ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Aging and Cognition: Improving Wellbeing in Older Age

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 21028

Special Issue Editors

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: healthy aging; cognition; gender; health promotion; epidemiology; mental health; lifestyles; health services research

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Psychiatry Service, Zaragoza University Hospital Miguel Servet. Department of Medicine, Psychiatry and Dermatology, University of Zaragoza. Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (IIS-A). Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Spain
Interests: psychogeriatry; neuropsychiatry; cognition disorders; psychopharmacology; neuropsychological assessment; clinical neuroscience and neuropsychology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Populations all over the world are rapidly aging and pose an important challenge to societies. The WHO’s global strategy and action plan on aging for 2015–2030 is focused on promoting healthy aging and building systems to meet the needs of older adults. Cognitive function has been identified as a key domain as it directly impacts functionality and independence in the elderly. Improving the measurement and monitoring of, and research on, cognitive function is included among the WHO’s strategic objectives. 

Cognitive aging research has led to important advances in our understanding of neurocognitive pathologies, as well as in the identification of its risk and protective factors. Experimental studies suggest that implementing interventions such as physical activity, cognitive training, and medication can benefit the maintenance of cognition in the elderly. Despite the growing evidence in this field, there are ongoing challenges ahead. It has been suggested that focusing on successful cognitive aging may better identify different prevention strategies for healthy elderly subjects than would a focus on disease outcomes. On the other hand, the inter-individual variability in cognitive aging is striking and differences in age-related cognitive decline suggest a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors that need more attention. Besides that, given the current public health impact of dementia and the expected number of cases by mid-century all over the world, improved strategies for the care of patients with dementia are needed. 

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) aims to contribute to our knowledge of cognitive aging. We welcome original research papers, review articles, methodological papers, and short communications. 

Dr. Elena Lobo
Dr. Patricia Gracia-García
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cognitive aging
  • risk factors
  • protective factors
  • health care
  • dementia risk profile
  • dementia care
  • healthy cognitive aging
  • healthy aging.

