditions (p > 0.05). TcPCO2 decreased faster in control (B = −0.89) versus N95 (B = 0.14, p = 0.02) or cloth masks (B = −0.26, p = 0.03). RR increased faster in control (B = 8.32) versus cloth masks (B = 6.20, p = 0.04). RPE increased faster in the N95 (B = 1.91) and cloth masks (B = 1.79) versus control (B = 1.59, p < 0.001 and p = 0.05, respectively). Facial irritation/itching/pinching was higher in the N95 versus cloth masks, but sweat/moisture buildup was lower (p < 0.05 for all). Wearing cloth masks or N95s for source control may impact exercise performance, especially at higher intensities. Significant physiological differences were observed between cloth masks and N95s compared to control, while no physiological differences were found between cloth masks and N95s; however, comfort my differ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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14 pages, 1546 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Risk Events, Personality Traits, and Risk Perception of Adolescent Athletes in Sports Training
by Chen Guo, Bingyang Xiao, Zhao Zhang, Jiahui Dong, Mei Yang, Gongbing Shan and Bingjun Wan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010445 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Personality traits have close relationships with risky behaviors in various domains, including physical education, competition, and athletic training. It is yet little known about how trait personality dimensions associate with risk events and how vital factors, such as risk perception, could affect the [...] Read more.
Personality traits have close relationships with risky behaviors in various domains, including physical education, competition, and athletic training. It is yet little known about how trait personality dimensions associate with risk events and how vital factors, such as risk perception, could affect the happening of risk events in adolescent athletes. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the prediction of risk events by regression analysis with dimensions of personality, risk perception and sports, relations between risk events, risk perception, and the facets of the personality dimensions via data collecting from 664 adolescent athletes aged 13–18 years (male 364, female 300). Secondary intent is to assess school-specific levels of training risks among sports schools, regular schools, and sports and education integrated schools. The results show that psychology events are the strongest predicted by personality traits, risk perception, and sports, followed by injury and nutrition. Emotionality has the most significant positive correlation with risk events, while other traits have a significant negative correlation with risk events, except agreeableness. The integration schools are more conducive to the healthy development of adolescent athletes’ personalities. Moreover, the research indicates that sports training can strengthen the development directions of different personality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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17 pages, 2758 KiB  
Case Report
Amateur Athlete with Sinus Arrest and Severe Bradycardia Diagnosed through a Heart Rate Monitor: A Six-Year Observation—The Necessity of Shared Decision-Making in Heart Rhythm Therapy Management
by Robert Gajda, Beat Knechtle, Anita Gębska-Kuczerowska, Jacek Gajda, Sebastian Stec, Michalina Krych, Magdalena Kwaśniewska and Wojciech Drygas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610367 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3690
Abstract
Heart rate monitors (HRMs) are used by millions of athletes worldwide to monitor exercise intensity and heart rate (HR) during training. This case report presents a 34-year-old male amateur soccer player with severe bradycardia who accidentally identified numerous pauses of over 4 s [...] Read more.
Heart rate monitors (HRMs) are used by millions of athletes worldwide to monitor exercise intensity and heart rate (HR) during training. This case report presents a 34-year-old male amateur soccer player with severe bradycardia who accidentally identified numerous pauses of over 4 s (maximum length: 7.3 s) during sleep on his own HRM with a heart rate variability (HRV) function. Simultaneous HRM and Holter ECG recordings were performed in an outpatient clinic, finding consistent 6.3 s sinus arrests (SA) with bradycardia of 33 beats/min. During the patient’s hospitalization for a transient ischemic attack, the longest pauses on the Holter ECG were recorded, and he was suggested to undergo pacemaker implantation. He then reduced the volume/intensity of exercise for 4 years. Afterward, he spent 2 years without any regular training due to depression. After these 6 years, another Holter ECG test was performed in our center, not confirming the aforementioned disturbances and showing a tendency to tachycardia. The significant SA was resolved after a period of detraining. The case indicates that considering invasive therapy was unreasonable, and patient-centered care and shared decision-making play a key role in cardiac pacing therapy. In addition, some sports HRM with an HRV function can help diagnose bradyarrhythmia, both in professional and amateur athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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8 pages, 485 KiB  
Case Report
Associations between Training Load and Well-Being in Elite Beach Soccer Players: A Case Report
by Júlio A. Costa, Pedro Figueiredo, Alberto Prata, Tiago Reis, Joana F. Reis, Luís Nascimento and João Brito
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106209 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
The current case study aimed to quantify within-subjects correlations between training load and well-being in elite male beach soccer players. Data were obtained over three consecutive days during the preparation camp for the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup Russia 2021. The session rating [...] Read more.
The current case study aimed to quantify within-subjects correlations between training load and well-being in elite male beach soccer players. Data were obtained over three consecutive days during the preparation camp for the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup Russia 2021. The session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) and external training load metrics using global positioning system (GPS) were recorded. Eleven players reported perceived well-being (sleep quality, fatigue, muscle soreness and stress) using a Likert scale (Hooper Index) before breakfast. Within-subjects correlation coefficients between workload and well-being were calculated. Workload metrics and perceived well-being indices were significantly lower on day three than on days one and two. The Hooper Index presented a very large positive correlation with s-RPE (r = 0.86 [0.67, 0.94], 95% confidence interval, CI), exposure time (r = 0.88 [0.71, 0.95]), total distance (r = 0.83 [0.60, 0.93]), high-speed distance (r = 0.77 [0.50, 0.91]), and number of sprints (r = 0.75 [0.47, 0.90]). Sleep quality presented a moderate to large positive correlation with s-RPE (r = 0.51 [0.11, 0.77]), exposure time (r = 0.50 [0.10, 0.76]), high-speed distance (r = 0.53 [0.15, 0.78]), number of sprints (r = 0.62 [0.28, 0.83]) and total distance (r = 0.41 [0.18, 0.78]). Fatigue presented a large to very large positive correlation with s-RPE (r = 0.85 [0.66, 0.94]), exposure time (r = 0.90 [0.78, 0.96]), total distance (r = 0.86 [0.68, 0.94]), high-speed distance (r = 0.65 [0.31, 0.84]) and number of sprints (r = 0.56 [0.18, 0.79]). Muscle soreness presented a large to very large positive correlation with s-RPE (r = 0.79 [0.56, 0.91]), exposure time (r = 0.83 [0.62, 0.93]), total distance (r = 0.81 [0.59, 0.92]), high-speed distance (r = 0.75 [0.47, 0.89]) and number of sprints (r = 0.59 [0.22, 0.81]). Overall, workload presented a meaningful correlation with perceived well-being indices in elite male beach soccer players during a training camp. These findings suggest that workload metrics and perceived well-being indices can be implemented into the daily routine of an elite beach soccer team, which may assist coaches, sports scientists, and practitioners in better preparing players for beach soccer competitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete’s Health and Safety)
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