Physiology and Biochemistry in Relation to Quality of Fruits and Vegetables

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Developmental Physiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 18000

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, University of Peloponnese, 24100 Kalamata, Greece
Interests: tree physiology; cultivation techniques; fruit quality; abiotic stress; plant hormones and their interactions; tissue culture; plant propagation

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Pomology, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: horticulture; pomology; plant propagation by cuttings; plant breeding; abiotic stress; tree physiology; fruit quality; secondary metabolites
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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, University of Peloponnese, Antikalamos, 24100 Kalamata, Greece
Interests: molecular biology; plant physiology and biochemistry; genetics; secondary metabolism; plant stress; post-harvest vegetable physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruits and vegetables are important sources of human nutrition. However, they also have to be attractive to consumers without any morphological disorders, with high commercial and nutritive value, and exceptional properties concerning their shelf and storage life. Due to their commercial significance, the study of their quality characteristics, according to the factors affecting them and the endogenous mechanisms involved, as well as the research for their quality improvement, represent a major scientific research field.

Biometric characteristics (weight, size, shape, etc.), taste, aroma, nutritious factors (vitamins, minerals, sugars, etc.), bioactive compounds (phenolics and other compounds or phytochemicals), and others are included in quality parameters and traits and can be affected by a plethora of factors. Genetic and environmental factors, cultivation techniques and treatments, pre- and post-harvest applications, and storage conditions are some of these factors which can change the physiological and biochemical status and trigger endogenous changes affecting the quality of fruits and vegetables. A better knowledge of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved and related to fruit and vegetable quality, as well as the biochemical and physiological effects of several factors, will provide a deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the quality of horticultural products. 

This Special Issue aims to present the physiological and biochemical changes and the effects of factors related to fruit and vegetable quality parameters and traits. Contributions including research articles, review articles, short communications, and opinion articles related to the extended topic of “Physiology and Biochemistry in Relation to Quality of Fruits and Vegetables” are welcomed.

Dr. Athanasios Tsafouros
Dr. Nikoleta Kleio Denaxa
Prof. Dr. Costas Delis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • pre- and postharvest treatments
  • fruit and vegetable quality
  • shelf life
  • storage
  • postharvest physiology and biochemistry
  • plant productivity
  • fruit and vegetable composition
  • climate change
  • fruit and vegetable metabolites

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1844 KiB  
Article
Foliar Fertilization with Molybdate and Nitrate Up-Regulated Activity of Nitrate Reductase in Lemon Balm Leaves
by Kurmet Aitlessov, Bibigul Zhumabekova, Utemurat Sagyndykov, Akmaral Tuyakbayeva, Aliya Bitkeyeva, Karlygash Zh. Bazarbaeva, Abilkhas Mukhtarov, Zhadyrassyn Nurbekova, Mereke Satkanov, Maral Kulatayeva, Karlygash M. Aubakirova, Ardak Nurysheva and Zerekbay Alikulov
Horticulturae 2023, 9(12), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9121325 - 10 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The foliar feeding of soil-grown plants with essential elements such as molybdate can restore their Nitrate reductase activity. However, the activity of nitrate reductase under the foliar feeding of plants with molybdate and nitrate in hydroponic conditions has not been investigated. Thus, we [...] Read more.
The foliar feeding of soil-grown plants with essential elements such as molybdate can restore their Nitrate reductase activity. However, the activity of nitrate reductase under the foliar feeding of plants with molybdate and nitrate in hydroponic conditions has not been investigated. Thus, we wanted to investigate the effect of the foliar feeding of molybdate and nitrate on the nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of lemon balm plants under hydroponic conditions. Nitrate and molybdate solutions were applied by spraying the leaves of lemon balm plants and the nitrate reductase activity was determined by the colorimetric method. The results of our study demonstrated that the application of molybdate and KNO3 solution enhanced the nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of lemon balm plants. Importantly, our results indicate that foliar fertilization with nitrate and molybdate can improve nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation in the leaves of lemon balm plants under hydroponic conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Distinct Impacts of UV-A Light Wavelengths on Nutraceutical and Mineral Contents in Green and Purple Basil Cultivated in a Controlled Environment
by Akvilė Viršilė, Kristina Laužikė, Rūta Sutulienė, Aušra Brazaitytė, Gediminas Kudirka and Giedrė Samuolienė
Horticulturae 2023, 9(11), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9111168 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Controlled environment agricultural (CEA) systems create technological opportunities for the higher nutritional value of vegetables and herbs. It was hypothesized that UV-A light, supplementing basal light emitting diode (LED) illumination in CEA, would enhance growth and nutritional value (nutraceutical compounds and mineral element [...] Read more.
Controlled environment agricultural (CEA) systems create technological opportunities for the higher nutritional value of vegetables and herbs. It was hypothesized that UV-A light, supplementing basal light emitting diode (LED) illumination in CEA, would enhance growth and nutritional value (nutraceutical compounds and mineral element contents) in purple and green basil in a UV-A wavelength-specific manner. Therefore, blue (452 nm) and red (662 nm) 1:10 basal LED lighting (250 μmol m−2 s−1, 16 h) was supplemented with 1 mW cm−2 of 343, 366, 386, or 402 nm UV-A LED light for green ‘Italiano classico’ and purple ‘Red rubin’ basil cultivation. Different wavelengths have specific impacts for two basil genotypes, and certain light wavelengths should be selected to boost growth or to alter the contents of specific nutraceutical compounds. UV-A/violet 402 nm light enhanced growth, chicoric acid, β carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin contents in green basil, while 343 nm UV-A light increased fresh weight, ascorbic acid, and carotenoid content in purple basil. UV-A light of 386 nm has the most negligible impact on reducing mineral element (P, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Zn) contents in basil. Understanding the wavelength dependence of plant responses to UV-A is essential for optimizing quality preservation and improving basil cultivation in controlled environment systems. Full article
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17 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Influence of Ripening Process on Pecan Nut (Carya illinoinensis) Kernel Quality: Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Activity, and Carbohydrate Composition
by Intidhar Bouali, Athanassios Tsafouros, Efstathios Ntanos, Ali Albouchi, Sadok Boukhchina and Peter A. Roussos
Horticulturae 2023, 9(10), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9101093 - 01 Oct 2023
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis) provide a wide range of bioactive compounds (particularly polyphenols) that improve the nutritional quality of diets. This study aimed to monitor the evolution of polyphenolic compounds (total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols, total condensed tannins, and total [...] Read more.
Pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis) provide a wide range of bioactive compounds (particularly polyphenols) that improve the nutritional quality of diets. This study aimed to monitor the evolution of polyphenolic compounds (total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols, total condensed tannins, and total o-diphenols), the phenolic profile, the antioxidant activity, and the sugar concentration during pecan nut development in three Tunisian cultivars. Condensed tannins (41.98–221.13 mg catechin assay equivalents g−1 FW) were the dominant class of phenolics at all maturity stages, followed by total phenols (12.25–57.92 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1 FW). Ellagic acid and catechin were the most abundant phenolics at all maturity stages. The highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found at an early stage of ripening but as maturity progressed, a decreasing trend was observed. Sucrose (6.09–30.79 mg g−1 FW) was the predominant sugar followed by fructose and then glucose. A decreasing and later increasing trend of total carbohydrate concentration was detected during nut development. A Canonical Discriminant Analysis of the data succeeded in separating the three pecan cultivars due to their unique characteristics. Overall, the cultivar and the degree of maturity are the major factors controlling the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of pecan nuts. This study provides more information on the optimal period when the maximum concentration of these health-enhancing compounds is found for use in food, nutraceutical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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12 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Foliar Calcium Effects on Quality and Primary and Secondary Metabolites of White-Fleshed ‘Lemonato’ Peaches
by Persefoni Maletsika, Vasiliki Liava, Eirini Sarrou, Vaia Styliani Titeli, Elpida Nasiopoulou, Stefan Martens, Evangelos Karagiannis, Katerina Grigoriadou, Athanassios Molassiotis and George D. Nanos
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030299 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
‘Lemonato’ is a Greek peach melting-flesh white-flesh cultivar with high nutritional value highly appreciated by the consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-harvest foliar calcium application on fruit quality, primary metabolite profile, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and phenolic profile [...] Read more.
‘Lemonato’ is a Greek peach melting-flesh white-flesh cultivar with high nutritional value highly appreciated by the consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-harvest foliar calcium application on fruit quality, primary metabolite profile, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and phenolic profile of the ‘Lemonato’ peach, clone ‘Stamatis’. The experiment was conducted for two years, 2019 and 2020, in two commercial orchards at Kato Lehonia and Agios Vlasios regions, central Greece, where the ‘Lemonato’ clone ‘Stamatis’ is traditionally cultivated. The treatments were organic calcium (Ca), calcium–silicate in nanoparticles (Ca–Si), and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Foliar application of the different Ca formulations, commonly used as a horticultural practice, were not effective at improving the fruit quality characteristics in this clone, which is characterized by fruit softening during ripening. The study revealed the sugars and organic acid composition and phenolic profile of the ‘Lemonato’ peach, clone ‘Stamatis’. Peach fruit quality, primary metabolites, and phenolic compounds of the two orchards showed a different response to organic Ca and Ca–Si, indicating that genetic or environmental factors may also be involved. A higher concentration of organic Ca and CaCl2 increased the peach fruit phenolic compounds content and the total antioxidant activity, improving the fruit nutritional quality. Full article
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13 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Hydroponically Grown Commercial and Traditional Greek Tomato Cultivars
by Evangelia Georgaki, Kallimachos Nifakos, Anastasios Kotsiras, Dimitrios Fanourakis, George Tsaniklidis, Costas Delis and Ioakim K. Spiliopoulos
Horticulturae 2023, 9(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9020163 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
The consumer demand for an enhanced diet intake of antioxidants and bioactive compounds is continuously rising. This work aims to evaluate the fruit nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of five tomato germplasm varieties, alongside a commercial F1 hybrid. Three varieties bear small-fruit (14–40 [...] Read more.
The consumer demand for an enhanced diet intake of antioxidants and bioactive compounds is continuously rising. This work aims to evaluate the fruit nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of five tomato germplasm varieties, alongside a commercial F1 hybrid. Three varieties bear small-fruit (14–40 g), while two varieties and the commercial cultivar yield large fruit (150–300 g). Genotypes under study were cultivated in a greenhouse under the same environmental conditions. Fat, protein, carbohydrate, total phenol, total flavonoid, lycopene, and ascorbic acid contents were assessed at two fruit maturity stages (breaker, red ripe). For both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions, antioxidant behavior was also evaluated by employing DPPH and FRAP assays. Small-fruit varieties generally possess higher fat and ascorbic acid content, as well as hydrophilic FRAP values as compared to large-fruit ones. In all varieties, lycopene content and lipophilic fraction radical scavenging capacity was considerably higher at red ripe stage. At red ripe stage, all germplasm varieties were clearly and consistently superior in terms of antioxidant activity at the lipophilic fraction owing to enhanced lycopene content. The results emphasize the value of reintroducing germplasm varieties in breeding programs and suggest that local varieties generally encompass high quality features. Full article
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12 pages, 2921 KiB  
Article
Low Temperature Conditioning Reduced the Chilling Injury by Regulating Expression of the Dehydrin Genes in Postharvest Huangguan Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Huangguan)
by Yudou Cheng, Jingang He, Yunxiao Feng, Jiangli Zhao and Junfeng Guan
Horticulturae 2022, 8(11), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8111022 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
‘Huangguan’ pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Huangguan) fruit is sensitive to chilling injury (CI), which exhibits peel browning spots (PBS) during cold storage. Dehydrin (DHN) is considered to be related to cold tolerance in plants, but its function in postharvest pear fruit [...] Read more.
‘Huangguan’ pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Huangguan) fruit is sensitive to chilling injury (CI), which exhibits peel browning spots (PBS) during cold storage. Dehydrin (DHN) is considered to be related to cold tolerance in plants, but its function in postharvest pear fruit during storage remains unclear. In this study, six PbDHNs (PbDHN1–6) genes were identified and characterized, and the PbDHN proteins were sorted into YnKn, SKn and YnSKn according to the major conserved motifs related to the number and location of K-segments, S-segments, and Y-segments. In addition, there were five cold-responsive related cis-acting elements in the promoter region of the PbDHNs. The analysis of fruit quality suggested that compared with a storage temperature at 20 °C, a storage temperature of 0 °C results in CI in ‘Huangguan’ pear fruit, while a storage temperature of 10 °C and low temperature conditioning (LTC) alleviates the CI. Moreover, gene expression results indicated that the six PbDHNs were markedly enhanced at low temperatures, especially at 0 °C. The transcripts of PbDHN1, PbDHN4, PbDHN5 and PbDHN6 were also increased in the fruit stored at 10 °C, but they were lower than that at 0 °C except PbDHN5. Compared with low temperature storage at 0 °C, LTC treatment significantly depressed the expression of PbDHN1, PbDHN2, PbDHN3, PbDHN4, and PbDHN6, while enhanced the mRNA amount of PbDHN5. In conclusion, PbDHN1, PbDHN4, PbDHN5, and PbDHN6 were closely related to the CI, and LTC lowered the CI by down-regulating the expression of PbDHN1, PbDHN4, and PbDHN6 and by up-regulating PbDHN5 in ‘Huangguan’ pear fruit. Full article
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15 pages, 1882 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Four Jackfruit Genotypes: Morphology, Physiology and Physicochemical Characterization
by David Antonio Morelos-Flores, Efigenia Montalvo-González, Martina Alejandra Chacón-López, Amalio Santacruz-Varela, Víctor Manuel Zamora-Gasga, Gerardo Torres-García and María de Lourdes García-Magaña
Horticulturae 2022, 8(11), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8111010 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is a climacteric fruit native to India which, due to its edaphoclimatic adaptability, is also found in Mexico, the main exporter of the fruit in Latin America. Despite this, information on the characterization of jackfruit genotypes in Mexico [...] Read more.
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is a climacteric fruit native to India which, due to its edaphoclimatic adaptability, is also found in Mexico, the main exporter of the fruit in Latin America. Despite this, information on the characterization of jackfruit genotypes in Mexico is limited; therefore, the objective of this study was to carry out morphological, physiological, and physicochemical characterization of four jackfruit genotypes, locally known as “Agüitada”, “Licenciada”, “Rumina”, and “Virtud”, which are cultivated in Nayarit, Mexico. Morphological analyses revealed 17 traits with significant differences among the genotypes. The respiration rate showed the maximum production of CO2 in the “Agüitada” genotype, with 123.99 mL of CO2 kg−1·h−1 at day 2 of storage. The “Rumina” and “Licenciada” genotypes had yellow bulbs while “Agüitada” and “Virtud” had orange bulbs. A principal component analysis revealed different behaviors of the fruits throughout their storage. In general, a wide diversity was revealed among the jackfruit genotypes which are cultivated in the state of Nayarit, Mexico. This study may be useful for their future use in breeding programs. Full article
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17 pages, 3008 KiB  
Article
UVA Enhanced Promotive Effects of Blue Light on the Antioxidant Capacity and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis of Pak Choi
by Jing Huang, Xinying Liu, Qichang Yang, Bingfu Lei, Yinjian Zheng, Zhonghua Bian, Sen Wang, Wei Li, Pengpeng Mao and Yaliang Xu
Horticulturae 2022, 8(9), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8090850 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Anthocyanins are widely common natural antioxidants and represent an important economic feature in vegetables, but the potential response of UVA–blue co-irradiation on the anthocyanin biosynthesis of pak choi is not clear. Here, we investigated the effects of the supplement of four doses of [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are widely common natural antioxidants and represent an important economic feature in vegetables, but the potential response of UVA–blue co-irradiation on the anthocyanin biosynthesis of pak choi is not clear. Here, we investigated the effects of the supplement of four doses of UVA to blue light on growth, metabolites and the anthocyanin biosynthesis of two cultivars of pak choi. The results revealed that supplementing UVA light to blue light positively affected the growth of the pak choi and elevated the soluble protein