Emerging and Reemerging Infections of the Central Nervous System

A special issue of Infectious Disease Reports (ISSN 2036-7449).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 5001

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Infectious Diseases, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4202-451 Porto, Portugal
2. Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4202-451 Porto, Portugal
Interests: emergent infectious diseases; neurological infections; HIV; immunosuppression-associated infections; tropical medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the contribution of climate and ecological changes, human behaviors and demographics, international travel and commerce, and increased susceptibility of humans to infection, the number of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases is increasing. New clinical syndromes and diseases are constantly arising, either in small, localized outbreaks, or disseminating rapidly to large geographical areas.

In line with the particular sensitivity of the CNS to direct damage by infectious agents or consequent inflammatory responses, almost all recent emerging infections (such as COVID-19, monkeypox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, arthropod-borne virus infection and Nipah, Hendra, and other henipavirus infections) can have neurological manifestations or complications. If, on one hand, neurological manifestations may be present in the acute phase of the disease and even constitute its central syndrome, on the other hand, these may represent late complications and affect populations much later on, with long-term neurological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences.

In CNS infection and due to its high morbidity and mortality, a rapid and efficient response is paramount. However, in the case of emerging infections, scarcity of evidence hampers clinical management. Clinical trials on emerging infectious diseases of the CNS are scarce, and guidelines for its management are often based on experience with case series and by consensus of experts. Hence, the sharing of research findings is critical.

“Emerging and Reemerging Infections of the Central Nervous System”, a Special Issue of Infectious Disease Reports, will collect articles highlighting current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, and management of emerging and reemerging infections of the CNS.

Original research articles, brief reports, reviews, and case reports are welcome. Essays, opinions, and perspectives are also accepted.

Dr. Sofia R. Valdoleiros
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • emerging communicable diseases
  • central nervous system infections
  • infectious encephalitis
  • meningoencephalitis
  • encephalomyelitis

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

17 pages, 846 KiB  
Review
Murine Typhus: A Review of a Reemerging Flea-Borne Rickettsiosis with Potential for Neurologic Manifestations and Sequalae
by Lucas S. Blanton
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(6), 700-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15060063 - 26 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Murine typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi, an obligately intracellular Gram-negative coccobacillus. Rats (Rattus species) and their fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) serve as the reservoir and vector of R. typhi, respectively. Humans become infected [...] Read more.
Murine typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi, an obligately intracellular Gram-negative coccobacillus. Rats (Rattus species) and their fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) serve as the reservoir and vector of R. typhi, respectively. Humans become infected when R. typhi-infected flea feces are rubbed into flea bite wounds or onto mucous membranes. The disease is endemic throughout much of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical seaboard regions where rats are common. Murine typhus is reemerging as an important cause of febrile illness in Texas and Southern California, where an alternate transmission cycle likely involves opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Although primarily an undifferentiated febrile illness, a range of neurologic manifestations may occur, especially when treatment is delayed. Serology is the mainstay of diagnostic testing, but confirmation usually requires demonstrating seroconversion or a fourfold increase in antibody titer from acute- and convalescent-phase sera (antibodies are seldom detectable in the first week of illness). Thus, early empiric treatment with doxycycline, the drug of choice, is imperative. The purpose of this review is to highlight murine typhus as an important emerging and reemerging infectious disease, review its neurologic manifestations, and discuss areas in need of further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Reemerging Infections of the Central Nervous System)
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21 pages, 2511 KiB  
Review
Emerging and Re-Emerging Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in Europe
by Varol Tunali and Metin Korkmaz
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(6), 679-699; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15060062 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2583
Abstract
In a rapidly evolving global landscape characterized by increased international travel, migration, and ecological shifts, this study sheds light on the emergence of protozoal and helminthic infections targeting the central nervous system (CNS) within Europe. Despite being traditionally associated with tropical regions, these [...] Read more.
In a rapidly evolving global landscape characterized by increased international travel, migration, and ecological shifts, this study sheds light on the emergence of protozoal and helminthic infections targeting the central nervous system (CNS) within Europe. Despite being traditionally associated with tropical regions, these infections are progressively becoming more prevalent in non-endemic areas. By scrutinizing the inherent risks, potential outcomes, and attendant challenges, this study underscores the intricate interplay between diagnostic limitations, susceptibility of specific population subsets, and the profound influence of climate fluctuations. The contemporary interconnectedness of societies serves as a conduit for introducing and establishing these infections, warranting comprehensive assessment. This study emphasizes the pivotal role of heightened clinician vigilance, judicious public health interventions, and synergistic research collaborations to mitigate the potential consequences of these infections. Though rare, their profound impact on morbidity and mortality underscores the collective urgency required to safeguard the neurological well-being of the European populace. Through this multifaceted approach, Europe can effectively navigate the complex terrain posed with these emergent infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Reemerging Infections of the Central Nervous System)
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