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

13 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Differences in Trajectories and Predictive Factors of Cognition over Time in a Sample of Cognitively Healthy Adults, in Zaragoza, Spain
by Elena Lobo, Patricia Gracia-García, Antonio Lobo, Pedro Saz and Concepción De-la-Cámara
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137092 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Great inter-individual variability has been reported in the maintenance of cognitive function in aging. We examined this heterogeneity by modeling cognitive trajectories in a population-based longitudinal study of adults aged 55+ years. We hypothesized that (1) distinct classes of cognitive trajectories would be [...] Read more.
Great inter-individual variability has been reported in the maintenance of cognitive function in aging. We examined this heterogeneity by modeling cognitive trajectories in a population-based longitudinal study of adults aged 55+ years. We hypothesized that (1) distinct classes of cognitive trajectories would be found, and (2) between-class differences in associated factors would be observed. The sample comprised 2403 cognitively healthy individuals from the Zaragoza Dementia and Depression (ZARADEMP) project, who had at least three measurements of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a 12-year follow-up. Longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning were modeled using growth mixture models (GMM) in the data. The best-fitting age-adjusted model showed 3 distinct trajectories, with 1-high-to-moderate (21.2% of participants), 2-moderate-stable (67.5%) and, 3-low-and-declining (9.9%) cognitive function over time, respectively. Compared with the reference 2-trajectory, the association of education and depression was significantly different in trajectories 1 and 3. Instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs) were only associated with the declining trajectory. This suggests that intervention strategies should be tailored specifically to individuals with different trajectories of cognitive aging, and intervention strategies designed to maintain cognitive function might be different from those to prevent decline. A stable cognitive performance (‘successful cognitive aging’) rather than a mild decline, might be more ‘normal’ than generally expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Cognition: Improving Wellbeing in Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Auditory Processing Disorders in Elderly Persons vs. Linguistic and Emotional Prosody
by Anna Rasmus and Aleksandra Błachnio
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126427 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Background: Language communication, which is one of the basic forms of building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, deteriorates in elder age. One of the probable causes is a decline in auditory functioning, including auditory central processing. The aim of the present study is to [...] Read more.
Background: Language communication, which is one of the basic forms of building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, deteriorates in elder age. One of the probable causes is a decline in auditory functioning, including auditory central processing. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the profile of central auditory processing disorders in the elderly as well as the relationship between these disorders and the perception of emotional and linguistic prosody. Methods: The Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL), and the Brain-Boy Universal Professional (BUP) were used. Results: There are statistically significant relationships between emotional prosody and: spatial hearing (r(18) = 0.46, p = 0.04); the time of the reaction (r(18) = 0.49, p = 0.03); recognizing the frequency pattern (r(18) = 0.49, p = 0.03 (4); and recognizing the duration pattern (r(18) = 0.45, p = 0.05. There are statistically significant correlations between linguistic prosody and: pitch discrimination (r(18) = 0.5, p = 0.02); recognition of the frequency pattern (r(18) = 0.55, p = 0.01); recognition of the temporal pattern; and emotional prosody (r(18) = 0.58, p = 0.01). Conclusions: The analysis of the disturbed components of auditory central processing among the tested samples showed a reduction in the functions related to frequency differentiation, the recognition of the temporal pattern, the process of discriminating between important sounds, and the speed of reaction. De-automation of the basic functions of auditory central processing, which we observe in older age, lowers the perception of both emotional and linguistic prosody, thus reducing the quality of communication in older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Cognition: Improving Wellbeing in Older Age)
15 pages, 4412 KiB  
Article
Healthcare Utilization in Different Stages among Patients with Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
by Yu-Han Chen, Yi-Chen Lai, Yu-Cih Wu, Jun Sasaki, Kang-Ting Tsai and Chung-Han Ho
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115705 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
To evaluate the trend of healthcare utilization among patients with dementia (PwD) in different post-diagnosis periods, Taiwan’s nationwide population database was used in this study. PwD were identified on the basis of dementia diagnoses during 2002–2011. We further subdivided the cases into 10 [...] Read more.
To evaluate the trend of healthcare utilization among patients with dementia (PwD) in different post-diagnosis periods, Taiwan’s nationwide population database was used in this study. PwD were identified on the basis of dementia diagnoses during 2002–2011. We further subdivided the cases into 10 groups from the index year to the 10th year after diagnosis. The frequency of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, the length of stay, outpatient and department visits, and the number of medications used were retrieved. The Joinpoint regression approach was used to estimate the annual percent change (APC) of healthcare utilization. The overall trend of healthcare utilization increased with the progression of dementia, with a significant APC during the first to second year after diagnosis (p < 0.01), except that the frequency of outpatient visits showed a decreasing trend with a significant APC from the first to fifth year. All sex- and age-stratified analyses revealed that male gender and old age contributed to greater use of healthcare services but did not change the overall trend. This study provides a better understanding of medical resource utilization across the full spectrum of dementia, which can allow policymakers, physicians, and caregivers to devise better care plans for PwD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Cognition: Improving Wellbeing in Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Mobile Phone Use and Cognitive Impairment among Elderly Chinese: A National Cross-Sectional Survey Study
by Shige Qi, Yuying Sun, Peng Yin, Han Zhang and Zhihui Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115695 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between mobile phone use and cognitive impairment using the data of the Prevention and Intervention on Neurodegenerative Disease for Elderly in China (PINDEC) survey. A total of 21,732 participants aged 60 years and above in China [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between mobile phone use and cognitive impairment using the data of the Prevention and Intervention on Neurodegenerative Disease for Elderly in China (PINDEC) survey. A total of 21,732 participants aged 60 years and above in China were recruited using a stratified, multi-stage cluster sampling method, providing information on demographics, lifestyle and health-related characteristics, mobile phone use, and cognitive impairment through face-to-face interviews by trained staff according to a standard protocol. All estimates of rates were weighted by sex, age, and living area (rural or urban) in the elderly Chinese population. The rate of mobile phone usage was 65.5% (14.3% for smartphone use). The prevalence of cognitive impairment in non-users of mobile phone, dumbphone users, and smartphone users were 17.8%, 5.0%, and 1.4%, respectively. The odds of having cognitive impairment in users of dumbphone and smartphone were lower than non-users after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle, and health-related factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.39, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.45; p < 0.001; AOR, 0.16, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.25; p < 0.001, respectively). Smartphone use in Chinese elderly people was quite low. A strong correlation was found between mobile phone use and better cognitive function; yet longitudinal studies are warranted to explore the causal relationship. Future design of mobile phone-based interventions should consider the feasibility among those in need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Cognition: Improving Wellbeing in Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Circulating Mediators of Apoptosis and Inflammation in Aging; Physical Exercise Intervention
by Barbara Morawin, Anna Tylutka, Jolanta Chmielowiec and Agnieszka Zembron-Lacny
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063165 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3765
Abstract
Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass caused by many cellular mechanisms and also by lifestyle factors such as low daily physical activity. In addition, it has been shown that sarcopenia may be associated with inflammation and cognitive impairment in old [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass caused by many cellular mechanisms and also by lifestyle factors such as low daily physical activity. In addition, it has been shown that sarcopenia may be associated with inflammation and cognitive impairment in old age. Regular exercise is key in reducing inflammation and preventing sarcopenia and diseases related to cognitive impairment. The study was designed to assess the impact of exercise training on circulating apoptotic and inflammatory markers of sarcopenia in older adults. Eighty older adults aged 70.5 ± 5.8 years were randomized to the physically active group who participated in a 10-month Tai-Chi training session (TC, n = 40) and the control group who participated in health education sessions (HE, n = 40). Tai-Chi training caused a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) by 3.02 ± 3.99%, but an increase in appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) by 1.76 ± 3.17% and gait speed by 9.07 ± 11.45%. Tai-Chi training elevated the plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), and tumor necrosis receptor factor II (TNFRII), and decreased caspases 8 and 9. Despite the increase in TNFα, apoptosis was not initiated, i.e., the cell-free DNA level did not change in the TC group. The study demonstrated that Tai-Chi training significantly reduced the symptoms of sarcopenia through the changes in body composition and physical performance, and improvements in cytokine-related mechanisms of apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Cognition: Improving Wellbeing in Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

