New Insights into Developmental Biology of Fruit Trees

A project collection of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This project collection belongs to the section "Fruit Production Systems".

Papers displayed on this page all arise from the same project. Editorial decisions were made independently of project staff and handled by the Editor-in-Chief or qualified Editorial Board members.

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Editors

College of Horticulture, Sub-Center of National Center for Apple Improvement, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China
Interests: developmental biology of apples and high density cultivation technology of apple, including: 1) molecular mechanism of rootstock and scion interaction of apple; 2) evaluation, screening and application of rootstock and scion combination of apple; 3) apple rootstock breeding

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Guest Editor
College of Horticulture, Yangling Sub-Center of the National Center for Apple Improvement, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China
Interests: apple developmental biology; apple’s asexual variation and reproduction; apple rootstocks breeding; adventitious root development

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Guest Editor
College of Horticulture, Yangling Subsidiary Center Project of the National Apple Improvement Center, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, China
Interests: apple developmental molecular biology and dwarf anvil intensive and efficient cultivation techniques; the basis and application of apple asexual variation and propagation; evaluation and regionalization of rootstock and spike combination; seedling breeding and dwarf cultivation technology; apple rootstock breeding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Project Overview

Dear Colleagues,

With the rapid development of science and technology and the rapid changes in biological disciplines such as molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, and plant physiology, the era of scientific research on fruit tree life phenomena through interdisciplinary and multi-methods has arrived. Especially in recent years, researchers from different levels of molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, anatomy and morphology have used a variety of experimental methods to study the cytology of the external development and internal structure of fruit trees, as well as morphological processes and their cellular and molecular biological mechanisms, achieving very impressive research results. Therefore, we plan to publish a Special Issue focusing on fruit tree developmental biology, and introducing the latest research results of model plants and bioinformatics technology in this field. Through this Special Issue, researchers can keep track of the latest research results and developments.

Dr. Na An
Dr. Jiangping Mao
Prof. Dr. Dong Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Horticulturae is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fruit tree
  • growth
  • developmental
  • differentiation
  • morphogenesis
  • physiological characteristics
  • molecular mechanism
  • bioinformatics

Published Papers (5 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023

17 pages, 9638 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Study on the Identification of Genes Involved in Lignification in the Endocarp of Bared-Nut Walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Xinjiang, China
by Shangqi Yu, Jiazhi Fu, Qian Ye, Pengyu Wu, Jianping Bao, Haifang Hu, Zhongzhong Guo, Rui Zhang and Qiang Jin
Horticulturae 2024, 10(5), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10050487 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 496
Abstract
This study focused on the “Xinlu” walnut and explored the molecular regulatory mechanism of lignin synthesis in the endocarp, aiming to explain the formation of bared-nut walnuts through morphological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic techniques. It was found that the synthesis of lignin, cellulose, p-coumaryl [...] Read more.
This study focused on the “Xinlu” walnut and explored the molecular regulatory mechanism of lignin synthesis in the endocarp, aiming to explain the formation of bared-nut walnuts through morphological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic techniques. It was found that the synthesis of lignin, cellulose, p-coumaryl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol was severely inhibited in the pulpy-hue (PUH) of the endocarp. We obtained 14 modules (gene sets) significantly correlated with the lignification factor (LIG) and 1548 hub genes. Additionally, we identified a MEplum3 module involved in endocarp lignin synthesis, primarily participating in phenylalanine biosynthesis and the lignin biosynthetic process. Meanwhile, we constructed a gene co-expression network for the MEplum3 module and identified a key hub gene for lignin synthesis—JrCAD10. Among the different tissues of “Xinlu”, the expression level of JrCAD10 in the scleritic-hue (SCH) was significantly higher than in other tissues, with a relative copy number (RCN) of 3.2. However, JrCAD10 expression was severely suppressed in the PUH. The suppression of JrCAD10 expression led to the inhibition of lignin monomer synthesis, which further resulted in inhibited lignin synthesis, thus forming the bared-nut walnut. Our findings provide new insights into understanding the regulation of lignin synthesis and offer a possible explanation for the formation of bared-nut walnuts. Full article
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15 pages, 4243 KiB  
Article
A Genome-Wide Analysis of the WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Transcription Factor Family Reveals Its Differential Expression Patterns, Response to Drought Stress, and Localization in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)
by Fei Deng, Hongming Wang, Xiaojuan An and Jean Yves Uwamungu
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040370 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 724
Abstract
The WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene family has a critical effect on plant development and abiotic stress. However, there have been no genome-wide studies on WOX genes within sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). In the present work, eight PavWOX genes were [...] Read more.
The WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene family has a critical effect on plant development and abiotic stress. However, there have been no genome-wide studies on WOX genes within sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). In the present work, eight PavWOX genes were discovered within sweet cherry at the genome-wide level, and they were mapped to six chromosomes. Based on phylogenetic relationships, these genes were classified into three groups, with genes in one group having similar gene structures and conserved motifs. Meanwhile, the PavWOX genes possessed cis-acting elements and functions associated with hormone responses, stress responses, and development. As revealed by expression patterns, certain PavWOX genes are specifically expressed within tissues, suggesting that they may have unique functions. Additionally, the gene family expression patterns under drought stress were analyzed. PavWOX4, PavWOX5, PavWOX13A, and PavWOX13B had increased expressions upon drought stress. In addition, the transcription factor of PavWOX4 and PavWOX13A was localized in the nucleus, confirming the estimated results. Our findings lay the foundation for determining the expression patterns and functions of the PavWOX gene family within sweet cherry and shed more light on the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Full article
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11 pages, 3989 KiB  
Article
Transcription Factor MdPLT1 Involved Adventitious Root Initiation in Apple Rootstocks
by Hongming Wang, Guang Ba, Jean Yves Uwamungu, Wenjuan Ma and Linna Yang
Horticulturae 2024, 10(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10010064 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
The induction of adventitious roots is a key factor restricting the vegetative propagation of apple dwarf rootstocks. PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of plant stem cell niche and adventitious root development. In this study, we identified the PLT1 gene [...] Read more.
The induction of adventitious roots is a key factor restricting the vegetative propagation of apple dwarf rootstocks. PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of plant stem cell niche and adventitious root development. In this study, we identified the PLT1 gene in apples by bioinformatics and analyzed its evolutionary relationship. The MdPLT1 gene was cloned from M9-T337 to verify its subcellular localization and analyze its function in transgenic tobacco. The MdPLT1 protein contained two conserved AP2 domains which may be similar to those of poplar the PtrPLT2a and PtrPLT2b with 85% support. The CDS sequence of the MdPLT1 gene was 1638 bp, encoding 545 amino acids. The transcription factor MdPLT1 was localized in the nucleus. The number of adventitious roots of tobacco plants overexpressing MdPLT1 significantly increased. In the adventitious roots of MdPLT1-overexpressed plants, the expression levels of genes related to the NtPINs family and the NtYUCCAs family were significantly increased. The results showed that MdPLT1 positively regulated adventitious root formation. This study provided a theoretical basis for the establishment of the fast vegetative propagation of apple dwarf rootstocks. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024

11 pages, 2405 KiB  
Article
Balancing Hormones and Gene Expressions for Rooting Success: Lovastatin Unveils Cytokinin Inhibition in Malus prunifolia var. ringo Apple Stem Cuttings
by Sinuo Sun, Muhammad Mobeen Tahir, Zushu Xie, Pengyan Wei, Jianing Yu, Hangkong Liu, Yinnan He, Xiaoying Ren, Yuanyuan Ma and Jiangping Mao
Horticulturae 2023, 9(12), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9121341 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Adventitious root (AR) formation is the key to asexual reproduction; however, cytokinin (CK) hampers AR formation. But the mechanism by which CK inhibits it is still unknown. In this study, we used Malus prunifolia var. ringo apple stem cuttings that were treated with [...] Read more.
Adventitious root (AR) formation is the key to asexual reproduction; however, cytokinin (CK) hampers AR formation. But the mechanism by which CK inhibits it is still unknown. In this study, we used Malus prunifolia var. ringo apple stem cuttings that were treated with exogenous 6-benzyl adenine (6-BA) at 1 mg/L and lovastatin (CK biosynthesis inhibitor) at 1 mg/L to compare with control (untreated) cuttings. The results indicated that the control and 6-BA-treated cuttings failed to produce ARs; however, lovastatin-treated cuttings successfully produced a few ARs after 20 days (d) of treatments by increasing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and reducing zeatin riboside (ZR) content at several time points. The 6-BA treatment induced the expression of CK-related genes, such as MdARR3, MdARR5, MdARR5-2, MdAKH4, and MdCKX5, at most time points. However, lovastatin-treated cuttings reduced their expression, which favors AR formation. Furthermore, the expression of auxin-related genes, including MdIAA23, MdARF7, and MdARF19, was induced by lovastatin treatment. Like auxin-related genes, several root-development-related genes (MdWOX5, MdWOX11, MdLB29, and MdARRO1) were also promoted in response to lovastatin treatment that were repressed by 6-BA and control cuttings. In conclusion, lovastatin treatment supports AR formation by inhibiting CK biosynthesis inside the cuttings, as compared to the control and 6-BA-treated cuttings. This study laid the foundation for future studies on the relationship of CK biosynthesis inhibitors with adventitious rooting in apples and other crops. Full article
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15 pages, 1214 KiB  
Review
Apricot Rootstocks with Potential in Hungary
by Edina Mendelné Pászti, Geza Bujdoso, Sezai Ercisli, Karoly Hrotkó and Ákos Mendel
Horticulturae 2023, 9(6), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9060720 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
In the last five decades, the use of rootstocks and scions has changed, along with their systems of cultivation. Associated with climate change, fruit trees face new ecological and phytopathological challenges. Rootstocks affect the generative and vegetative performance of a scion, such as [...] Read more.
In the last five decades, the use of rootstocks and scions has changed, along with their systems of cultivation. Associated with climate change, fruit trees face new ecological and phytopathological challenges. Rootstocks affect the generative and vegetative performance of a scion, such as productivity, span of nonbearing period, growth vigor, shelf-life and quality of fruits. According to a recent study, they also affect the frost tolerance of floral buds. Several traits of rootstocks facilitate the growth of a grafted tree under different climatic and soil conditions. Due to the high risks of cultivation, it is extremely important to determine which rootstocks are suitable for successful apricot production. Origin, effects on vegetative and generative traits, tolerance, resistance and adaptability of rootstocks are summarized in this review to select suitable rootstock for apricot cultivars under Hungarian conditions. Full article
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