content and antioxidant capacity. Especially, when compared with a monochromatic blue light, the anthocyanin synthesis was enhanced with an increase in UVA light strength, which reached a peak value at the strength of 10 μmol·m−2·s1. Further study revealed that the UVA–blue co-irradiation enhanced the transcription of partial light-induced and anthocyanin structural genes. The intraspecific difference in the expression patterns of MYB1 and PAP1 were observed in these two tested cultivars. MYB1 was significantly up-regulated in red-leaf pak choi, but down-regulated in purple-leaf pak choi. On the contrary, PAP1 was significantly up-regulated in purple-leaf pak choi, but down-regulated in red-leaf pak choi. To sum up, this study established an efficient pre-harvest lighting strategy to elevate the economic value of pak choi. Full article
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15 pages, 1488 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Changing Climatic Conditions on the Morphological Traits and Chemical Composition of Almond Kernels
by Slavica Čolić, Zorica Basić, Gordan Zec, Ivana Bakić, Dragan Rahović, Milica Fotirić Akšić and Violeta Mickovski Stefanović
Horticulturae 2022, 8(6), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8060487 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
This study evaluates the effect of two contrasting years, in terms of climatic parameters, on kernel morphology and content and on the composition of oil, tocopherols and the 11 macro- and micro-elements in almonds. Low precipitation and high temperatures increased the content of [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the effect of two contrasting years, in terms of climatic parameters, on kernel morphology and content and on the composition of oil, tocopherols and the 11 macro- and micro-elements in almonds. Low precipitation and high temperatures increased the content of tocopherols, Cu and Zn but decreased the kernel ratio, the oil content, and the levels of macro-elements and of Cr, Fe, Mn and Mo. The obtained data indicate some statistically significant correlations among the kernel quality parameters and climate. A small variation in oil concentration with the highest value in ‘Texas’ (60.07%) was observed. The main tocopherol homologue was α-tocopherol (39.4 to 404.4 mg/100 g DW), representing more than 90% of the total tocopherols. Potassium was predominant (882.0 to 1104.5 mg/100 g), followed by phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and sodium. The most abundant micro-elements were iron (3.095 to 3.708 mg/100 g) and zinc (2.641 to 4.765 mg/100 g), followed by manganese, copper, molybdenum and chromium. The genotype 15/03 has the highest level of health-promoting compounds (α-tocopherol, potassium and zinc), so that, together with genotype 25/03 which showed the best response to changing climatic conditions, this genotype could be of interest for breeding programs. Full article
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12 pages, 2693 KiB  
Article
Effect of Titanium and Vanadium on Antioxidants Content and Productivity of Red Cabbage
by Samar M. A. Doklega, Sally F. Abo El-Ezz, Nada A. Mostafa, Eldessoky S. Dessoky, Awatif M. Abdulmajeed, Doaa Bahaa Eldin Darwish, Fahad Mohammed Alzuaibr, Ahmed Abou El-Yazied, Mohamed M. El-Mogy, Samy F. Mahmoud, Noura M. Taha and Mahmoud A. M. Abd El-Hady
Horticulturae 2022, 8(6), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8060481 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
The present work studied the effect of foliar spray of different concentrations of titanium (Ti, applied as titanium dioxide) and vanadium (V, applied as vanadium pentoxide) on growth, chemical composition, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality criteria of red cabbage [...] Read more.
The present work studied the effect of foliar spray of different concentrations of titanium (Ti, applied as titanium dioxide) and vanadium (V, applied as vanadium pentoxide) on growth, chemical composition, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality criteria of red cabbage plants. For this purpose, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg L−1 of Ti and V were used to treat red cabbage plants. The control plants were treated with tap water. Our results showed that plants treated with 4.0 mg L−1 of Ti recorded the highest values of plant growth and bioactive compounds, while antioxidant capacity was decreased compared to the other treatments. In addition, plants treated with Ti and V at 2.0 and 4.0 mg L−1, respectively, showed higher values of all of the growth, yield, non-enzymatic antioxidants and antioxidants enzymes’ parameters compared to the untreated plants. Based on the obtained results, it could be concluded that the low concentrations of both Ti and V (2.0 and 4.0 mg L−1) were able to enhance red cabbage growth and yield, as well as the antioxidant contents, enzymes and capacity. Full article
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