28 pages, 2160 KiB  
Review
Cognition in Healthy Aging
by Macarena Sánchez-Izquierdo and Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030962 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6234
Abstract
The study of cognitive change across a life span, both in pathological and healthy samples, has been heavily influenced by developments in cognitive psychology as a theoretical paradigm, neuropsychology and other bio-medical fields; this alongside the increase in new longitudinal and cohort designs, [...] Read more.
The study of cognitive change across a life span, both in pathological and healthy samples, has been heavily influenced by developments in cognitive psychology as a theoretical paradigm, neuropsychology and other bio-medical fields; this alongside the increase in new longitudinal and cohort designs, complemented in the last decades by the evaluation of experimental interventions. Here, a review of aging databases was conducted, looking for the most relevant studies carried out on cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. The aim was to review not only longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort studies, but also by intervention program evaluations. The most important studies, searching for long-term patterns of stability and change of cognitive measures across a life span and in old age, have shown a great range of inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning changes attributed to age. Furthermore, intellectual functioning in healthy individuals seems to decline rather late in life, if ever, as shown in longitudinal studies where age-related decline of cognitive functioning occurs later in life than indicated by cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal evidence and experimental trials have shown the benefits of aerobic physical exercise and an intellectually engaged lifestyle, suggesting that bio-psycho-socioenvironmental factors concurrently with age predict or determine both positive or negative change or stability in cognition in later life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Cognition: Improving Wellbeing in Older Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop